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Full text of "80 Microcomputing Magazine January 1984"

January 1984 USA $4.00 






A WAYNE GREEN PUBLICATION 



the magazine for TRS-80* users 



THE MODEL 2000 



Tandy's Newest Micro 
Their Boldest Move Yet 






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M 



e perfect present 

The STX-80 printer for Christmas '83 ! 




What a great gift idea! 

It's the STX-80 printer from Star. Sleek, 
compact and priced under $200, it's sure to 
put you in a very giving mood. 

The STX-80 prints whisper-quiet print- 
outs. It features true descenders, foreign 
language characters and special symbols. It 
offers both finely detailed dot addressable and 
block graphics. 

And you can give it with confidence 
knowing that it can run with virtually every type 
of personal and business computer. 

The STX-80 printer from Star It's 
the perfect gift for every computer user in your 
life Especially if one of them happens to be you! 

Enjoy your presents and have a happy 
and healthy holiday. 




micronics'inc 



THE POWER BEHIND THE PRINTED WORD. 

Computer Peripherals Division. 
PO. Box 612186, DailaaFl. Worth Airport. TX 75261 (214) 456-0052 









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fE • IBM-PC • APPLE ff • TRS-80 • f 



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. . . including of course . . . IBM --PC, APPLE' II, and TRS-80 \ Percom Data's innovations 

with 5'A" Winchester technology mean that for most personal computers . . . 

having a reliable hard disk system is as easy as hooking up a cable. 

A Percom Data PHD " will interface with your present system . . . and your future system . . , . ^ 



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■' ■ Because Percom Data helped create the industry standards of today . . . new designs in software 
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A Percom Data PHD works to capacity because we take the time to correctly develop interface 
software to your computer which leaves no performance holes for you to fall into. 
Percom Data knows software functionality is the key to hardware performance. ,.^^ ■■ 

..Today. Percom Data PHD supports a variety of software to match your computer: "- •'*^. 

t^^ IBM-PC, PC DOS ' 1.1 OR 1.0 

CP/M-86\ CONCURRENT CP/M-86 

APPLE, DOS 3.3, CP/M 

TRS-80 ^ MODELS III & I, DOPLUS, LOOS 

■ IMAGINE . Percom Data Winchester 5'A" technology ... for todays computers . . . 

and tomorrow s. 

To receive an informational booklet describing Percom Hard Disk Systems, or to determine if we 

have a system for your computer call our 

Hard-Line Hot-Line at 1-800-527-1222. 

We will also give you the name of a nearby authorized Percom Data Dealer. 

Dealer inquiries are welcome. 



I PERQCM aATA) 

CORPORATION 

Expanding Your Peripheral Vision 



DRIVES 



NETWORKS 



SOFTWARE 



(214)340-7081 • 1-800-527-1222 ■ TELEX 73-0401 (PERCOM), 



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IRS-80 lb .1 icgiblttctt itaijcpiuitk ul latxJy nwlm S»'aO Corp PHD i5 a roqisierM tradtimafV of Pfntxrr. Data Ccporaiwn 

COPYRIGHT 1983 PERCCW DATA CORPORATION 



EDITORIAL DIRECTOR 

WAYNE GREEN PUBLICATIONS 

Jeffrey D. DeTray 



EDITOR-IN-CHIEF 

Eric Maloney 

MANAGING EDITOR (EDITORIAL) 

Peter E, McKie 

MANAGING EDfTOR (PRODUCTION) 

Deborah M. Sargent 

NEWS EDITOR 

Eric Grevstad 

REVIEW EDITOR 

Lynne M. Nadeau 

NEW PRODUCTS EDITOR 

S.F. Tomajczyk 

ASSISTANT EDITORS 

Amy Campbell 

Steven Casey 

Susan Gubernat 

Robert L Mitchell 

TECHNICAL EDITORS 

Bradford N. Dixon 

Amee Elsenberg (Load 80} 

Mare-Anne Jarvela 

Beverly Woodbury 

EDITORIAL DESIGN MANAGER 

Susan Gross 

LAYOUT EDITORS 

Joan Ahern, Philip GeracI, 

Maurelle Godoy, Susan Hays, 

Laura Landy, Judy Oliver 

PROOFREADERS 
Peter Bjornsen 
Harold Bjornsen 
Robin Florence 

EDITORIAL ADMINISTRATION 
Carole Macloci 



The left bracket, [, replaces the up arrow used by 
Radio Shack to indicate exponentiation on our print- 
outs. When entering programs published in 80 
Micro, you should make tnis change. 

80 formats Us program listings to run 64-charac- 
ters wide, the way they look on your video screen. 
This accounts tor the occasional wrap-around you 
will notice In our program listings. Don't let It throw 
you, particularly when entering assembly listings. 

Article submissions trom our readers are wel- 
comed and encouraged. Inquiries should be ad- 
dressed to: Submissions Editor, 80 PIna Street. 
PetertJorough, NH 03456. Include an SASE for a 
copy of our writers' guidelines. Payment tor ac- 
cepted articles Is made at a rale of approximately 
$50 per printed page; all rights are purchased. 
Authors of reviews should contact the Review 
Editor, 80 Pine Street, Peterborough, NK 03458. 



■TRS-80, Scripslt. and 
TRSDOS are trademarks 
of Tandy Corp. 




Features 



70. Tandy Makes Its Move 

The Model 2000: In a world of PC 
clones, Tandy unveils a PC beater. 



79. Model 2000 Review Roundup 

MultlMate, dBase II, and Multiplan: 
A glimpse of the world beyond 
TRSDOS. 



84. MS-DOS Overview 

A look at the standard in 16-blt 
operating systems. 
Jim Held 



88. Touch or Sound Typer 

H^^ Handicapped people can communi- 
cate with a Model I/Ill, a printer, and 
one finger or voice control. 
A.J. Barnard Jr. and David Barnard 

94. Dot Talk 

^j Write braille with your TRS-80 and a 
dot-matrix printer. 
Mike RIgsby 

100. The Taxman Cometh 

1;^^ Impress the IRS with well-organized 
tax records. 
Robert Atfianasiou 




160. The Bucks Start Here 

y^\ An Investment comparison program 
for those of you expecting tax refunds. 
N.B. Parrish 

197. Project 80 

Build a micro-to-mainframe commu- 
nications board in the debut of a new 
hardware column. 
Roger C. Alford 



Articles 



Genera] 

164. BU) of Fair Repair 

Fix-it costs from Radio Shack and 

Independents. 

Terry Kepner 

Hardware 

142. Synthetically Speaking — Part 1 

(;^^| A speech board that lets you strike 
up Model I/Ill conversations. 
David L Engeihardt 

Review 

108. A New Constellation 

MicroPro's WordStar lineup: the 
leader in CP/M word processing. 
Charies R. Perelman 



Tutorial 

128. Assembly Language Made Simple — 
Part n 

Add sounds and screen borders to 
your Assembly repertoire. 
Hardin Brothers 

158. Phantom Disk 

Is it RAM, or is it a disi< drive? A look 

at the Model 4's Memdisl<. 
Donald Goss 



UtiUty 

112. Tape It Easy 

1;^^! Handle machine-language tapes as 

easily as Basic tapes. 

David J. Trapasso 



4 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



Departments 



6. Side Tracks 

Tandy's new lineup: something for 

everyone. 
Eric Maloney 

8. Input 

Monte Carlo revisited. Datapoint on 
ARCNET. Powersoft reads its re- 
views, instant attorneys. Arcade pi- 
rates. Lively menu listing. 

16. Aid 

Readers in need. 

18. Debug 

Beyond The Next Step. Disassem- 
bler and financial fixes. Strip Black- 
jack made decent. 

20. Feedback Loop 

Questions answered, secrets shared. 
Terry Kepner 

30. The Next Step 

Moving memory pointers and other 
handy tricks. 
Hardin Brothers 

44. Reviews 

The Talking Program. Arranger II. 
VisiCalc add-ons. Model 4 tech man- 
ual. DWP-210, a daisy-wheel bar- 
gain. VEDIT 1.15e. TRSDOS 6.0 
video. Datagraph. 



Model n/12/16 



108. A New ConsteUation 
160. The Bucks Start Here 



69. Review Digest 

Second opinions of TR&60 products. 

170. C'Notes 

A Model 100 wish list: disk storage, 
Assembly language, escape codes, 
and more. 

184. News 

New Model 4P. Congress debates 
micro giveaways. PMC goes CP/M. 
Model I support survey. Slim pickings 
for Apple? Smart modem patent. Stiff 
upper lip for Osborne U.K. 

217. The 1983 Reader's Choice Awards 

Your favorites in TRS-80 software. 

220. Fun House 

Are you fair of face or full of woe? 
Richard Rameila 

228. The Gamer's Cafe 

Mercedes' MIT project: the ultimate 

upgrade. 

Rodney Gamblcus 

232. Reload 80 

19B3's greatest hits, and words of 
welcome to '84. 
Amee Elsenberg 

234. New Products 

258. 1983 Load 80 Index 

262. 1983 Review Index 

268. 1983 Article Index 



PUBLISHER/PRESIDENT 

Wayne Groen 

VICE PRESIDENT/GENERAL MANAGER 

Cwtxa Wottwrbee 

VICE PRESIDENT/FINANCE 
Rooer Mutpriy 

ASSISTANT TO PRESIDENT/VP 

Malt Smith 

ASSISTANT TO VPFINANCE 

Dominique Smith 

DIRECTOR OF MARKETING i SALES 
David Schlastef 

DIRECTOR OF CIRCUU^TION 

William P. Howard 

603-9244471 

RETAIL 4 NEWSSTAND SALES MANAGER 

Gtnnis Boudrlesu 

1-e0O3«H)72S 

DIRECTOR OF ADVERTISING 

Slophan TwomtJiy 

60M24-7138 

Sales Manager EdwaU Borezo 

SalBS: Belly Bailer, 

JudI WTmbarly 

Ad Gootdlnalor Mary Hartwall 

PUBUC RELATIONS 

Jen^es Leonard 

PRODUCTION 

Director Nancy Salmon 

Assistant: Oavtd Wozmak 

Lann Bond, Michael Ford, Maijorle Gillies. 

Klmberly Nadeau, Phyllis PItiel, Anna Rocchlo, 

Lynna SImonson, Kennelh Suldllle, Karen WoimeK; 

Film Production: Donna Karl wall, 

Theresa Veivllle. Robert M, VIIIenBuve; 

Ad Cowdlnators: Pallida Bradley. Paula Ramsey; 

Asslstani: Jean Soulhwoflh 

Advertising Production: Jane Preston, 

Fiona Davlas. Gruca Hedin, Scott PhllbrIcK 

PHOTOGRAPHY 

Supsnilsor: Ttiomas Vlllonouve; 

Sandra Duketle, Nattianlel Haynes, 

Laurie Jennlson, Sturdy Thomas 

TYPESETTING 

SupBFVIsor: Sara Bsdell: 

Darlene Bailey, Prem Gongaju, Lynn Halnss. 

Cyntnia Letourneau. Dabble Nuttlne, 

LIndy Palm[sano. Haldl Thomas. Sua Waller 

DESIGN 

Supervisor: Joyce Plllaralla: 

Susan Donohoe, Holly Fualte, Howard Ha pp. 

Beth Krommes, Dion Owens. Dlanne Rllson, 

Patrice Scrlbner, Susan Stevens, Suzanne Toratiaya. 

Sarah Warnlngar. Donna WoNlarth; 

Copywtltots: Louis Marlnl, Gall Morrison, 

Dale Tlet|en, Sieve Tripp 

DESIGN DIRECTOR 

Christine Destrempes 

Cover by Erick Ingraham 



Manuficrtpts are welCLXne at SO Micro We will cr>n3i<]er publicalion of any TRS-dC oriented materiel GuiOeiineo lor buddlr^o aulhora are available. Pleaae 
send a sell-addreased envelope and aak tor "How lo Wrlie lor BO Micio," SO Wjc/o Is publlahed mor^tlily bf Wayne Giaan inc. Entire cL>nlenls C'Ocopyrlghl 
1983 Wayne Green Inc. No part ol thie publication may be reprinted, or reproduced by any means, wliriout prior wriiien oermisslon Ircm the publiarier. All 
pfogiama are publlaried for personal use only. All rights 



SO Afjcro la a memlar ol the CW Commirnlcatlona^lnc- ftroup, the woria'6 largeal publisher ol ccmputer-relarad Information. The group publiahes 42 com- 
pulai puBllcalluna In Ifi major counlrlaa. Nine million peopla raad one or mora ol tha group's publicallons each monlh. Members of the publication Qroup 
IncliHle- Aualralla. Australasian CompnlBiworld, Micro Maga^lrye; Arganllnaj CorripulorworldlArgenllna: Brazil' DalaPiaws. MIcroMunHO, Denmarh: Conr- 
puIeryiarlUIDanrnark. Mll^fOOelB; France, ie MorfOe Inlormellqua: Garmany: ComputerWoche, MicraContpulffrWelf, PC Weln Italy Compulemorld Italla- 
Japan; CompulGrworld Japert\ Mexico: CorrrpularworldlUsxico'. Norway. CompulBmorld Noige, tAilffOOgIa: People's Republic of China: China Computer- 
vorl&. SfludI Arabia: 5a\>r1l CQmputsrnQrl&. Spain: Computerworld/^spana. M^craSlslemBS', Sweden' CompulerH'-refJen, MrXroDatorn, Mm Hemdatar, 
United Kingdom' Comourac Managemenl, Compulei Business Eurooe: Unllad Stales' Computerworld. HOT CoCo, InClder. InloWorie. Uloro Us'ker IVorW, 
MIciocomDirrlng, PC World. SO Micro, HUN. 

MjM(cj-o(ISSN ■074a-7eea| is published 1! limes a year by Wayne Green Inc., 80 Pine St., Peterborough, nH03i6«. Phone: B03-9B4-94?1. Second claas post- 
age paid at Pelerrwrough, NH, and additional mailing offices. Subacriprion rales In U S ara 136 for ona year, J5S for two years, and *75 loi Ihree years. In 
Canada and Uevlco S45— one year only. U S funds drawn on a U.S bank Nationally dialnbuted by Internallonal Circulation Ola-trLbutors. Foreign subscript 
■Ions {auiface mall}, £5^— one year only, U.S. funds drawn on a U S bank. Foreign subscriptions (air mail), please inquire. In South Africa coniacl 30 Micro, 
P.O. Box 7B2S1^, Sandlon, South Alrica 2146. All subacrlptldn correapondenr^e should be addiesaed to GO Micro, Subscription Departmenl. P.O. Elox 9S1, 
Fannlngdale, NV 11737. Please Include your address label with any coireaponderHie. Poslmasler: Send form -257^ lo 60 Micro, Subscript ion Services, P.O. 
BoiBfll.Farmlngaale, Nf 11737. 



Editorial: 

Send all conespondCTce to SO Mkro, Pine SI,, Pelerborou^, NH 
OJ458. 

Subscriptions: 

Problems vilh Subxnptioni: Send a desoripiion of ihc prohkm and 
your currenl and/or most reccnl address lo: SO Micro, Subscription 
Depajimeni, P.O. B0J981, Fujmingdak, NY 11737. 
Probknts with Load SO Circulation: Address correspondence to Lori 
Eaton, SO Pine Si., Pelerborough, NH (8458. 

Change of Address. Send ofci label or copy of old address and new ad- 
dress lo: SO Micro, P.O. Box 981, Farmingdale, fJY 11737. Please give 
ei^l \h«eks advance notice. 

Microfttrn: Tliis publication is available in niicroform from University 
Microfiliiis International, United Slates address: 300 Nortli Zeeb 
Road, Depi. P.R., Ann Arbor, MI 48106. ForEign address: 18 Bedford 
Row, Dept. P,R.. London. WC1R4EJ. England. 

Dealers: Coniaci Girmie Boudrieau, Retail Sales Manager, 30 Micro, 
Pine St., PeintxHOu^, NH 0J45S, ISOO) iiUjm. 



80 Micro, January 1984 • 5 



SIDE TRACKS 



by Eric Maloney 



It certainly has been an eventful year 
for the TRS-80 world. While most 
companies were introducing one or two 
new products, Tandy turned over near- 
ly its entire line, in the process filling 
almost every conceivable niche in the 
microcomputer market. 

Tandy has developed an interesting 
and unique approach: They're selling 
computers like an automobile company 
sells cars. No matter what your need, 
there's a TRS-80 for you (see the 
Table). 

Want a nice, compact travel car? 
Then try the Model 100. How about a 
durable pickup truck? You might test- 
drive the Model 4. Need a family vehi- 
cle? The Color Computer could fill the 
bill. If you need a van for lots of stor- 
age, you'll be interested in the 16B. 
Tandy can even give you a moped with 
the MC-10. 

And now, to top it off, they've intro- 
duced their version of the Mercedes- 
Benz— the Model 2000. It'll not only get 
you where you're going, Tandy prom- 
ises, but it'll get you there with style. 

Tandy's machines come with a vari- 
ety of engines. The Model 100, for ex- 
ample, has a fuel-efficient 80C85, while 
the 16B uses a powerful 68000 gas guz- 
zler. The newest entry, the 2000, has a 
zippy 80186. And, of course, there's 
still the Z80, the slant six of micro- 
computers. 

Want CP/M? They've got it. How 
about something with Unix? Step over 
here for a minute. Want to look at a 
machine with MS-DOS? Here's a sleek 
new beauty for you. Even TRSDOS is 
still in stock. 

From a marketing perspective, Tan- 
dy's strategy has a lot going for it. 
They've managed to cover all the 
bases. No matter which road the con- 
sumer travels. Fort Worth is prepared 
to follow. 

And they've put some pep back into 
the TR5-80 line. Those who have com- 
plained about the dull, conservative, 
grey suit the Tandy computers have 
worn can no longer gripe. TRS-80 users 
are going to see a lot of excitement over 
the next year or so. 

But such a course is also fraught with 
danger. For starters, Tandy is making 
little effort to define each computer's 
market: The company expects the ma- 
B * 80 Micro, January 1984 




Like new, 

low 
mileage 



chines to sort themselves out. While the 
people at Fort Worth express confi- 
dence that the various computers wUl 
find their places — or, perhaps more ac- 
curately, that their places will find them 
— the possibility exists that different 
models will end up competing with one 
another. How, for example, will the 
Model 2000 affect Model 12 sales? Will 
the 4P hurt the 4? 

Also, the number of systems could 
confuse the average consumer. Which 
TRS-80 to buy? While the careful and 
intelligent shopper wUl take the time to 



Model Price 

PC-4 $69.95 

PC-3 99.95 

MC-10 119.95 

PC-2 199.95 

CoCo 2 239.95 

CoCo 2 (Extended) 319.95 

CoCo (64K Extended) 399.95 

Model 100 799.00 

Model 4 (cassette) 999.00 

Model 4P 1799.00 

Model 4 1999.00 

Model 2000 2750.00 

Model 12 3199.00 

Model 16B 4999.00 

Model 16B Multi-user system 8397.00 

You need a scorecard to keep track of the 
players: Tandy's current lineup. (Prices are for 
basic units, as shown in the 1984 catalog.) 



figure out what's right for him, many 
others will find it easier to simply go out 
and get an IBM or an Apple. 

The responsibility to educate the po- 
tential customer will rest with the Radio 
Shack store clerks, many of whom lack 
the necessary in-depth knowledge of the 
systems and their capabilities. Training 
its employees may turn out to be one of 
Tandy's biggest challenges. 

Then there's the question of whether 
Tandy can give proper attention to each 
system. They've been slow to respond 
to shifts in the marketplace before; will 
this slow them even more? Will they, 
for instance, move quickly enough to 
upgrade the Model 100 in the face of the 
many new portables being introduced? 
Tandy has a lot of plates spinning at 
once, and they'll need quick hands to 
keep them from falling off their sticks. 

The fact that Tandy has been able to 
come out with so many computers in 
such a short time is a tribute to their 
manufacturing and marketing skills. 
Here's hoping they can foUow up on 
their promises. 

The Model 4P 

Tandy's timing was perfect — their 
1984 catalog with the new transporta- 
ble, the 4P, came out just as Osborne 
Corp. was going belly-up. 

The 4P is a nice machine. It's the 
first transportable we've seen that is 
also an attractive desktop computer. 
It's a far sight sexier than the Kaypro, 
which looks like World War II vintage 
radio gear. The 4P's features, along 
with Radio Shack's CP/M, should 
make it competitive in the transportable 
market. 

Unfortunately, Tandy chose not to 
market the 4P aggressively. This is, 
in some respects, understandable — the 
machine could very well take sales away 
from the Model 4. 

But on the other hand, the 4P enters a 
market in which there is no longer a 
dominant leader. Tandy has the chance 
to take control, much as they did with 
the Model 100 in the portable field. 

The Osborne wasa boat anchor, and 
it sold like proverbial hot cakes. The 4P 
is a superior product. Tandy should re- 
evaluate their marketing strategy, and 
take advantage of this chance while 
they've got it. ■ 



TRS-80® Ultra-High Performance MS^"-DOS System 

The New Tandy Model 2000 
Personal Computer 



Radio Shack Heralds the Dawn of a 
New Era in Microcomputer Technology 

This remarkable system delivers much more than other 
16-bit MS-DOS-based computers. More speed. More disk 
storage. More expansion. Higher resolution graphics. And a 
modular design that advances the science of ergonomics. 

Use the Hottest Names In Software 

Like dBase lY" relational data base. Microsoft-Multiplan"' 
spreadsheet analysis. PFS®:File electronic tiling. MultiMate'" 
word processing. And many more already acclaimed by the 
entire microcomputer industry 

Increased Speed, Storage and Expansion 

A "next-generation" 16-bit CPU makes Model 2000 almost 
three times faster than the IBM® PC and faster than other 
MS-DOS computers, so you get the job done quicker. 
With 1 .4 megabytes of storage, you can set up mas- 
sive data bases. And you can add more memory, high- 
resolution color and monochrome graphics, our new 
Digi^-Mouse and much more. i 

Complete Support 

The TRS-80 Model 2000 is backed with the quality and 
support that have kept Tandy Corporation in the fore- 
front of the microcomputer industry. See it today at 
over 1000 Radio Shack Computer Centers 
nationwide. 



TRS-ao Model 2000 With 



Two Disk Drives 



2750 



00 

26-5103 



TRS-80 Model 2000 HD With 
Built-in ID-Megabyte Herd Disk 

00 

26-5104 




4250 



Comme'ciai Lease AvailaDle Commercial Lease Available 

Foi Only S95 Pe' Monih Fo' Only Si5D Pet .yoniti 

(Plus Applicable Use/Sales Tax) (Plus Applicable Use/Sales Tan) 

Monitor, graphics and Dlgl-Mouse not Included 

Compare the Tandy TRS-80 Model 2000 
to the IBM® Personal Computer 



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Price Comparison* 


Tandy Model 2000 


IBM Personal Computer 


Base Unit 


S2750 


$2104 


2nd Drive 


Inciuded (720K) 


$529 (320K) 


Monochrome Monitor 


S249 


$345 


Display/Printer Adapter 


Included 


$335 


128K RAM 


Included 


$165 


RS-232 


Included 


$120 


MS-DOS 2.0 


Included 


$60 


Total Cost* 


$2999 


$3658 


Feature Description 


Tandy Model 2000 


IBM Personal Computer 


Internai Memory 


128K Standard 


64K Standard 


Disk Capacity 
Per Drive 


720K 


leOKor 
320K (optional) 


Microprocessor 
Clock Speed 


8 MHz 


4.7 MHz 


True 16-Bit 
Microprocessor 


Yes {801 86) 
16-bit/1 6-bit data path 


No (8088) 
16-bil/8-bit data path 


User-Available 
Expansion Siots* 


4 


2 


Graphics Options 






Color Resolution 


640x400 


320x200 


Number of Colors 


6 


4 


Monochrome Resolution 


640x400 


640 X 200 



Radio /haeK 

The biggest nartie in little computers® 

A DIVISION OF TANDY CORPORATION 



^^500 



Send me the Tandy Model 2000 brochure. 

Mail To: Radio Shack. Depl. 84-A-902 
300 One Tandy Cenler, Fori Wonh. Texas 761 02 



COMPANY . 
ADDRESS . 
CITY 



. STATE , 



.ZIP. 



L 



TELEPHONE. 



'Corroi'iXMi IBM cailSuralCT win monotiircmo aJaWe: and asolsr/. ccfnmumcalions atMolc. IviO 32CS< ftsk flrft-es a™) 138K RAM 
IManufaciuiai's tmcv as ol 9IHS3 



PiiCGs aopiy ai parircipaliiQ Fiadio Snack stores and dealers IBU is a icgisic^cd liadC' 
ma'li ol inlernalionai Busmoss Macnincs CO'O PFS iS a rcSiSIC'eO tradamafii oi SoUwafc 
Putfis'iing MS and MuMipian aie I'adenu'iis ol Miciosoll Corp MuliiMare is a iiadsmaiK 
ol SoiiAOK) Systems Ini: dBase [[ Is a liaoema'k ol AsnionTaic 



INPUT 



Monte Bug 

My Monte program ("The Business 
of Planning," September 1983, p. 74) 
has a problem in the calculation of the 
standard deviation. Line number 8880 
does the standard deviation calculation 
and uses variable ME(X), the mean, in 
its calculations. 

However, the program does not 
calculate ME(X) until line 8890. 
Retype line 8880 as line 8895, or move 
it using a utility such as the DI com- 
mand in NEWDOS/80. 

To convert the program to another 
machine or language, I use a statement 
in line 180 that uses a PEEK (16539). 
This gets around the Model Ps limita- 
tions of not letting the printer tab past 
the sixty-fourth column. You can 
delete this line for other computers. 

Also, lines 4860, 4870, 4930, and 
8080 use the FNB function, but you 
can replace this with a tab . 

Ronald Cangro 

7628 Regina Drive 

Fort Wayne, IN 46815 

Diagnostic Program Reviews? 

The Wisconsin School Bus Associa- 
tion operates a Model III in a small of- 
fice business environment. We use it in 
so many phases of our daily operation 
that down-time cripples us badly. 

We have a few diagnostic programs, 
but don't know if they are effective. 
Surely some good diagnostic programs 
exist in the market that can thoroughly 
check our computer and its peripheral 
equipment , but we cannot evaluate 
their effectiveness. 

Your reviewers might offer an inval- 
uable assistance to many readers if they 
would field test and rate diagnostic 
programs. We have no other source of 
credible information on these pro- 
grams. 

Dick Rechlicz 

Executive Secretary 

Wisconsin School Bus Association 

2830 Brookfield Road 

Box 403 

Brookfield, WI 53005 

We plan to cover the various 
diagnostics packages early in 
1984.^Eds. 

8 • 80 Micro, January 1984 




Datapoint on ARCNET 

I enjoyed the article, "ARCDOS 
for ARCNET," by Joseph Trojak 
(August 1983, p. 188). Although Dr. 
Trojak has a good grasp of the ARC 
network system, his article contains 
several misconceptions. 

The terms ARC and ARCNET are 
registered trademarks of the Datapoint 
Corporation. The ARCNET network 
is the physical processing/office auto- 
mation system. 

ARC system, or ARC, is the total dis- 
tributed architectural system, includ- 
ing software and processors, Datapoint 
uses to provide office automation func- 
tions. Dr. Trojak uidicates that ARC is 
the operating system when in fact ARC 
system is the overall concept. 

The basic philosophy behind the 
ARC network system is not the dedica- 
tion of one or more processors to disk 
management, but the ability to attach 
multiple processors to share common 
resources (files, printers, storage 
devices, and communications facilities). 

The requirements of the disk operat- 
ing system demand that common 
resources be maintained by dedicated 
processors. A file processor or a pro- 
cessor dedicated to managing files is re- 
quired to enable sharing of that file 
resource to the system. 

The differentiation with the RMS op- 
erating system is that the dedication is 
no longer mandated. RMS is a multiple- 
tasking operating system where tasks 
can manage resources and can run in 
the network, rather than on a dedicated 
machine. 

Datapoint's ARC systems are not in- 
compatible. The Datapoint 1800 series 
operates under DOS.G.; our 1560 pro- 
cessors operate under DOS.H, and our 
integrated office systems operate under 
DOS.D (3800s and 8600s). Since the 
ARC network supports multiple oper- 
ating systems concurrently, you can 
transfer files between versions easily. 



Both DOS and RMS operate within 
the ARC network with a maximum in- 
terprocessor cabHng run of four miles. 

Finally, the ARC network system 
and ARCDOS can operate on the same 
network, but the file structure is in- 
compatible. 

Alan Malinger 

Senior Manager, Product Marketing 

Datapoint Corp. 

9725 Datapoint Drive 

San Antonio, TX 78284 

Trojak's Response 

Mr. Malinger's definitions of the 
ARCNET network and ARC system, 
and his statement of philosophy be- 
hind ARC are consistent with Data- 
point literature. I will not argue with 
Datapoint 's unique definitions. 

However, although ARCNET easily 
handles the transfer of files between 
versions of DOS, a program written 
for a Datapoint minicomputer (e.g., 
the 3800) cannot be executed by a 
Datapoint microcomputer (e.g., the 
1500). File compatibility is not system 
compatibility. 

Finally, it is true that several vendors 
offer networks based on the ARCNET 
technique. Although the networks are 
electrically compatible with all the Da- 
tapoint equipment, they are not com- 
patible at the LNOS level (ISO level 3) 
with ARC. For example, Netstar 
Systems' PLAN 4000 uses ARCNET 
for its electrical connections, and the 
Xerox Network System at the LNOS 
level. 

Joseph E. Trojak 

Johns Hopkins Hospital 

600 North Wolfe St. 

Baltimore, MD 21205 

Powersoft on PowerDOT 

Richard Green's review of Power- 
DOT (October 1983, p. 80) gave the 
product a fair and reasonable work- 
out. Unfortunately, he reviewed an 
older, outdated version of PowerDOT: 
PowerDOT and its manual have un- 
dergone a complete rewrite. 

PowerDOT II is a much better 
package. It sports a 60-page manual in 
a loose-leaf binder, and contains ex- 
amples, screen dumps, and explana- 

Conlinued on p. 12 



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DISKIT III w/two Tandon *eoe nn 

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New,' Silver Reed EXP Daisy Wheel S429.00 

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Gemini 10X by star Mlcronlcs ■ S299.00 

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ACCESSORIES 

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MX-lOO Ribbons S 18.95 

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TR5-B0 Model I S III 

10 ft. Parallel S 19.95 

10 tt. Parallel cable extensions S 19,95 



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features ol Version I plus many new extensions. 

Disk Version $79,95 

Tape Version $69.95 

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COMPLETE SYSTEM all Four Programs $199.00 

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TRS-80 DISK $19.95 

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INPUT 



Conlinued from p. 8 

tions of new features. 

To facilitate new drawing, we added 
a Circle command, an adjustable An- 
gle command, and a Scroll command. 
We also have a hardware interface 
available for drawing and design using 
the Radio Shack Color Mouse on the 
Model III or 4. 

Other new features include the abili- 
ty to create graphics character sets that 
users can save to disk and use to create 
other screens, and compatibility with 
all DMP series Radio Shack printers. 

Hopefully, this letter sets the record 



straight on PowerDOT II. 

Dennis A. Brent 

Powersoft Products 

11500 Stemmons Freeway, Suite 125 

Da/las, TX 75229 

New Docs for LDOS Toolbox 

Jim Held did a fine job reviewing 
"The LDOS Toolbox" (September 
1983, p. 200). 

Jim mentioned that although he 
loved the software and gave it an excel- 
lent review, he was not completely hap- 



^Tral 



In our Directory of Software 
Manufacturers and Distributors 
(October 1983, p. 1%), we errone- 
ously listed J.F. Consulting, of 
Palm Desert, CA, as a software 
dealer. 

J.F. Consulting is out of busi- 
ness, and RCM Computers (221 
Hirschfield Drive, Williamsville, 
NY 14221) now supports their 
products. 

Also, the address and software 
categories for Logical Systems Inc. 
(p. 220) were in error. Logical Sys- 
tems Inc. (8970 N. 55th St., P.O. 
Box 23956, Milwaukee, Wl 53223) 
markets software in the following 
categories: compilers, custom soft- 
ware, education, inventory control, 
inventory, operating systems, plot- 
ting/graphics, program generators, 
programmer aids, and utilities. 

Small Computer Co. was also ac- 



cidentally omitted from the October 
software directory. Small Computer 
Co. (230 W. 41st St., Suite 1200, 
New York, NY 10036) developed 
Radio Shack's Profile data-base 
manager, and sells enhancements 
for it. 



International Software Sales Inc. 
was accidentally omitted from our 
Business Software Buyer's Guide 
(September 1983, p. 152). ISSI 
(P.O. Box 233, Newtonville, NY 
12128) markets the following pro- 
grams: Multi-company processing, 
general ledger, accounts receivable, 
accounts payable, inventory, pay- 
roll (with or without job costing), 
order entry, delivery ticket control, 
club management system, engineer- 
ing, and professional management. 



CLS:PRINTia271,STRINGS(3 3,17 6) : FORI = 3 35T07 83STEP6 4 : PRINTgl ,CHR 

$(191) :PRINT(ai+3 2,CHRS{191) : NEXT : PRINTS? 84 , STRINGS ( 31 , 176) 

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50 FORI-40 5TO7 25STEP6 4:PRINT(ai, "<->"; : FORK=1TO50 :NEXT: PRINTiai , " 

"; : IK$-INKEYS: IFIKS=" "THENNEXT : GOTO50ELSEIFVAL (IKS) <10RVAL(IK 
?) >6THENNEXT:GOTO50ELSE50 
60 ONVAL ( IK S)G0T07 0,80, 9 0,10 0,110, 120 
70 CLS:PRINT"OPTION 1 PRESSED":END 
80 CLS:PRINT"OPTION 2 PRESSED":END 
90 CLS:PRINT"OPTION 3 PRESSED" : END 
100 CLS:PRINT"OPTION 4 PRESSED":END 
110 CLS:PRINT"OPTION 5 PRESSED": END 
120 CLS:PRINT"OPTION 6 PRESSED"; END 

Program Listing. Menu modification program. 



py with our documentation. Since his 
review, we have rewritten the docu- 
mentation, and were able to incorpo- 
rate Mr. Heid's suggestions and some 
new additions, including the elimina- 
tion of reduced print size. 

We typeset the entire manual and it 
is much more readable and usable than 
before. 

Thank you for this opportunity to 
update Mr. Heid's review, and for an 
informative magazine. 

Dennis A. Brent 

Powersoft Products 

1 1500 Stemmons Freeway, Suite 125 

Dallas, TX 75229 

Software Legalities 

Regarding Carl Oppedahl's review 
of Legal Care for Your Software, by 
Daniel Remer (August 1983, p. 76), I 
am writing a book for Prentice-Hall on 
the same subject, and wish to express 
my disagreement with Mr. Remer's ap- 
proach. 

My main objection to Legal Care for 
Your Software is the pull-out forms 
the author provides. These forms do 
the public more harm than good. 

It takes many long, hard hours of 
study and work before you can become 
a lawyer skilled in microcomputer law, 
yet the author (and reviewer) expects 
the reader to use Remer's forms to 
draft his own legal forms. 

This is a serious mistake. It's the 
same as reading your first book on Ba- 
sic and then trying to write a complex 
Basic program. It's simply not that 
easy. 

The general public does not always 
understand the implications of what 
specific contract language means. For 
example, in many of his forms Remer 
implies that the prevailing party will 
get his attorney's fees paid. A clause 
like that is the same as playing Russian 
roulette. The plaintiff always expects 



BOALKRT 

Thomas Holmes, president of 
Lindbergh Systems Inc., has in- 
formed 80 Micro that his company 
has moved from 41 Fairhill Road in 
Holden, MA, to 49 Beechmont St., 
Worcester, MA 01609. All corre- 
spondence should be sent to this new 
address. 



12 ■ 80 Micro, January 1984 



LOOK WHO'S 

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NY RESIDENTS ADD SALES TAX. '^fiSk.l^V 
OVERSEAS, FPO. APO, ADD 10"/., ^■■■*«&^:S?** 
DEALER DISCOUNTS AVAILABLE. 



INPUT 



to win, but if he loses he must pay the 
defendant's attorney fees. 

L.J. Kutten 

Attorney at Law 

201 South Central 

P.O. Box 16185 

St. Louis (Clayton), MO 63105 



Oppedahl's Case 

In law, as in any other field, the dan- 
ger exists that a lay person might come 
to harm trying to do something that 
would be better done by a profession- 
al. 1 share Mr. Kutten 's view that a do- 
it-yourself book might promote this. 

Not everyone who writes and sells 
software, however, can afford the at- 
torney's fees needed to negotiate, 
draft, and sign a publishing contract. 
In addition, many writers end up deal- 
ing with organizations whose experi- 
ence, legal talent, and financial re- 
sources far exceed their own. 

For those writers, only two choices 
exist: deal with the publisher complete- 
ly unprotected, or with the aid of a 
book like Legal Care for Your Soft- 
ware. 

/ agree with Mr. Kutten that prob- 
lems exist with preprinted pull-out 
forms, especially because of differenc- 
es in state laws. I suspect very few of 
the forms will actually be signed as 
they are. 

The forms are, nonetheless, useful in 



at least two ways. If an author negoti- 
ates a contract from scratch, the forms 
provide a checklist of areas to cover. 
Also, when a publishing firm presents 
a writer with a publisher's standard 
contract, these forms provide a 
relatively neutral source of alternative 
language for the clauses that the writer 
wants to try to change. 

Parties in a position of bargaining 
power (credit card companies, for ex- 
ample) routinely offer their take-it-or- 
leave-it contracts with a one-sided 
clause stating that their legal fees will 
be paid by the other party in the event 
of a litigation. My view is that such a 
clause, if present in a contract at all, 
should be written to apply to both par- 
ties equally. 

Carl Oppedahl, J.D. 

99 Park Ave. 

New York, NY 10016 



Software Rip-Offs 

I am writing to you in response to 
Computer Shack's letter in September 
1983 Input (p. 16) griping about soft- 
ware piracy. 

I admit that piracy is a great problem 
to software authors, but companies 
that rip off software ideas created by 
others are just as bad. 

Computer Shack is very bad about 
this. They often are not original in the 
themes of their games. Most of Com- 



puter Shack's games are rip-offs of 
other people's ideas, and software au- 
thors who go to the trouble of creating 
original games are being hurt by this. 

David Smith 

Box 17367 

Mississippi State University 

Starkville, MS 39762 



Menu Modifier 

Most menu-driven programs have 
boring menus, so I designed a menu 
(see the Program Listing) to use in the 
programs I write. The program adds 
some life to my menus and doesn't 
stare back when Lm deciding which 
option to choose. 

Line 10 clears string space. Line 20 
draws the square that holds the menu 
options, and could be used as a subrou- 
tine for many different menus if you 
include a Return command. Lines 30 
and 40 display the exact options avail- 
able. Replace the Xs in the program 
with your own options. 

Line 50 lets you change the value of 
K to determine how fast the {-) scrolls 
through the menu and does all the nec- 
essary testing. 

Line 60 determines to what part of 
the program control passes after the 
operator has determined the option. 

Barry F. Balliet 
3402 Pine Lake Village 
Lindenwold, N J 08021 



lyi aqiCheck can be used for your Personal or Business 
Checking Account. 

It handles up to 8 separate checking accounts and can produce 
Profit & Loss Statements for up to 199 ledger categories. 

MAGICHECK'S OTHER FEATURES INCLUDE: 

• Pay-bv-Pfione Accounting 

• Check Writing Capabilities 

• Checks can be Divided into Different Ledger Accounts 

• A Listing of your Personal Tax Deductable Payments 

• Extensive Error Correcting Capabilities 

• Automatic Calculation of First Year Depreciation 

• Automatic Calculation of your Investment Credit 

• Divide Deposits into different Sources to Aid Planning 



MAGICHECK 

Is The Reason You Bought 
A Computer ! 



The cost, of the MagiCheck Program is only $30.00. Plus $3.00 
for shipping & handling charges. PA residents add $1 .80 for sales 
tax. Call Today 800-528-9900. In PA call 1-215-473-6599. Or 
send your check to: MagiComp, 271Q W. Country Club Rd., 
Philadelphia, PA 19131. Please specify : Modi, Mod 3/4; 
LDOS DOSPLUS, or other operating system. {18DK Disk Stor- 
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THE PERFECT GIFT FOR YOU AND YOUR FRIENDS! 



14 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



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Wouldn't it be nice if your computer 
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clock-80 will enhance your Model 1 or III 
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Using LSI (large scale integration] and 
custom circuits, Newclock-80 provides 
MO/DATE/YR, HR:MN:SECplus 
AM/PM and day of week and even takes 
care of leap years! It continues to keep time 
and date with quartz accuracy when the 
computer is turned off or experiences a 
power failure. A single battery lasts over 2 
years. 

Compatibility: Newclock-SO is 

compatible with any operating system, 
including DOSPLUS, NEWDOS, LDOS. 
With its fully decoded circuitry it will work 
with any other hardware you may own. 
Bus expanders are available. 




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TIME w/^^ExpTInt 77ie co mplete package 



Installation is very simple, no tools, no 
disassembly, no soldering. Just plug it in, 
that's all. There is no power supply or 
messy cable. Newclock-80 plugs into the 
rear of the keyboard © or side of the Exp. 
Int. @. Model III Ncwclock fits the 50 pin 
card edge (underneath) f^ 

The Software: Newclock-80 is as easy to 
use as it is to install. -"SET", a Basic 
program, is used only once to set the time 
and date and select 12 or 24 hour format. 
-"TIMESTR", also in Basic, patches your 
computer "TIMES" function to read 
Newclock-80. It also adds "TIMES" to 
keyboard-only systems, a short routine is 
simply "poked" into low memory. 

Newclock-80 uses 12 ports (176 to 188) : 
6 for the time, 6 for the date. The data is 
conveniently stored in decimal form, no 
conversion is needed. You can read or 
modify any digit using simple Basic "INP" 
and "OUT" statements. 



No risk trial. Order your Newclock-80 
today, see how easy it is to install and 
operate then decide within 30 days if you 
want to keep it. If for any reason you are 
not delighted with its quality and 
performance, you may return it for a 
prompt and courteous refund. 

Your unit will come complete with 
software on tape, detailed instructions, 
handy reference card, and a 90 day 
warranty. Specify Model 1 or III. Software is 
also available on disk: add S5, 
Lithium battery (not included) available 
from RADIO-SHACK (*23-162) or add 
SI. 50 to your order. 
Thanks to outstanding engineering and 
efficient manufacturing, ALPHA Products 
is once again able to offer a great product at 
a surprising price. Order your Newclock-80 
at no obligation today. 

Toil Free Order Line 

Otdets On/y, N V * Into caH(2I2) 396-5916, Hours: 9S £.S. T. 



,My ALPHA [FW)(ol[W(sSs 

79-04 Jamaica Ave., Woodhaven, NY 11421 ^ m (212] 296-5916 



ADD S2.50 PER ORDER FOR SHIPPING AND HANDLING. 
WE ACCEPT VISA, MASTERCARD. CHECKS. M.O. 
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OVERSEAS. FPO. APO ADD 10% l^"" 

DEALER DISCOUNTS AVAILABLE. 



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AID 



Cassette Port Readings 

How is it possible to deduce both 
amplitude and frequency through the 
cassette port? Also, what happened to 
EDF's Sound Stix program, and how 
can I get a copy of it? If anyone has a 
copy, I'm willing to pay photocopying 
and mailing costs for it. 

Rick Sayre 

4922 Cozad Way 

Stockton, CA 95212 

TTS Code 

I need to contact someone who has 
worked with a TTS code system. I need 
information on an interface that will 
convert output from a Model 111 into 
TTS code readable by a GNT six-level 
paper punch. 

Tom Baker 

Box 97 

Waitsburg, WA 99361 

Linear Graphics 

I'm searching for a machine- 
language routine that will draw a line 
from point to point on my Model III. I 
could also use some information on 
machine-language voice sound effects. 
Can someone help me? 

Curt Salada 

102 Log Cabin Road 

Perkasie, PA 18944 

Crossword Generator 

I've been unable to find a crossword 
puzzle generator for my Model 4 and 
Okidata 92 Microline printer. Does 
anyone know of a company or an in- 
dividual that has such a program on 
the market? 

Kim Wehmeyer 

802 Susquehanna Ridge 

Independence, MO 64056 

Stringy Floppy Writing 

Does anyone know how to adapt the 
original cassette version of Electric 
Pencil for use with the Exatron Stringy 
Floppy? 

Dave Moore 

574 Tweedsmuir A ve. 

Ottawa, Ontario KIZ 5P2 

Canada 

16 • 80 Micro, January 1984 




Radar Simulation Program 

The Florida Institute of Technology 
is interested in running a Coast Guard- 
sanctioned radar proficiency course 
for ship pilots. We are looking for a 
Model II or III program that simulates 
the radar device and generates analog- 
to-digital coordinates to a radar rig. 
Can anyone help us out? 

Joseph P. Pandolfo 

Computer Lab Manager 

Florida Institute of Technology 

1707 N.E. Indian River Drive 

Jensen Beach, FL 33457 

New Computer Club 

I'm a high school student interested 
in starting a computer club. Does 
anyone have any information on how 

to go about this? 

Tim Pickenheim 

RD m. Box 244-B 

Moscow, PA 18444 

A Gift from Tandy 

Tandy has given me an extra feature 
on my Model III Disk Basic that isn't 
mentioned in the manual or promised 
in their catalog. When I scroll through 
a program with the arrow keys, I lose 2 
bytes of free memory for every line 1 
scroll. Has anyone encountered this 
bonus feature and found out how to 
fix it? 

Nate Salsbury 

608 Madam Moore's Lane 

New Bern, NC 28560 



- Chip Control Codes 



I'm looking for some information 
on the WD 1793 floppy disk controller 
used in the Model III. I already have 
the Model III reference manual, but 
what I really need are the control codes 
for the chip. Does anyone know where 
I can find additional information on 
this chip? 

Scott Goehring 

6205 North Tuxedo 

Indianapolis, IN 46220 

Help! 

I'm looking for a Help file for my 
Model III version of LDOS 1.5.3 that's 
comparable to the PHELP/CMD The 
Toolbox uses. If you have a program 
like this, please contact me. 

Terry Tanski 

Box 299 

Boyle, Alberta TOA OMO 

Canada 

DMP Modification 

Does anyone have a patch for Model 
III TRSDOS 1.3 that will display the 
entire error message rather than just 
Error X? 

Also, does anyone know of a modi- 
fication for the DMP 200 printer that 
will let me software-select the CR/NL 
DIP switch so I can switch from using 
the underline feature of Electric Pencil 
to list or print a Basic program on a 
different disk without wearing out the 
switch? 

Robin L. Salmansohn 

1855 Woodland Road 

Abington, PA 19001 

File Name Expansion 

I'm looking for a way to expand the 
size of TRSDOS's directory beyond the 
current 80 file-name limit. My wife has 
a lot of recipes that she stores on disk, 
but she gets a Disk Full message after 
entering 80 file names even though there 
is still three quarters vacant space re- 
maining. Does anyone have any sugges- 
tions? 

William E. Baker 

2419 Queen Ridge Drive 

Independence, MO 64055 



NOXA/ MODEL I AIMD MODEL III • 



Now Model III users can take advantage of the ALPHA I/O system too. Our new 
MOD III/I BUS CONVERTER allows most port based Model I accessories (such as 
our ANALOG-80, INTERFACER 2 and INTERFACER-80) to connect to the Model III 
bus. MOD III/I BUS CONVERTER, complete with all connectors, only $39.95. 



PRINTSWITCH 

Have 2 printers on line at all limes and select printer 1 or 
2 by means ot a conveniently located swilcli End the problem 
ol constantly plugging and unpliiggmg prmler cables. PRINT- 
SWITCH IS a compact module that plugs onlo the pareliel printer 
pod of your TRS-BO and provides an edge connector tor eacli 
ol your [wo printers. It works with any two types ot printers' 
dot matn*. daisy wheel, plotters, TRS-80 converted selectrics. 
etc. Assembled, tested, ready to use with connector and In- 
siruclions. For Model I or III (please specify) ONLV S59 00 





40Pfcl,8' 
34 Pfri,42 
34Pln.G4 


^ CABLES 


^ p p ^ 


34 Pin. ire. r^ 

34 Mn, 4fL ^p 

40P«n,Sor4fl P^ 



SUPERIOfl QUALITY REPLACEMENT & EXTENSION CABLES 

Highest quality cable and high force, gold plaled contacts 
ensure (tie utmost in connection reliability. 

O KEYBOARD TO EXPANSION INTERFACE. .. $21 

© DISK DRIVE CABLE FOR! OR 2 DRIVES . . $32 
® DISKDRIVECABLEF0R30R4DRIVES . .. $45 

O DISK DRIVE CABLE EXTENDER $22 

» PRINTER CABLE EXTENDER $24 

® JOPINBUSEXTENDER- 2ft.. $22 4[t.. $24. 

Cuslom cable conligjrations are also available. Call us 




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1 x5 »r xs^ x^ 

YOU ASKED FOR IT; 'EXPANDABUS - XI, X!, X3 AND X4. 

CON^ECT ALL YOUR TRS-80 DEVICES SIMULTANEOUSLV 
on llie 4D pin TRS-80 bus Any device tfiat normally plugs 
inio the keyCoard edge connector win also plug into Itie 
■'EXPAf^DABUS" The "XI" is sliown with protective 
covers (included). The TRS-80 keyooard contains the bus 
drivers (74LS367i lot up to 20 devices moie than you will 
everneec Using the E/ 1, it plugs either between KB ana E/ 1 
or in the Screen Printer port Prolessional quality gulfl 
plaled coniacls. Computer grade 40 conductor riocon cable 
X? S29 X3.. S44 X4. S59 X5 S74 

Custom conliguiations are also availaole call us 




ANALOG-BO A WORLD OF NEW APPLICATIONS POSSIBLE 

a DIUIIAL MULTIMETERS PLUGGED INTO YOUR lRS-80'" 
Measure Temperalure. Voliage Current Light. Pressure, eic 
Very easy to use lo'eiample. lei's reaU inpui channel #4 10 
OUT 4 'Selects input #4 anfl also staris the conversion 20 
A = INP|0) 'Puis me result in vanaWe A VoHa' 
Specifications Input range D-5V lo 0-&O0V Each channel 
can be sel to a OiHerenl scale 

Reso/ubon' SOmVion 5V range) Accuracy 8nrls(5%i Port 
Aflflress [uniper selectable Plugs inio keyboard bus or E/l 
(Screen pnnfer porti Assembled ana tesiefl 90 oay warranty 
ComplelE with aower supply, conneclo' .-manual $139 



^SPEaAL THIS MONTH!, 



^395 ." 



DISK DRIVE EXTENDER CABLE, FREE YOUR MINI-DRIVES. 

End the daisy-chain mess once and for all Fits all mini- 
Orives. Percom Aerocomp, Shugarl, l^icropoiis. Mil. Vista, 
Pertec, Siemens. BASF East to install |jsl remove the drive 
cover, plug in the EXTENDER CABLE and replace Ifie cover 

Now you can change and move your drives without dis- 
assembly Keep the cover on and the dust out High reliability 
gold plaled contacts, computer grade 34 conductor cable. 
Tested and guaranteed. 

Get one for each drive . ONLY $8.95 




TIttlEDATEBO, REAL-TIME CLOCK/CALENDAR MODULE 

Keeps guart; accurate time tor 3 years on 2 replaceaole 
AAA balteriBs (not included) Gives IVIO'OATE/YR DAY ol 
WEEK HR Miff SEC and Aty1/PM Features INIELLIGEI^T 
CALENDAR and even provioes for Leap Vear This comoacl 
module simply plugs into rear of Keyboard or side 0' 
Expansion interface (may be slipped inside E/li Includes 
casselte soltware foi setting clock and patching to any DOS 
iincluding NEWDOSeO 2 0) Optional V conneclor allows 
for Uirther eipansion For Ivlodel I Fully assembled and 
tesied Complete with instruclions and casselte DNi Y 
iS9^ 00 ' Y oDlion add $12 00 



power 



relays unai 

your I 

C 

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INTERFACER-80: me mosi powerlui Sense/Control module. 

• 8 inoustrial graOe relays, single pole floubla throw isoialed 
coniacts. 2 Amp (^ 125 Volts TTL latched outpuls are also 
accessible tn drive eileraal solid state relays 

• 8 convemeni LEDs constantly display the relay slates 
Simple "OUT 'commands (in basic) conirolihe 3 relays 

.8 optically-isolated inputs lor easy direct mterlacrng to 
external switches photocells keypaiis sensors etc 
Simple ' IMP" commands read Itie status ol the 8 inouts 
Seleciat}ie port address Clean, compact enclosed oesign 
Assembled tested. 90 days warranty Price includes oower 
supply, cable connector superb user s manual SI59 



GREEN SCREEN 

\A/ARI\III\IG 

IBM and all the "Oiggies' are using green screen momlors 

Us advantages are now widely aflveriised We feel thai every 

TRS-BO user should enjoy the benelits 11 provides But 

WARNING; aH Green Screens are nol created equal Here is 

wtiat we found 

•Several are just a flat piece ol standard colored Lucite The 

green iini was not made lor ihis purpose and is judged by 

many 10 be loo dark increasing the bnghiness comrol will 

resull in a fuzzy display 

•Some are simply a piece ol thin plastic film taped onto a 

cardboard Irame Ibe color is satislactory but the wobbly film 

gives It a poor appearance 

•One ■oplicalliher" ism fact plain acrylic sheeting 

•False claim. A few pretend 10 'reduce glare ' In lad. Ihen 

Ilat-anp shiny surfaces iDoth iilm and Lucile type) ADD Ibeir 

own reflections lo ttie screen 

•A few laughs One ad claims to 'reduce screen conirast ' 

Sorry gentleman but it's |ust the opposite One of the Green 

Screen's maior benelits is 10 increase ihe conirasl between 

the teit and the background 

"Drawbacks fvlost are using adhesive strips lo fasten tl;eir 

screen to the monitor This melbod makes it awkward to 

remove for necessary periodical cleaning Ail lencepi ours) 

are flai. Light pens will not work reliably Decause ol Ihe big 

gap between the screen and the lube 

Many companies have Deen manufacturing video iillers lor 

years We are not the lirsl (some ihink they are), but we have 

done our homework and we think we manufacture the best 

Green Screen Here is why 

tit lits right onlo the piciure luPe like a skin because ii is me 

only CURVED screen MOLDED eiactly to the picture lube 

curvature. It is Cut precisely to cover the exposed area of the 

picture tube The lit is sucn that the sialic electricity is 

sufficien! 10 keep il m place' We also include some invisible 

reusable tape for a mare secure lastening 

•The filter material that we use is lust right, nol 100 dark nor 

too light The result is a really eye pleasing display 

We are so sure thai you will never take your Green screen oti 

that we Offer an unconditional money-back guaramy try our 

Green Screen for 14 days II loi any reason you are not 

delighted with ii. return it lor a prompt refund 

A last word We think that companies like ours, wfio are 

selling mainly by mail should rtisi then street address«have a 

phone numt)er (for questions and orders wccept CODs not 

every one likes 10 send checks to a PO bon»otier tne 

convenience ol charging rtieir purchase lo mafor credit cards 

How come we are ihe only green screen people doing it' 

Order your ALPHA GREEN SCREEN today Si 2 50 




ALPHA Products 



ADC S2.50 PER ORDER FOH SHIPPING AND HANDLING 

ALL ORDEftS SHIPPED FIRST CLASS MAIL 

WE ACCEPT VISA. MASTER CHARGE CHECKS MO 

COD ADDS? DD EXTRA 

QUANTITY DISCOUNTS AVAILABLE 

N r RESIDENTS ADD SALES TAX 



VISA 



79-04 Jamaca Ave., Woodhaven, N.Y. 11421 S info and order. (2i2) 296*5916 



DEBUg 



Take the Next Step 

There is an error in The Next Step 
(August 1983, p. 30). The USR caU lo- 
cation in Program Listing 1 for tape sys- 
tems is incorrect. Line 140 should read: 
140 POKE 16526,0: POKE 16527,127. 

G.E. Casey 

4020 Welmont Drive 

FayettevUle, NC 28304 



Assembling the Disassembler 

David Cloutier's "Disassembler" ar- 
ticle in C*Notes (September 1983, p. 
283) contains several errors. Line 10530 
doesn't work, but you can replace it 
with 

S = {(((LM*16) + RM)*16) + L)*16+R:RETURN 

Lines 160 and 170 are duplicated and 
have the wrong mnemonics (Cloutier 
attempted to use Z80 mnemonics, but 
the Model 100 has an 8085 processor). 




Also, line 1780 RETURN is missing and 
needs to be added. 

James Cole 

515 Aspen St. 

Vandenberg, CA 93437 



Still Searching? 

On page 110 of our December 1983 
issue, we published an article by Joseph 
Trojak entitled "Finding the Search 
Solution." The article was missing Pro- 
gram Listing 12. You can find that list- 
ing on p. 213 of this issue. — Eds. 




I-'-.-- \, -:-ds from Bible Research 

Systems include the com- 
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or use ours, called TOPICS. 
TOPICS contains cross-reference indexes on over 200 
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THE WORD 

processor 
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Plus Si pObt age/ handling 



Requires APPLE 1I+, IBM-PC, TRS80-III, OSBORNE, KAYPRO. or CP/M 8" 

18 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



v'7 



New Transactions 

I've received a number of calls from 
readers who've had a difficult time 
loading the machine-language FRMS 
utility in my "Financial Transactions 
Recorder" article (September 1983, p. 
140). The problem is easily solved. Un- 
der "Getting Started" on page 150, the 
Dump information should be DUMP 
FRMS (START - FOOO,END = F008). 

Also, I've found one minor problem 
that may mystify other users. During 
printing to screen in Task 3, the pro- 
gram sets both the Dummy and Dual 
On modes. This reroutes text meant for 
the printer to the screen. When you end 
the program (Task 6), line 6020 turns 
the dual mode off but leaves the dummy 
mode active. Thus, anything intended 
for the printer isn't sent. This remains in 
effect until the program performs a Sys- 
tem"Forms" or System"Fonns N". 

To correct this situation, modify line 
6020 so that it reads: 

. . . :SYSTEM"DUAL OFF":SySTEM"FORMS 

N":PRINT@.-. 

The newly added Forms N command 
deactivates the dummy mode and al- 
lows normal printer operation immedi- 
ately after the program ends. 

Jim Barbarello 

R.D. fil, Box24IH 

Tennent Road 

Englishtown, NJ 07726 



Don't Strip Yet! 

The System Modifications box to 
Stephen Mills' "Strip Blackjack" (Au- 
gust 1983, p. 256) is partially incorrect. 
First, change line 130 (not line 30, as 
mentioned) in Program Listing 2 to: 

130FORX = Z! TOZ! + 72:READY:POKEX,Y 
:NEXTX:DEFUSR4 = Z!:POKEZ! + 7, 
PEEK(Z + l):POKEZ! + 8,PEEK(Z + 2): 
Z ! = PEEK( VARPTR(Z7$) + 1) + PEEK 

(VARPTR(Z7$) + 2)*256IFZ!>32767 
THENZ!=Z!-65536 

Then change line 1600 to: 

1600 DEFUSR = Z! :G = USR( - 399): 
G = USR(ASC(Q$)AND15):RETURN 

And finally, change line 1880 as sug- 
gested, but don't change line 
\Am.—Eds. 




IT 



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Model 100 24K $835 



Model IV 16K $849 

Model IV 64K 
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CoCo Drivel $235 



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ModeM2 64K1 Drive 


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Smith Corona TPl D.W. 


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Color Computer Drive 


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Model416K 


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Color Computer Drive 1 


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Model4 64K 




Daisy Wheel II 


1745 


Primary Hard Disk M12 


2689 


2Disk8tRS232 


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DWP210 


629 


Primary Hard Disk Mill 


1799 


Model 4 Portable 




DWP410 


1159 


ETC. 




64K 2 Disk 


1525 


CGP115 


159 


CCR-81 recorder 


52 


Color Computer II 16K 


145 


CGP220lnkJet 


545 


C.C. Joysticks (parr) 


22 


w/16Kext. basic 


210 


DMP100 


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Pocket Computer 2 


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8K Par/Par Microfaser 


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Model16B2Dr256K 


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Printer Ribbons 




Model100 24K 


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Gemini 10X 


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Delta-ID 


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Novation Smortcat 1200 


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^ Soe UsI ol AOvenisers on Page 227 



80 Micro, January 1984 • 19 



FEEDBACK LOOP 



Send any questions or problems deal- 
ing with any area of TRS-SO microcom- 
puting to Feedback Loop, 80 Micro, 80 
Pine St., Peterborough, NH 03458. 



/have a 48K dual-disk-drive Model I 
with a Centronics 700 printer. I use it 
extensively with VisiCalc, which worked 
fine until recently. One day after I 
booted up the program and was about 
to execute, the computer reset. The next 
attempt just dropped the program and 
for the next 15 minutes it refused to co- 
operate; then it booted and worked 
fine. Now every time I use the program 
I have the same problems making it 
work. 

All my other programs, system and 
Basic, seem to work perfectly. And the 
program works Just fine on a friend's 
system. Can you help? 

Ted Waite 
Idaho Falls, ID 

It sounds like either your disk drive is 
starting to go, or something is wrong 
with your VisiCalc disk. It could be that 
your disk drive has drifted out of head 
alignment, or that the motor speed 
needs adjusting. VisiCalc is a large pro- 
gram and a slight variation in motor 
speed during the time it takes to load 
could cause the problem. Similarly, if 
the drive head is slightly off the track's 
center, it might be picking up noise 
from adjoining tracks (which would 
cause a bad load) or just not getting the 
data off the disk correctly. 

A less likely source of your problem 
might be the VisiCalc disk, which could 
be flawed. Your friend's disk drive 
might be aligned differently or have 
slightly better electronics, and thus 
would not notice the problem with the 
disk. 

First, try a different copy of VisiCalc. 
If just switching program copies solves 
the problem, then the problem was your 
program disk. If that doesn't work, 
have your disk drive checked out. That 
should solve your problem. 

Prior to upgrading to 48K (two disk 
drives from 16K cassette), I purchased 
several programs from Radio Shack: 
20 • 80 Micro, January 1984 




Series I Editor Assembler (26-2011), In- 
Memory Information (26-1508), and 
Scripsit (26-1505). My attempts to 
transfer these programs to disk have 
met with frustration and failure, even 
though I used the addresses given in the 
March 1982 issue of the TRS-80 Micro- 
computer Newsletter (except Scripsit, 
which is now on disk). 

First, I really like the three programs 
and want to use them with my disk sys- 
tem. Second, while they are available 
for disk systems, 1 can 't see the point of 
purchasing them Just because they're on 
disk when the present ones work so 
well. 

My question is: What are the correct 
addresses for transferring 26-2011 and 
26-1508 to disk, and how do I get them 
to save and load data from disk instead 
of (ape? Machine language is Greek to 
me, so any instructions will have to be 
step by step. 

James Krywalski 
Buffalo, NY 

I can't help you with the addresses. 
As far as I know the ones given by the 
newsletter are correct. The second part, 
modifying the programs to use disk 
I/O, is almost impossible for anyone 
but a machine-language programmer. 
And even he or she would have prob- 
lems. There's no simple procedure to 
change the programs to work with disk 
drives; a patch and additional coding 
are needed to implement such altera- 
tions. 



You'll just have to put up with using 
the programs with cassette data until 
you can afford the disk versions. Sorry. 

Fm currently designing an unusual 
software speed modification for the 
Model III. What I need is a great deal of 
technical information about the Model 
III Basic interpreter. Can you refer me 
to a public domain disassembler to use 
on the Model III ROMs? It has to be 
public domain because I can 't afford to 
spend any money. 

James Stallings 
Rocky Mt., NC 

There's no such thing as a free pro- 
gram. No matter where you get it, you'll 
have to pay something for the program, 
even if it's just for the cassette used to 
store the program. Anyway, 80 Micro 
has published the listing of a Basic pro- 
gi-am for disassembling the ROMs. The 
July 1981 issue has the program {"En- 
hance Your Level II Basic," p. 202) and 
the February 1982 issue contains a de- 
bug for the program (p. 28). If you're 
lucky, you might find a friend with 
copies of these issues to loan to you. 

If you can manage to scrape together 
the money, the IJG book Microsoft 
Model I Basic Decoded has loads of in- 
formation regarding the techniques 
used by Microsoft in their Basic. The 
Model III ROMs and the Model I ROMs 
are almost identical, differing only in 
the I/O routines and a few other en- 
hancements. The IJG book also includes 
a complete, commented disassembly of 
the Model I ROMs. I think you'll learn 
more from an hour or so with this book 
than you can learn in several weeks on 
your own. 

My new Smith-Corona TP-l printer 
has a peculiarity in interfacing with Ra- 
dio Shack 's Model I Scripsit: It won 't 
hear two carriage returns in a row. It 
isn 't a malfunction of either the TP-l or 
Scripsit. 

This, of course, throws off line spac- 
ing and top and bottom margins. Does 
anyone have a fix for (he TP-l that de- 
feats its Telex-style treatment of car- 
riage returns? Or a patch for disk Scrip- 
sit? Or perhaps a series of TRSDOS 



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FEEDBACK LOOP 



commands to get around this problem? 
I'm also looking for a few lines of As- 
sembly code for my Model I that will let 
me print the video display on my Epson 
MX-80 printer. I want to incorporate 
the routine into the freebie Term pro- 
gram Radio Shack gives you when you 
buy their RS-232 board for the Model I. 

Robert Golstein 
Tarzana, CA 

Does anyone have a patch for Scripsit 
that will let it properly interface to the 
Smith-Corona TP-1? 

The May 1980 issue of 80 Micro has a 
screen print program invoked by press- 
ing the I, J, and K keys simultaneously 
("LPVIDEO," p. 136). It shouldn't be 
difficult to incorporate this program 
into your modified Term program. 
There're two Debug announcements 
for that program, one in the August 
1980 issue (p. 16) and the other in the 
September 1980 issue (p. 14). 

Actually, it shouldn't be that hard to 
write one yourself. All you have to do is 
change the keyboard scan routine to 
check for the special case of your screen 
print key, and a jump to a subroutine 
that scans the video from 3C00 hexa- 
decimal (hex) to 3FFF hex and sends 
each character to the printer. For more 
information about the ROMs and use- 
ful routines you can access, get IJG's 
book Microsoft Basic Decoded. 

Has anyone come up with a better 
method of mounting the RS-232 board 
in the Model I expansion interface (EI)? 
At least once a week (usually in the mid- 
dle of a transmission) the board mal- 
functions and I have to take the EI 
apart and clean the RS-232 contacts. 
It'll work okay for a while, then I have 
to repeat the cleaning. 

Tom Phoenix 
Greensboro, NC 

I have the same problem with my 
Model I. The problem is inadequate 
■ventilation of the compartment con- 
taining the board. The board gets hot as 
you use it and linear expansion warps 
the board, pulling the connections apari 
and introducing noise. I've found that 
you can get pretty good contact for sev- 
eral weeks at a time by not tightening 
the two RS-232 screws all the way. 
When I start to have trouble with it, I 
just flex the board/EI cable a little and 
22 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



it's good for another week or so. 

A friend of mine, Dennis Kitsz, sug- 
gests making a small insulated metal bar 
that you can put over the RS-232 con- 
nector and hold in place by the two 
screws. The metal bar would prevent 
the board from flexing, solving the 
problem. You wiU, of course, still have 
to clean the tin/lead contacts on the EI 
and RS-232 board connectors every 
once in a while, but at least it won't be 
every week. 

Another solution was published in 
the May 1981 issue of 80 Micro: hard- 
wire the board to the EI, permanently 
solving the problems of poor connec- 
tions and board flexing ("Hardwire the 
TLS-232," p. 202). Unfortunately, you 
have to be pretty good at soldering to 
accomplish this modification. It also 
has the implication that if you ever have 
trouble with any of the components on 
the RS-232, you can't just remove the 
board and replace it with another. 

/ have a Model III and recently 
bought some NEC memory chips in Ja- 
pan to increase my system to 48K. 
When I powered up my computer, all I 
got was 48,082K, not 49,152 (1024x48). 
I took out the extra chips and checked 
memory, which indicated I5K plus. Is 
something wrong with my computer? 

Also, when I type in NEW and then 
PRINTMEM, I don't get back what I 
started with. After several Loads, Runs, 
and News, I find that I've exhausted 
memory and get an OM error. Why? 

Lance Cresswell 
San Francisco, CA 

There's nothmg wrong with your 
computer. Basic grabs some of the first 
bank of RAM for it's own use, about 
1,000 bytes total (the Model I only takes 
about 800 bytes). The computer sub- 
tracts these bytes from your available 
RAM, hence the difference between 
your computed memory and the actual 
amount left. 

Your other problem is tied to the 
Clear command, used to reserve memo- 
ry for string variable data. Programs 
frequently use this command to prevent 
OS errors from crashing the program, 
especially in programs with lots of 
string data, such as mailing list or data 
base programs. The amount of RAM 
reserved by Clear is unchanged by the 
New command. CLEAR 5000 removes 
5,000 bytes from the number returned 



by the PRINTMEM command. The 
only way to free the memory is to issue a 
new Clear command, specifying a lower 
number. The computer powers up with 
50 bytes reserved by Clear. Try issuing a 
CLEAR 50 command after the New 
command, and then PRINTMEM. 
You should always see the same number 
returned. 

I own a 48K Model III single-drive 
system with NEWDOS80 2.0 and Mod- 
el III Scripsit 3.2. I'd like to be able to 
use a do- or chain file on Scripsit that 
will automatically print a preselected 
letter or other similar task. I under- 
stand Scripsit uses its own keyboard 
driver, so it doesn 't recognize characters 
stored in a do-file. I've tried to reroute 
Scripsit 's keyboard driver to point to 
the ROM driver, but my machine-lan- 
guage skills are limited. Is this the cor- 
rect solution? 

I think this automation of Scripsit 
could open up a new world of data base 
and word-processor interfacing: run a 
chain file to load a selected letter, say, 
depending on a code in the data base, 
and print it while you sit back and 
watch it work. 

Mark Read 
Artarmon, Australia 

Sounds like an interesting idea. One 
of the problems with it, besides the key- 
board driver routine, is that you have to 
make sure to reserve memory in high 
RAM for the do-file and prevent Scrip- 
sit from using that area for its own pur- 
poses. I believe that NEWDOS80 uses 
its own keyboard driver routme, so 
check your technical documentation for 
information about it. Then route the 
Scripsit keyboard driver to the NEW- 
DOS driver. That should get you on 
your way. 

Has anyone else tried mating the do- 
file technique with Scripsit? 

/ own a 48K Model I that I recently 
updated with Radio Shack's Double- 
Density Board. Being clever and want- 
ing to increase on-line storage, I also 
added a double-sided drive as my sec- 
ond drive. I now realize that TRSDOS 
2.77DD doesn't support the second 
side. How can I access the second side? 
Can I patch TRSDOS 2. 77D to do this? 
Is a hardware modification needed? 

William Brown 
Reistertown, MD 



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FEEDBACK LOOP 



I haven't heard of anyone who's 
patched TRSDOS 2.77DD for double- 
sided drives. Can anyone help? 

Assuming that there's no patch forth- 
coming, your best bet would be to buy a 
new DOS. MULTIDOS (Cosmopolitan 
Electronics Corp., 5700 Plymouth 
Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, 313-668- 
6660, $99.95), DOSPLUS (Micro-Sys- 
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$149.95), NEWDOS80 (Apparat Inc., 
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LDOS (Logical Systems Inc., 8970 N. 
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53223, 414-355-5454, $129) aU support 
double-sided disk drives and work with 
Radio Shack's Double-Density Board. 

You don't need to make any hard- 
ware modifications. 



Fm a serviceman stationed overseas. 
I have a Model III with 48K RAM and 
no disk drives. The shipping over here 
has caused a problem: After warming 
up for a few minutes, (he characters in 
the first row seem to condense and be- 
come unreadable. I'd like to repair the 
problem myself but don't know how. 

Monserrate Pagan 
San Francisco, CA 

The problem is shock damage to the 
yoke assembly. Open up the case and 
discharge the video tube (or let it sit for 
a day), then grab the yoke and gently 
straighten it out. You may have to try 
several times before you get it right. If 
this doesn't work, have a TV technician 
take a look at the video electronics. You 
may have to replace the yoke. 

If you don't understand what I mean 
in the above paragraph, then you prob- 
ably don't know TV electronics well 
enough to attempt the repair yourself. 
If so, take it to a repair technician. 

/ have a Model I, Level II 16K cas- 
sette-based system with Exatron Stringy 
Floppy drive. I have many games with 
sound, but I don 7 like having to plug in 
an audio amplifier to the cassette port, 
and then hunting up batteries. I'd like 
to incorporate an amplifier circuit in my 
computer, but I need a stabilized volt- 
age between 4 and 12 volts and I don 't 
know where to find it inside the com- 
puter within easy reach to the cassette 
port. 
24 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



In the June 1983 Feedback column 
you told someone how to install extra 
memory in his Model III (p. 350). Can I 
do this with my Model 1? 

Finally, sometimes, when 1 listen to 
my tape recorder by removing the ear 
plug, the sound is weak and I can hear 
the rolling of the motor from the speak- 
er. If I remove the cassette and place my 
hand near the tape head, the rolling be- 
comes louder. Is the head magnetized? 

David Raymond 
Brossard, Canada 



There are two ways to tackle the au- 
dio amplifier problem. One is to mount 
the unit inside the computer (above the 
three-ROM satellite board, under the 
Radio Shack logo block on the right 
side of the keyboard) , and the other is to 
run a power line from the internal pow- 
er supply through the case, which you 
could then use to drive the amplifier. 

The first solution works; I did it to 
my computer. Find a small audio am- 
plifier board powered by 12 volts or less 
(5 volts is preferred). Attach it either to 
the computer circuit board with non- 
conducting tape, or to the computer 
case itself. Cut a slot in the case and ori- 
ent the unit so that you can reach the 
amplifier's off/volume switch, which 
should stick out some. You may have to 
remove the amplifier from its case to do 
this right. Experiment with several posi- 
tions to find the best one before you go 
chopping up the computer case. 

Now solder the positive lead from the 
amplifier to one of the power traces on 
the computer's circuit board (the traces 
are facing up, the components are on 
the bottom, so the traces are easy to get 
to). Next, solder the black ground wire 
to the computer's ground trace. And 
finally, locate the cassette socket, iden- 
tify the two leads that go to your cas- 
sette recorder (don't let the remote plug 
line confuse you), and then solder the 
two input wires of the amplifier to the 
cassette circuit. 

This should put you in business, with 
an audio amplifier neatly hidden away 
inside your computer case, and an easily 
accessible volume knob for controlling it. 

The other method is to find the am- 
plifier you want to use, and determine 
whether it's 12V or 5V. Inside the com- 
puter, locate the appropriate power 
supply circuitry and then solder the two 
power supply leads to the positive and 
negative lines. Make sure you orient the 



wires correctly for plugging into your 
amplifier. If the amplifier is designed 
for using non-battery power (as in an ac 
adapter), this orientation is crucial. Us- 
ually, but not always, the center of the 
plug is positive and the perimeter is neg- 
ative. Goofmg up here could easily 
damage your amplifier, computer, or 
both. Once you've soldered the two 
wires in place, run them over to the cas- 
sette port, cut a small hole, and run 
them outside the computer. Solder the 
wires to a plug that will fit your ampli- 
fier, and you're all set. 

Both of these methods require that 
you get the Model I Technical Manual 
(Radio Shack part number 26-2103, 
$9.95), which includes all the circuit dia- 
grams showing you parts layout and cir- 
cuit locations. 

Adding extra memory to the Model I 
requires either buying an expansion in- 
terface that has the extra sockets for 
adding the memory, or modifying the 
CPU circuit board to make room for 
the extra chips. Microhatch (P.O. Box 
501, DeWitt, NY 13214, 315-446-8031, 
$169) sells a kit called BIG MEM that 
replaces the 16K RAM chips you cur- 
rently have in your keyboard unit with 
new 64K RAM chips, giving you a 48K 
system with the Level II ROM. You can 
disable the ROM if you want, and have 
a 64K RAM Z80 computer for CP/M. 
Holmes Engineering (5175 Green Pine 
Drive, Murray, UT 84107, 801-261- 
5652, $139.50) has a similar unit, the 
IM-2, with 32K RAM that brings your 
total memory to 48K RAM. 

Several companies sell expansion in- 
terfaces for the Model I computer, in- 
cluding LNW Research Corp. (2620 
Walnut, Tustin, CA 92680, 714-641- 
8850, $399, with disk controller, 32K 
RAM, and RS-232 unit included), Mi- 
cro-Design (6301 Manchaca Road, 
Suite B, Austin, TX 78745, 800-531- 
5002, $469.95, with modem, disk con- 
troller, and 32K RAM included), and 
Hohnes Engineering (see above for ad- 
dress, $150, memory not included, call 
for details). Hohnes Engineering also 
has an expansion box for adding other 
peripherals like a disk controller, RS- 
232, and so forth. 

It sure sounds as if your tape record- 
er's head is magnetized. I suggest you 
get a tape head cleaner and demagne- 
tizer and use them on your unit. It 
should clear up the problem. If it 
doesn't, your tape recorder probably 
needs replacement. 



CQIYIP 




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' CP./M IS a trademaris of Digital Research ■ "XEROX is a trademark of Xerox Corp. ■ " IBM is a trademark of IBM Corp. ■ * OSBORfHE is a trademark of Osborne Corp. 



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Checkbook Maintenance Accounts Receivable Accounts Payable 



BUSINESS 100 PROGRAM LIST 



NAME DESCRIPTION 

1 RGLETS Interest ApportionmenI by Rule of the 78's 

2 AMMGI Annuity computation program 

3 DATE Time between dates 

4 DAYYEAR Day of year a particular date falls on 

5 LEASEIMT Interest rate on lease 

6 BREAKKW Breakeven analysis 

7 DEPRSL Straigfitline depreciaMon 

8 DEPRSV Sum of the digits depreciation 

9 DEPRDB Declining balance depreciation 

10 DEPRDDB Double declining balance depreciation 

1 1 TAXDEP Cash flow vs. depreciation tables 

12 CHECK2 FVints NEBS checks along with daily register 

13 CHECKBKI Checkbook maintenance program 

14 MORTGAGE/A Mortgage amortization table 

1 5 MGLTMOH Computes time needed for money to double, triple, 
15 SALVAGE Determines salvage value of an investment 

1 7 RRVARIN Rate of return on investment with vanable inflows 

18 RRCOMST Rate of return on investment with constant inflows 

1 9 EFFECT EfTeclive interest rate of a loan 

20 [-VAL Future value of an investment (compound interest) 

2 I PVAL. Present value of a future amount 

22 LOAMPAY Amount of payment on a loan 

23 REGWITH Equal withdrawals from investment to leave over 

24 SIMPDISK Simple discount analysis 

25 DATEVAL Equivalent & nonequivalenl dated values for oblig. 

26 AMMJJDEF F^esent value of deferred annuities 

27 .iViARKUP % .Markup analysis for items 

28 SIINKFUHD Sinking fund amortization program 

29 BOMDVAL Value of a bond 

30 DEPLETE Depletion analysis 

31 BLACKSH Black Scholes options analysis 

32 STOCVALl Expected return on stock via discounts dividends 

33 WARVAL Value of a warrant 

34 BOrSDVAL2 Value of a bond 

35 EPSEST Estimate of future earnings per share for company 

36 BETAALPH Computes alpha and beta variables for slock 

37 SHARPEl Portfolio selection model-i.e. what stocks to hold 

38 OPTWRfTL Option writing computations 

39 RTVAL. Value of a right 

40 EXFVAL Expected value analysis 

4 1 BAYES Elayesian decisions 

42 VALPRIMF Value of perfect information 

43 VALADIMF Value of additional information 

44 GTILfTV Derives utility function 

45 SIMPLliX Linear programming solution by simplex method 

46 TRAMS Transportation method for linear programming 

47 EOQ Economic order quantity inventory model 

48 CXJEGEl Single server queueing (waiting line) model 

49 CVP Cost-volumeprofit analysis 

50 COMDPROr Conditional profit tables 

51 OPTLOSS Opportunity loss tables 

52 FQGOQ Fised quantity economic order quantity model 

53 FQEOWSH As above but with shortages permitted 

54 FCifr.OGPB As above but with quantity price breaks 

55 QCIEUECB Cost-benefit waiting line analysis 

55 MCFATiAL Met cashflow analysis for simple investment 

57 PROFIMD Profitability index of a project 

58 CAPI Cap Asset Pr. AVxlel analysis of project 



59 WACC Weighted average cost of capital 

50 COMPBAL True rate on loan with compensating bal. required 

61 DISCBAL True rate on discounted loan 

62 MERGANAL Merger analysis computations 

63 FINRAT Financial ratios for a firm 

64 NF^ Met present value of project 

65 PRlnDLAS Laspeyres price index 
55 PRiriDPA Paasche price index 

67 SEASIMD ConslriJCts seasonal quantity indices for company 

68 TIMETR Time series analysis linear trend 

69 TIMEMOV Time series analysis moving average trend 

70 FtlPRIMF Future price estimation with inflation 

71 WMLPAC Mailing list system 

72 LETWRT Letter writing system-links with MAILPAC 

73 SORT3 Sons list of names 

74 LABELl Shipping label maker 

75 LAf5EL2 Name label maker 

76 BOSEWD DOME business bookkeeping system 

77 TIMECLCIS Computes weeks total hours from timeclock mfo. 

78 .ACCTPAY In memory accounts payable system-storage permitted 

79 INVOICE Generate invoice on screen and print on printer 

80 INVEMT2 In memory inventory control system 

81 TELDIR Computerized telephone directory 

82 TIMGSAN Time use analysis 

83 ASSIGN Use of assignment algorithm for optimal job assign. 

84 ACCTREC In memory accounts receivable system-storage ok 

85 TERMSPAY Compares 3 methods of repayment of loans 

86 PAYMET Computes gross pay required for given net 

87 SELLPR Computes selling price for given after tax amount 

88 ARBCOMP Arbitt-age computations 

89 DEPRSF Sinking fund depreciation 

90 UPSZONE Finds UPS zones from i\p code 

91 EMVELOPE Tyf>es envelope including retum address 

92 AUTOEXP Automobile expense analysis 

93 INSFILE Insurance policy file 

94 PAYROLL2 In memory payroll system 

95 DILAMAL Dilution analysis 

96 LOAMAFFD Loan amount a borrower can afford 

97 REMTPRCH Purchase phce for rental property 

98 SALELEAS Sale- leaseback analysis 

99 RRCONVBD Investors rate of return on convertabie bond 
100 PORTVAL9 Stock market portfolio storage-valuation program 



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80 Micro. January 1984 • 25 



FEEDBACK LOOP 



Regarding unexpected reboots and 
the Gold-Plug 80 connectors, you 're ig- 
noring one 34-pin edge connector: the 
disk drive! My Tandon drives each use a 
cable to connect two printed circuit 
boards inside the drive. The data lines 
cross the rear board to get to the con- 
troller board. The same solder-coated 
edge contacts are used on the controller 
board as at the back of the drive. 

Since I couldn 7 install a Gold-Plug 
80 inside the disk drive, I had to careful- 
ly solder 13 wires between the two 
boards. These 13 connections are acces- 
sible after removing the drive cover (the 
inside connections on the other side of 
the circuit board are inaccessible, but all 
are ground lines, so it seems safe to ig- 
nore them). Each of the 13 lines on the 
controller board goes to plated-through 
connections near the edge, making it 
convenient to insert each wire into the 
hole for soldering. On the rear board, 
you can tack-solder each wire to the 
connector pins. You need small-diame- 
ter wire and a pointed soldering iron 
(low- wattage). 

Since installing these new connectors 
in my drives, in addition to Gold-Plug 
80s on the computer system, Fve had no 
further unexpected hardware reboots. (1 
also replaced the Radio Shack cables 
with new gold-plated ones from Alpha 
Products, Woodhaven, NY 11421). 

John Huffman 
Winston-Salem, NC 

Thanks for the information. Fortu- 
nately, not all disk drives use two 
boards inside, so not all of us have to go 
to the trouble you did to solve the prob- 
lem. For the rest of us, if you have 
problems with disk reboots and you've 
already installed Gold-Plug 80 connec- 
tors, check your disk drives^they may 
need a Gold-Plug too. I'd be very care- 
ful about ignoring those ground lines, 
however; they're needed to help main- 
tain data integrity by screening out elec- 
trical noise and RFl. 

/ have two problems with my 48K 
Model I which came to light recently. 
The first, as a result of exploring Del- 
mer Hinrichs' "3-D Printer Graphics" 
(May 1983, p. 236) while scanning 
COS(X)/(X) and SIN(X)/(X), where X 
varied from zero to 6P1 by steps of 
. IPI, [found that the . 1 factor changed 
in an unusual fashion. I had written X 
as A *PI where A varied in steps of .1. 
26 • 80 Micro, Januan/ 1984 



I'm at a loss to explain this or to 
dream up a fix. I previously had this 
trouble with a step of one, where the 
step was some consistent factor less 
than one. I traced this to a corroded 
connection leading to the expansion 
interface. I now have Gold-Plug 80s 
throughout. The present problem lies in 
the keyboard unit since I get the same 
results with the EI disconnected. Any 
suggestions or remedies? 

Next, according to several sources I 
should be able to key in 256 bytes per in- 
put line, but my keyboard stops at 240. 
What's up? 

Thomas Rogers 
Morro Bay, CA 



The problem is with the method Mi- 
crosoft uses to manipulate numbers. I 
first ran into this problem on an IBM 
360 computer in 1969, and then again 
on a CDC64O0 in 1971, so the problem 
isn't peculiar to just the TRS-80 or Mi- 
crosoft. The difficulty lies in that .1 is 
not a precisely defined number in bina- 
ry math; .1 is to binary math like 1/3 is 
to decimal math. Repetitious calcula- 
tions slowly build up to a large, notice- 
able error. 

You've stumbled into that strange 
area of computation called numerical 
analysis, where the method used to 
compute the formula can actually affect 
the final answer. Since you can't change 
the method used by the ROM for math 
manipulations, you'll have to use a 
kludge to get the right answer (as they 
say in college physics, if the data doesn't 
fit the curve, fake it). 

The only solution is to avoid using 
step factors of less than 1 . Make the step 
1, and divide X by 10 to get the proper 
step for your mathematical formula. 
This problem, errors with numbers less 
than 1, is frustrating when you're work- 
ing with finances. I've had several ques- 
tions regarding errors in dollars and 
cents and how to get rid of the trailing 
digits. 

Your sources of information don't 
know what they're talking about. The 
Level II ROMs limit keyboard input to 
240 characters, although you can make 
Z80 instruction jumps of 256 bytes. 
Level II ROMs use the bytes between 
256 and 240 to tell the operating system 
the beginning and ending addresses of 
the character string, with a zero byte be- 
tween this information and the string, a 



carriage return (at the end of the string), 
and a zero byte to separate it from the 
next string in memory. Also, some of 
those bytes are used to store the variable 
name (two characters plus type declara- 
tion) and a separator byte. 

Some of the DOSes on the market 
have modified routines that let you key 
in 256 bytes, but the Level II ROMs 
won't. 

In Basic, the extra spaces are used by 
the program line number, length of the 
line, address of the next line number, a 
zero separator between the beginning of 
the line itself, a carriage return at the 
end of the line and another zero byte 
separator (remember, the line editor has 
a total length of 256 bytes, which have 
to contain all that information). 

In summary, the problems you've en- 
countered are ROM related, and can't 
really be changed except by substitut- 
ing the errant routines with new ma- 
chine-language code that does the job 
correctly. 



Tm using the EDTASM package in 
NEWDOS 2.1, which isn't supported 
by Apparat. I've found that when I use 
the A command to produce object 
code, the switches for printout, error 
catching, and so forth, don't work. 
Since the package is a modification of 
the original tape EDTASM, Apparat 
refers the user to the Radio Shack man- 
ual, giving only the specific changes 
made by Apparat. 

The syntax for A is listed by Radio 
Shack as A (filespec) (, switch). The 
NEWDOS 2.1 EDTASM seems only to 
accept A, then it prompts for tape or 
disk output. Does an undocumented 
syntax change exist here? If not, is there 
a fix? I'm only a beginner and I don 't 
want to invest in a new editor /assem- 
bler at this time. 

For those using Newscript 7.0 and 
LDOS 513, you have to modify Start- 
up/MIN for LDOS. Newscript uses its 
own keyboard driver and, when you use 
the Clear/Break command sequence 
(which normally splits a Newscript line 
in two), Newscript and LDOS each read 
the break key once and return you to 
BASIC READY. To make the Clear/ 
Break sequence work properly, include 
the following command in Start- 
up/MIN: 

SYSTEM (BREAK = OFF) 

A tip for LDOS users who have print- 



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FEEDBACK LOOP 



ers that accept single codes instead of 
requiring escape codes first: use the 
System (Graphic) command. You can 
then construct a filter, using XLA TE/ 
FLT, that will let you use some of the 
TRS-80's special characters and graph- 
ics symbols, but which most printers 
can 't produce. I use graphics characters 
generated by two LDOS keystrokes to 
output special printer codes within 
VisiCalc, for example. 

Mark Pagan 
Toronto, Canada 
The problem is the way you're speci- 
fying the switches. I've used NEWDOS 
2.1 with the modified EDTASM for 
several years without experiencing any 
problems with the switches. You should 
type: 

A Filespec, switch, switch 

Remember, the switches MUST be in 
uppercase. The blank space is mandato- 
ry. I know Apparat EDTASM works, 

just experiment a little. 
Thanks for the tips. 



/ have a Model I with Holmes' 4SK 
internal memory and an Exatron 
Stringy Floppy. Em thinking of getting 
disk drives to take advantage of soft- 
ware for 32K and 48K. 

What effect will my Holmes hoard 
have if it's operating with an MDX-2, 
Disk 80, or EN W Expansion Interface? 

Ronald Mattson 
Brockville, Canada 

The presence of the Holmes board 
shouldn't make any difference to the 
expansion interfaces, as long as they 
don't include memory of their own. If 
they do include memory, then you'll 
have a conflict between the information 
in the Holmes IM memory and the 
memory in the EI. The end result will 
probably be blown memory or memory 
driver chips. 

Em an owner of a Model III, com- 
plete with a VR Data disk controller and 
two VR Data disk drives. After receiv- 
ing a notification of reassignment to 
Europe, I asked some people at Radio 
Shack about making my computer 
work with 50-cycle current. Here are the 
answers: 

• "There's no way to do it, you 'II have 
to buy another Model III in Europe. " 

28 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



• "You don't need to do anything as 
long as you use a stepdown transform- 
er; the dc drives won't notice any- 
thing. " 

• "All you need is a transformer to 
convert from 220V/50 Hz to UOV/60 
Hz." 

Three months later, here I sit listen- 
ing to my drive motors turning them- 
selves off and on, over and over, at 
about three-second intervals. Every- 
thing works fine, but I can 't get used to 
the idea of my drives tearing themselves 
up like this. Can you help? 

E.F. 
Augsburg, Germany 



"You've stumbled into 

that strange area 

of computation called 

numerical analysis. " 



As I recall, Model III TRSDOS 
comes with a utility called HZ50/CMD 
that's supposed to configure the Model 
III drives to work correctly with 
1 lOV/50 Hz current. Contact your 
closest Radio Shack dealer about get- 
ting a copy of this utility for your 
system. 

My computer is a Model I Level II 
with 32K RAM LNW interface, one 
Tandon drive, and four BASF 6106 
disk drives. At one time the BASF 
drives worked, one at a time, but I've 
changed the programming jumpers so 
much that they no longer work. 

I can use the Tandon drive alone, but 
that's too restrictive. I want to use the 
Tandon with the BASF, or the BASF by 
themselves. I noticed that the Radio 
Shack cable has teeth pulled so that the 
position of the drive on the cable de- 
fines the drive number, but when I 
bought one it didn't help me. 

Alfred Bowman 

Gig Harbor, WA 

The first thing you should do is buy 

the technical manual for the BASF 6106 



drives. Software Support (One Edgel 
Road, Framingham, MA 01701, 617- 
872-9090, $14.95) has copies of the 
manual. You can also get the manual 
from BASF Corporation (Computer 
Hardware Sales, Crosby Drive, Bed- 
ford, MA 01730, 617-271-4168), but I 
don't know the price. 

Now, for your problem: You can on- 
ly hook up the BASF drives with a max- 
imum of three drives on the system. The 
BASF drives are jumpered inside the 
case as either drives 1, 2, or 3. If you use 
the Radio Shack cable, then you must 
make sure that the drive jumper setting 
matches the pin select of the cable (first 
cable position drive must be jumpered 
as drive 1, position 2, jumpered as drive 
2, etc.). 

The Radio Shack disk drive system is 
designed as a radial chain, with each 
drive accessed separately. I'll tell you 
how to set up a BASF drive as drive 3 
(which is where I have my BASF drive 
in my Model I system). Find jumper 
matrix JJl (a 6-pin jumper block). If 
pins 1 and 2 (bottom set) are connected, 
the drive is set as drive 1 . If pms 3 and 4 
(middle set) are jumpered together, it's 
drive 2. The top two puis set it up as 
drive 3. 

Find jumper matrix JJ2 (a 14-pin 
jumper block beside JJl). Jumper pins 
3 and 4, and 9 and 10 together. This sets 
the head load option to radial. Jumper 
pins 5 and 6 together for radial select 
option. 

Find the two 14-pin jumper blocks at 
the front of the drive. The one closest to 
the drive door is JJ4. Jumper pins 5 and 
6 of JJ3, and 3 and 4 of JJ4 together to 
set the write protect of your disk to 
mean that a covered notch protects the 
disk. Jumper pins 5 and 6 of JJ4 togeth- 
er so that the LED on the door will light 
when the drive door is locked and the 
drive is spinning at speed. Jumper JJ3 
pins 13 and 14 together for automatic 
head load. 

These options should get your disk 
drives in operation until you get your 
own drive manual and can select the op- 
tions you want. 

/ have a Model III dual-disk micro- 
computer. My problem is that I can 't 
assemble my 185-record I2-extent source- 
code program with Radio Shack 's Se- 
ries I Editor/Assembler (only 35 bytes 
free, I get Symbol Table overflow). 

I'm willing to spend up to $200 for a 
one-time solution. I've heard that Ra- 



FEEDBACK LOOP 



dio Shack's "Edit" assembler will fit 
my needs, but none of the local Radio 
Shacks know what it is. Can you help? 

Vik Gavande 
Austin, TX 

You want MZAL, by Computer Ap- 
plications Unlimited (P.O. Box 214, 
Dept FSBE, Rye, NY 10580, 914-937- 
6286, $149). This system of programs 
uses a linking loader to independently 
assemble written source-code modules 
into one program. The limit is 30,000 
bytes for a symbol table, or your avail- 
able disk space. For more information 
on this system, read the review in the 
October 1982 issue of 50 M/cro (p. 160). 
UPDATE 

In the October 1983 Feedback 1 said 
that the Alpha-Products joystick used 
the 5-volt line of the TRS-80 for a pow- 
er source. Well, one of their technicians 
called me and told me that their unit 
doesn't even have a pin connection to 
that line, so it couldn't be using that line 
for a power source. Given that fact, I 
can't see any reason why the joystick 
would malfunction in the manner de- 
scribed by A.L.H., of Raritan, NJ (Oc- 
tober 1983, p. 336). Sorry about that.B 

Terry Kepner is a freelance writer and 
programmer, and the vice president of 
Interpro. He's been writing about mi- 
crocomputers since 1979. 



Frequently Needed Numbers 

Radio Shack, National Parts Divi- 
sion, 900 East Northside Drive, 
Fort Worth, TX 76102, 817-870- 
5662. M/C and Visa accepted, 
each order has $1.50 handling 
charge. 

IJG Inc., 1260 West Foothill Blvd., 
Upland, CA 91786, 714-946-5805. 
Publisher of TRS-80 Disk and 
Other Mysteries ($22.50), Micro- 
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Mysteries ($29.95), The Custom 
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80 Micro, January 1984 • 29 



THE NEXT STEP 



by Hardin Brothers 



Wait! Before you read this column, 
follow these instructions exactly: 

1 . If you are using a disk system, specify 
zero files when you enter Basic. 

2. Type Program Listing 1 into your 
Model I, Model III, or Model 4 (in 
Model III or ROM mode). 

3. Make sure youVe entered everything 
exactly as it appears. 

4. Save the program to tape or disk. 

5. After you save the program, run it. 
Do you understand what happened? 

Should you list it again to take a better 
look? I'll leave what, why, and how in the 
air for a moment; I'll discuss this pro- 
gramming technique later in the column. 

Strings on the Screen 

Fm devoting this month's column to 
answering the mail and presenting some 
short, useful readers' techniques, as 
well as a few of my own. 




A 

programming 

potpourri 



First come requests from Model I/III 
and Model 4 programmers for ways of 
reproducing material that appears on 
the screen. Some of the requests have 
been spurred by a feature which I be- 



10 

20 

30 

40 

50 

60 

70 

80 

90 

101 

lit 

12( 

131 

141 

15! 

15! 



CLS: DEFINT 
FOR 1=16635 
DIM A(69) : 
POKE 16548, 
POKE 16634, 
CLS: LIST 
DATA 248, 1 
DATA 28445, 
DATA 22304, 

■ DATA 15872 

■ DATA 8 276, 
I DATA 16709 
I DATA 8224, 
I DATA 8224, 
I DATA 18516 
I DATA 18516 



A,Ii DIM A, I 

TO 16638: READ A: POKE I, A: NEXT I 
FOR 1=0 TO 67: READ A(I): NEXT I 
0: POKE 16549,111: POKE 16633,139 
111: POKE 16635,139: POKE 16634,111 

10, 248, 110 
10, 8224, 8224, 8224, 17730, 21587 
21321, 17736, 8275, 8321, 18516, 8261 

. 5231, 8192, 18464, 20545, 18768, 21317 
17999, 18464, 19535, 17481, 22849, 21280 

, -24237, 83, 28499, 30, 8224, 8224, 8224 
8224, 8224, 21062, 19791, 28160, 10351, 8192 
8224, 8224, 16712, 17490, 20041, 16928, 20306 

. 21061, 83, 28553, 50, 8224, 8224, 8224, 8736 

. 8261, 17742, 21592, 21280, 17748, 8784 



Program Listing I. Demonstration program. 



************************************ 



Progcam for LOGS 5.1.x to capture 
expanded DATE form in Basic 
string DA$ — same technique can 
be used to capture anything on the 
screen in a Basic string. 



1 REM 

2 REM 

3 REM 

4 REM 

5 REM 

6 REM 

7 REM 

8 REM 

9 REM ************************************ 

10 CLS: CMD"DATE" 
20 DU$="X" 

30 POKE VARPTR(DU$) ,17 

40 POKE VARPTR(DU$) +1,0 

50 POKE VARPTR(DU$)+2,60 

6 DA$=DUS 

70 PRINT DA5 

80 END 

Program Listing 2. Model I/III solution for capturing the expanded date form. 



lieve is unique to LDOS (Model 4's 
TRSDOS 6.0 is a licensed version of 
LDOS 6.0). The techniques are the 
same no matter what material you want 
to get from the screen. 

When you boot an LDOS system 
disk, you are asked to enter the date in 
the standard MM/DD/YY format. As 
soon as you press the enter key, the 
computer processes the date and dis- 
plays it in the more normal day, month 
date, year format. For example, if you 
enter 12/31/83, LDOS translates it to 
Sat, Dec 31, 1983. Every time you use 
LDOS's Date command, the date ap- 
pears in the expanded format. It's a 
nice, though not critical, feature of 
LDOS. 

Problems arise when you go to Disk 
Basic. If you enter the command 
PRINT DATES, the familiar 12/31/83 
returns. Since the day/date algorithm 
exists as a DOS library command, you 
can always use CMD "DATE" on the 
Model l/III or SYSTEM "DATE" on 
the Model 4 to display the expanded 
form. But if your program takes action 
based on the day of the week, or needs 
to use the expanded form in a printed 
report, you must somehow capture it in 
a string. The problem is how to do that. 

To further define the problem, notice 
that the expanded form of the date al- 
ways takes exactly 17 bytes. Also, as- 
sume that you've cleared the screen just 
before you issued the CMD or SYS- 
TEM command. Therefore, you need a 
way to put the first 17 bytes on the 
screen into a string that you can further 
manipulate or use in a program. 

The solutions for the Model I/III and 
Model 4 are completely different be- 
cause the Model 4, running under 
TRSDOS 6.0 and compatible systems, 
does not use a normal memory-mapped 
video display (nor a memory-mapped 
keyboard). It has a special 2K of static 
RAM for the screen, but that memory 
isn't part of the 64K RAM available to 
the Z80 processor. 

In simpler terms, you can't POKE 
characters to the screen or PEEK char- 
acter values from the screen. (Actually, 
that's not quite true, but a Basic pro- 
gram can only directly address screen 
memory by some unusual bank-switch- 
ing that may destroy values essential to 



30 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



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THE NEXT STEP 



the system — not a recommended tech- 
nique). 

I'll start with the Model I/III solu- 
tion. Notice that Program Listing 2 is 
written entirely in Basic, without any 
machine-language subroutines. Until 
you're familiar with the technique, 



however, it may be a little confusing. 
The program creates a dummy string, 
DU$, expands it to 17 bytes, and points 
it to the beginning of the screen where 
the program displays the date. Then it 
transfers those 17 bytes to DA$, which 
it prints to verify that everything is in 



10 !**************************************«******** 

20 ' 

30 ' Model 4 Program to capture TRSDOS ' s DATE 

40 ' display in string DAY$. 

50 ' 

60 'This program may be chained to any 

70 ' program that wishes to display day/date 

80 ' 

90 I *********************************************** 

100 ' 

110 CLS: SYSTEM "DATE" 

120 X=l: DAY$=SPACE$(17) 

130 WHILE X <> 

140 READ X: CODE? = CODE$ + CHR$(X) 

150 WEND 

160 Q = PEEK(VARPTR(DAYS)+1) + PEEK ( VARPTR( DAY$) +2) *256 

170 IF Q > 32767 THEN Q = Q - 65536! 

180 Q% = Q 

190 R = PEEK(VARPTR(CODE$) +1) + PEEK fVARPTR{C0DE5) +2) *256 

200 CALL R (Q%) 

210 PRINT DAY? 

220 COMMON DAY$ 

23 END 

240 DATA 94, 35, 86, 175, 103, 111, 6, 17, 197, 213, 62 

250 DATA 15, 6, 1, 239, 209, 193, 32, 5, 18, 35, 19, 16 

260 DATA 240, 201, 

Program Listing 3. Model 4 solution for capturing TRSDOS's date display. 







00100 






00110 






00120 






00130 






00140 






00150 


0F 




00160 
00170 


00 




00180 
00190 


00 


5E 


00200 


01 


23 


00210 


02 


55 


00220 


03 


AF 


00240 


04 


67 


00250 


05 


6P 


00260 


06 


0611 


00270 


08 


05 


00280 


09 


05 


00290 


0A 


3E0F 


00300 


0C 


0601 


00310 


0E 


EF 


00320 


0F 


Dl 


00330 


10 


CI 


00335 


11 


2005 


00336 


13 


12 


00340 


14 


23 


00350 


15 


13 


00360 


16 


10F0 


00380 


18 


C9 


00390 


08 




00400 


000 Total 


errors 



;SUBROUTINE FOR MODEL 4, TRSDOS (LDOS) 6.1 
; WILL READ THE RESULTS OF SYSTEM "DATE" 
; FROM THE SCREEN, AND SAVE THE PRESENT 
; DAY/DATE IN DAY$ — MUST BE PART OF 
; A BASIC PROGRAM 

VDCTL 



LOOP 



EQU 


15 


; VIDEO SVC # 


ORG 


8000H 


;POR ASSEMBLY ONLY 


LD 


E,(HL) 


;GET LSB OF DAY 5 ADDR 


INC 


HL 


;BUMP POINTER 


LD 


D,(HL) 


;GET MSB OF DAY$ ADDR 


XOR 


A 


;A = 


LD 


H,A 


;SAVE IN H 


LD 


L,A 


;HL = 


LD 


8,17 


;B = # OF BYTES TO GET 


PUSH 


BC 


;SAVE COUNTER 


PUSH 


DE 


;SAVE ADDRESS 


LD 


A, VDCTL 


;A = VDCTL SVC # 


LD 


B,l 


; VDCTL FUNCTION NUMBER 


RST 


28H 


;GET BYTE FROM (HL) 


POP 


DE 


; RECOVER STRING ADDR 


POP 


BC 


;GET COUNTER 


JR 


NZ , END 


;G0 ON ERROR 


LD 


(DE) ,A 


;SAVE IN STRING 


INC 


HL 


;HL==>NEXT SCREEN ADDR. 


INC 


DE 


;DE==>NEXT STRING ADDR, 


DJNZ 


LOOP 


fLDOP FOR 17 CHARACTERS 


RET 




;RETURN TO BASIC 


END 




;END OF ROUTINE 



END 



Program Listing 4. Model subroutine; TRSDOS 6. reads the system date and saves the present 
date. 



order. 

You may remember from my last two 
columns that Basic uses 6 bytes in low 
memory to store information about a 
string variable. The actual characters 
are usually stored in high memory. The 
6 bytes for DU$ would be: 

03 hex string type code 

55 hex "U" (2nd letter of name) 

44 hex "D" (1st letter of name) 

len length of string 

Isb Least significam byte (LSB) of string 

address 
msb Most significant byte (MSB of string 

address 

The value returned by VARPTR(DU$) 
is the address of the fourth of these 6 
bytes, "len." 

Line 10 in the program clears the 
screen and prints the expanded date in 
the upper left comer. Line 20 creates the 
dummy string, DU$. The fun begins in 
line 30, where, by POKEing 17 into the 
fourth position in the variable entry, 
DU$ automatically becomes 17 bytes 
long. 

In lines 40 and 50, change the address 
of DU$ so its information block in the 
simple variable table indicates that it 
contains 17 bytes beginning at 3C00 
hexadecimal (hex), the beginning of 
screen memory. Then in line 60, DU$ is 
copied to DA$. This is a necessary last 
step, because DU$ points to or contains 
the first 17 bytes on the screen. 

As soon as the screen changes, DU$'s 
contents change. Copying DU$ to DA$ 
transfers the present contents of DU$ 
(the expanded date) to a safe place in 
high memory. 

DU$ points to the top of screen mem- 
ory until you use it on the left side of the 
equal sign in a LET statement. Then the 
program points it back to the more nor- 
mal high memory. You can use strings 
pointed to the screen to produce some 
amazing graphics written entirely in Ba- 
sic. For examples, see my "Super Fast 
Graphics in Basic" in Volume 9 of the 
Encyclopedia for the TRS-80 (Wayne 
Green Inc., 1982). 

The Model 4 solution is slightly more 
complicated because it combines a Basic 
program with a machine-language sub- 
routine. The Basic program is shown in 
Program Listing 3, the machine-lan- 
guage source code in Program Listing 4. 

This program operates by creating a 
string, DAYS, of the required length. 

Continued on p. J7 



32 • m Micro, January 1984 



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80 Micro, January 1984 • 35 



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THE NEXT STEP 



Conlinued from p. 32 

Then a machine-language routine reads 
each character off the screen and 
POKEs it into the appropriate location 
inside DAYS. 

Line 110 of the Basic program clears 
the screen and forces DOS to print the 
expanded date form in the upper left 
comer. Line 120 initializes X to 1 then 
sets up DAYS as 17 ASCII spaces. Lines 
130-150 move the machine-language 
routine, stored in data statements, into 
CODES. The routine is relocatable, so 
CODES's location in memory is unim- 
portant. 

Lines 160-180 find the location of 
DAYS, and place it in the integer Q%. 
Line 190 calculates the location of 
CODES (the machine -language code) 
and places it in R. Line 200 does all the 
work, calling the machine-language 
routine at R (the address of CODES) 
and sending the address of DAYS to the 
subroutine. Finally, line 2 1 prints 
DAYS to verify a successful transfer, 
and then defines DAYS as common so 
it can be sent to another program with a 
Chain command. 

The only way to move from Basic to 
a machine-language subroutine on the 
Model I/III is with a USR command. 
Model 4 Basic has two different com- 
mands to call a machine-language rou- 



tine, both much more powerful. USR, 
in Model 4 Basic, can pass a single vari- 
able of any type (integer, smgle-preci- 
sion, double-precision, or string) to the 
subroutine. The Call command can 
pass an unlimited number of variables 
of all types to a subroutine. A funda- 
mental difference between the Model 4 
and the Model I/III machine-language 
calls is that both Model 4 calls pass the 
address of variables instead of the val- 
ues of variables. 

When the program passes only one 
variable with a Call instruction (Q% in 
our program), the machine-language 
subroutine in the HL register pair re- 
ceives its address. Lines 2CiO-220 of List- 
ing 4 load the address of the 17 spaces in 
DAYS into the DE register pair. The 
program sets register A to zero with an 
XOR A command and uses it to set 
both H and L to zero. (This roundabout 
way of zeroing the HL register pair 
avoids leaving zero bytes in CODES.) 
Then the program loads B with 17, the 
number of bytes to transfer from the 
screen to DAYS. 

Inside the loop, the program saves 
both BC and DE on the stack. Then it 
loads A with 15, the index value of the 
©VDCTL supervisor Call (SVC). None 
of the addresses of the DOS routmes in 



Demonstration of Inverse Video 
on the Model 4 
in Model III Mode 

************************************ 



10 CLS: A=0 

20 FOR 1=0 TO 255 

30 POKE 15360 + I, I 

40 NEXT I 

50 A = NOT A AND 8 

60 OUT 132, A 

70 FOR 1=1 TO 500: NEXT I 

80 GOTO 5 

Program Listing 5. Inverse video on the Model 4 in the Model III mode. 



10 REM — Many of these lines will disappear 

20 REM — They could be used to hold a 

30 REM — Machine-language sub-routine 

40 FOR I = 1 TO 7: Q=PEEK ( 16548) +PEEK ( 16549) *256 

50 IF Q>32767 THEN Q=Q-65536 

60 POKE 16548, PEEK(Q) : POKE 16549 , PEEK (Q+1) 

70 NEXT I 

80 REM — Regular Program could start here 

90 CLS:LIST 

Program Listing 6. Routine to move Basic's pointer. 



TRSDOS 6.0 are documented. Instead, 
the Model 4 Technical Manual supplies 
a list of approximately 100 SVCs. Each 
SVC provides one or more functions for 
interfacing your routine to the system. 
SVC 15, for example, is a collection of 8 
video control functions. 

To get a character from the screen, 
your program must load the A register 
with 15, the SVC number; register B 
with 1 to select the read-from-screen 
function; register H with the row num- 
ber of the character's position (zero for 
the top row of the display); and register 
L for the column number in the row 
(zero for the leftmost colurrm). An RST 
28 hex instruction then fetches the char- 
acter, returned in the A register. If the 
program doesn't set the Z flag, an error 
has occurred during the transfer. 

After each fetch. Listing 4 saves the 
character in DAYS (line 360) and the 
program increments the HL and DE 
pointers for another fetch. It finishes by 
returning to Basic. If a fetch error oc- 
curs, the program returns immediately, 
and DAYS holds only part of the date 
display. 

You could add an error-checkmg 
loop to the Basic program to be sure 
that DAYS doesn't end with a space, 
and to try the call again if it does, 
though I've used the routine many times 
and never seen an error generated. You 
could easily generalize this routine to 
read as many characters as necessary 
from the screen. Just remember to in- 
crement H for each new video row. 

Another Model 4 Routine 

Program Listing 5 shows a technique 
you can use on a Model 4 m Model III 
mode only. Line 40 forces A to alternate 
values of zero and 8. If you send a value 
of 8 to port 132, you enable the inverse 
video section of the Model 4's character 
generator, and can print inverse charac- 
ters. To display an inverse character, set 
bit 7 of any normal character value to 1 , 
creatmg a value between 128 and 255. 
Unfortunately, neither the ROMs nor 
DOS supports printing inverse charac- 
ters on the screen, though it wouldn't be 
difficult to write a filter for the video 
driver to do so. 

Back to the Beginning 

So you thought you could get aU the 
way through the column without actu- 
ally typing in and running Listing 1, 
huh? Go back now and do it. Only 
those of you who have already run it 

80 Micro, Jarjuary 1984 • 37 



Langley-St. Clair 

Gets Mail 



From unsolicited letters of testimonial 
I recently purchased your 
amber CRT for my Model III 
with anti-glare features. I 
seldom write regarding prod- 
ucts I've purchased for the 
computer, but I felt that your 
product warranted a short 
note. I am extremely happy 
with my new CRT. The color is 
great, and easy on the eyes, as 
you claimed. Your documenta- 
tion was excellent. I am by no 
means electronically inclined, 
but I had no problem with the 
installation. 

Just wanted you to know 
that I would recommend your 
product to anyone interested 
in upgrading their CRT. Thank 
you for your excellent service 
also. 

A. P. 

New Monmouth, NJ 
I have got my Orange CRT 
installed in my computer and it 
sure is a good tube. Now after 
looking at the screen for 8 
hours my eyes aren't falling 
out. Thank you very much for 
all the trouble you had to go 
through with my order. This 
tube works fine, and after a lit- 
tle getting used to the color I 
like it a lot better than green 
and 100% better than B/W. 
Your company is sure wonder- 
ful to do business with. You 
can be sure I will tell anybody 
that is looking for a replace- 
ment CRT where to get one. 
Also tell Donna thanks for all 
the help she gave me. ..she 
was right about the color; it is 
a lot better to look at once you 
get used to it. Again, thank 
you very much. 
K.L. 
Saginaw, Ml 



THE NEXT STEP 



LSIS's NEW SO.-T-VIEW 
REPLACEMENT CRT 



For the 
full story 
see page 77 




Lansley-StClair 

Instrumentation 
Systems, Inc. .^462 

132 West 24lh St.. NY. NY 10011 
1-800-221-7070 



38 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



may read the next part. 

What's happening in this program? 
If you translated the POKE addresses in 
lines 20, 40, and 50 to hexadecimal, you 
probably already know. I adjusted sev- 
eral low-memory pointers to achieve 
this effect. Line 20 moves the Array 
Variable Table and Free Space pointers 
(40FB hex and 40FD hex) up to a higher 
location in memory (remember those 
pointers from last month?). Then the 
program loads array A(n) with data val- 
ues. Each data value is a combination of 
2 bytes of the tokenized form of another 
Basic program. Finally, the beginning- 
of-program pointer (40A4 hex), as well 
as the variable table pointers, are ad- 
justed to the beginning of the array 
area, 6F00 hex. Essentially, one Basic 
program has written another! 

Moving the pointer can lead to all 
sorts of interesting techniques. Though 
the one in Listing 1 probably has only 
limited uses, it does serve to illustrate a 
major point: Basic programs (except for 
the next-line pointers they contain) are 
completely relocatable. You can store 
the lines of a Basic program anywhere 
in memory. 

Programs running under Disk Basic 
are located much higher in memory 
than those running with a tape system to 
allow space for the resident DOS mod- 
ules and Disk Basic enhancements. Al- 
so, the number and type of files you se- 
lect on entering Disk Basic alter the 
starting point of your program. 

When you add machine-language 



routines to a Basic program, you have 
to worry about where to store those 
routines. You can put them at the top of 
memory, and protect them by setting 
the HIMEM pointer, or you can store 
them in low memory below the resident 
Basic program. It's easy to store pro- 
grams in low memory with a tape sys- 
tem; unless you change the 4OA0 hex 
pointer with a machine-language rou- 
tine, the Basic program always starts in 
the same place. 

It is more difficult to load a machine- 
language program below Disk Basic, 
because the value in 40A0 hex varies ac- 
cording to the number and types of 
files, and the DOS you use. However, if 
you load Basic before the machine-lan- 
guage program, life can be much 
simpler. 

Load and run Program Listing 6. 
The first lines disappear when the pro- 
gram runs, because the program moves 
the 40A4 hex pointer up one line with 
each iteration of the loop. The program 
stores every line of Basic with a 2-byte 
header that points to the next Basic line. 
The 40A4 hex pointer holds the address 
of the first line in the Basic program. By 
moving that pointer, you can make the 
first lines invisible. 

If you POKEd a machine-language 
program in the REM statements and 
then moved the 40A4 hex pointer, the 
subroutine would be completely invisi- 
ble to the user. Better yet, it would re- 
main in place no matter how many Ba- 
sic programs you load and run. And 



10 


:ls 






20 


FOR r=0 TO 15: PRINT @ 1*64+10 , "FIRST SCREEN"; 


NEXT I 


30 


3UT 136,12: OUT 137,4: OUT 132,128 




40 


CLS 






50 


FOR 1=0 TO 15: PRINT § 1*64+30 , "SECOND SCREEN" 


: NEXT 


60 


OUT 132,128 




70 


A% = 4 






80 


FOR 1=0 TO 6: FOR J=l TO 200: NEXT J 




90 


ft%= NOT A% AND 4: OUT 137, A% 




100 


NEXT I 




110 


OUT 


136,13 




120 


FOR 


1=0 TO 255: OUT 137,1 


' 


130 


FOR 


J=l TO 20: NEXT J, I 




140 


OUT 


137,0 




150 


FOR 


1=0 TO 31 




160 


OUT 


136,13: OUT 137, ( I-INT( 1/4) *4) *64 




170 


OUT 


136,12: OUT 137,INT{I/4) 




180 


FOR 


J=l TO 100: NEXT J, I 




190 


OUT 


136,12 




200 


FOR 


1=0 TO 500:A%=NOT A% AND 4 




210 


OUT 


137 ,A%: NEXT I 




220 


OUT 


132,4: FOR J=l TO 900: NEXT J: OUT 132,0 




230 


OUT 


136,12: OUT 137,0 




240 


OUT 


136,13: OUT 137,0 





Program Listing 7. Use the 2K video RAM to enhance regular programs on the Model 4. 



THE COMPUTER TANDY 
SHOULD HAVE BUILT. 



Software-selectable screen formats 
let you run either 24 x 80 CP/M or 
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Monitor comes in your 

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With our built-in disk interfaces, 
you can simply plug in any 
combination of peripherals. 



Standard Centronics-type 

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a wide variety of printers. 



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80 Micro, January 1984 • 39 



THE NEXT STEP 



best of all, it could contain bytes of 00 
hex without adversely affecting the resi- 
dent Basic program. It's absolutely 
safe. 

As one reader, Jim Kyle of Oklaho- 
ma City, OK, pointed out, the addresses 
set by DEFUSR commands don't 
change with New, Clear, Load, or Run 
commands. Nor do the values in 
16526/16527 for tape systems. There- 
fore, the same machine-language pro- 
gram is available once it's loaded and 
the relevant pointers are set. 

One More Model 4 Routine 

Jim Kyle has also done some explora- 
tions with the Model 4 video control 
that I think you'll find interesting. If 
you have a Model 4, put it into Mode! 
Ill mode, and run Program Listing 7. 
Be sure to let it run completely to the 
end. You should be surprised by the re- 
sults. 

If you don't have a Model 4, you 
might want to go to your local Radio 
Shack store or Computer Center and try 



it. It will work on all versions of the 
Model 4, from the 16K RAM tape- 
based model up to the 128K RAM hard- 
disk setups, as long as they are first put 
into Model III mode. 

This program illustrates how the 2K 
video RAM enhances regular pro- 
grams. If you're going to experiment 
with other port outputs, first pull the 
disks from the drives so you don't inad- 
vertently turn on a drive and erase 
something. 

The program operates by acting upon 
the CRTC (cathode ray tube controller) 
chip inside the Model 4. Output port 
132 (84 hex) selects several systems op- 
tions, including placement of the cursor 
(paging) inside the 2K of video RAM 
and toggling between the 64-character 
and 80-character display modes. Out- 
put ports 136 and 137 directly address 
the CRTC, in effect telling it the loca- 
tion, in the 2K of video memory, of the 
top of the screen. The CRTC sees the 
video RAM as completely circular, with 
complete wraparound from the end to 



the beginning, and it's impossible to 
send an invalid address. 

With that introduction, you should 
be able to figure out how the program 
works, and use the same techniques in 
your own programs. You could, for ex- 
ample, change last August's screen 
swap program to use the other half of 
video RAM and save IK of program 
memory space. ■ 



Readers who subscribe to Compu- 
Serve may take part in open discussions 
of topics covered by The Next Step. GO 
PCS-117 to the Software and Authors 
Special Interest Group (SASIG) and 
leave your questions or comments ad- 
dressed to Hardin Brothers on the mes- 
sage board. Feel free to join in any dis- 
cussions started by other readers, also. 

You can also reach Hardin Brothers 
by e-mail at 72165,735, or you can write 
to him at 280 N. Campus A ve.. Upland, 
CA 91 786. Enclose a stamped, self-ad- 
dressed envelope if you want a reply. 



C 



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t- 36 



40 • 80 Micro, Januar/ 1984 



Be Amazed! 




Telengard: How low can you go? 



We've created a subterranean monster. Fifty 
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Thiat's the number of levels in the TELEriQARD 
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Using wits, magic and true grit, your character delves 
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SBAIUQ >4siasBAma >isia SiAiua >isia SBAiua >isia saAiua msiq sbaiuq >isia sHAiua xsia sbaiuq msiq^ 

42 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



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^ See List of Advertisers on Page 227 80 Micro, January 1984 • 43 



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REVIEWS 




• • • • V2 

The Talking Program 

Ron Hutchinson 

P.O. Box 28355 

Columbus, OH 43228 

Models I, U, UI, 4, 12, 16, and Lobo 

Max-80 

Votrax Type-n-Talk 

$129.95 

by Terry Kepner 

The Talking Program is a neat ma- 
chine-language program that allows 
visually handicapped people to use a 
computer. Instead of just sending infor- 
mation to the video display, The Talk- 
ing Program verbalizes what appears on 
the screen. Thus, a visually handi- 
capped person can both run and write 
programs. 

The Talking Program integrates itself 
into your computer's disk operating 
system (DOS). In addition to this soft- 
ware, you also need the Votrax Type-n- 
Talk ($249.95) and its connection cable 
to give your computer a voice. 

Once you install this program and 
turn on the computer, The Talking Pro- 
gram becomes transparent and you can 
switch its various functions in and out 
of use as your needs dictate. 

Because the program integrates into 
the DOS when you execute it, any pro- 
gram that honors the DOS keyboard 
and video driver device control blocks 
(DCBs) works with The Talking Pro- 
gram. You're not limited to a few prop- 
erly patched programs. 

44 • 50 Micro, January 1984 



Thus, a visually handicapped person 
can use practically any Basic program 
because he can hear it. Programming 
becomes a cinch, as the system verbally 
echoes every keystroke. You can also 
use machine-language programs, but 
they, too, must honor the DOS key- 
board and video driver DCBs. 

I used The Talking Program on a Lo- 
bo Max-80 with LDOS and the Votrax 
Type-n-Talk unit. After installing the 
program on my DOS disk and setting it 
for automatic execution when I boot the 
disk, I tested it by turning off my video 
monitor and using the program "in the 
dark." 

I was amazed at how easy it was to 
learn to use the computer without the 
monitor. The Talking Program vocal- 
izes everything sent to the video display, 
including copyright notices. 

Hearing the copyright notice also lets 
you know immediately whether the sys- 
tem is operating correctly. If the drives 
stop and the Type-n-Talk doesn't say 
anything, something's wrong. 

It takes a while to get used to the 
Type-n-Talk unit's voice, but an adjust- 
able knob helps by controlling the pitch 
and speed of the words. Volume is also 
adjustable. 

The All Speech mode (speaking all 
the words as opposed to spelling them) 
has a few drawbacks: The program 
says "uldos" for LDOS, "kimd" for 
/CMD, and so forth. I quickly learned 
to switch to all spelling before asking 
for a disk directory. 

The Talking Program has 10 major 
options, and an additional 16 or 24 



edited by Lynne M. Nadeau 



Review Contents 



The Talking Program 44 

Arranger II 45 

VisiCalc Add-ons 48 

Model 4 Technical 

Reference Manual 53 

DWP-2I0Printer 53 

SoulofCP/M 54 

VEDlT1.15e 58 

Using TRSDOS6.0 62 

Datagraph 64 

Review Digest 69 



Our reviewers use a five-star rating system. 
One star represents the low end of this spectrum, 
while five stars represent the spectacular and high 
end of the spectrum. 



commands for reading the lines of your 
display. Fl switches the program be- 
tween Voice On and Voice Off modes, 
and F2 toggles between spelling every- 
thing and speaking everything. F3 turns 
punctuation speaking on and off. 

F4 makes the program spell upper- 
case while speaking lowercase (select 
this before reading the disk directory), 
and returns you to speaking upper- and 
lowercase. ESCI is speak or spell the 
current line (depending on F2's setting). 
ESC2 is speak or spell everything to the 
right of the cursor, and ESC3 speaks or 
spells the character under the cursor. 

ESC4 speaks or speUs this line and 
goes to the beginning of the next line. 
ESC5 tells you the current line and col- 
umn cursor position. You use ESC6 to 
adjust the speed of the Votrax Personal 
Speech System, which doesn't have a 
separate speed control. ESCa through 
ESCp select display lines 1-16, respec- 
tively, for speaking or spelling. 

All the computers support these fea- 
tures, but use different control keys 
since they don't all have function keys 
available. The II, 12, and 16 also have 
extra ESC keys, q through x, to take 
care of video lines 17-24. 

Turning the voice off doesn't totally 
deactivate it. In both modes, the pro- 



REVIEWS 



gram speaks any control or escape key- 
strokes, such as enter or backspace. If 
you want to totally disable the voice, 
you have to reboot the system and dis- 
able the program's autoload and execu- 
tion by holding down the enter key. 

The package's only drawback is its 
documentation, which is poorly written 
and somewhat disorganized. As a result 
you have to read the entire manual be- 
fore you can fully understand what's 
supposed to happen and how. A severe- 
ly visually handicapped person would 
require the assistance of a sighted per- 
son for initial setup of the program. 
Fortunately, The Talking Program's 
author, Ron Hutchinson, lists his phone 
number and invites anyone having 
problems to call him for help. 

When I first received my copy of The 
Talking Program, it worked perfectly. 
However, when I tried using my LDOS 
disk instead of Hutchinson's, the initial 
configuration of the RS-232 port locked 
up my system. 

Phone calls to Logical Systems re- 
vealed that Ron and 1 had different re- 
leases of LDOS 5.1.3, and my version 



didn't use precisely the same driver lo- 
cations as his. Logical Systems gave 
Ron information to make his program 
compatible with all versions of LDOS 

5.1.3. 

At this time you get two versions of 
Ron's program on the distribution disk: 
the standard version. Talk, and Talkl. 
Talkl is a special version for operation 
with Scripsit. 

The Talking Program is a simple-to- 
use package for converting TRS-80s in- 
to talking computers. Although the 
Votrax speech unit takes getting used to 
and slows down operation of the com- 
puter (which waits for it to speak or 
spell its present data before sending 
more), that's a small price to pay for be- 
ing able to use a computer. 

For more information on which pro- 
grams do or don't work with The Talk- 
ing Program and on which computers, 
call Ron Hutchinson. I recommend this 
program to anyone who is visually 
handicapped. While not all programs 
work with it, enough do to make it a 
worthwhile investment. ■ 



• • • • 1/2 

Arranger II 
Triple-D Software 
P.O. Box 642 
Layton, UT 84041 
Models I, ni, and 4 
$49.95 

by Ronald Cangro 

The Arranger II is an excellent disk 
directory cataloging program for 
the Model I (with a double-density 
adapter), the Model III, or the Model 4. 
The self-booting disk recognizes the 
computer you're ushig and configures 
itself correctly on initidization. 

If you own a single-density Model I, 
you can still order the original Ar- 
ranger. It doesn't have all the Arranger 
II's features, but it's still one of the best 
disk libraries available. 

Arranger II has several indispensable 
features and others that are simply 
handy. At the top of my list is the ability 
to recognize all major disk operating 
system directories; Arranger II treats all 
disks equally. 

This program recognizes my TRS- 



DOS, NEWDOS/80, DOSPLUS, and 
MULTIDOS disks, not to mention 
LDOS and DBLDOS. It also automati- 
cally recognizes single- or double-densi- 
ty disks to provide compatibility with 
the Models III and I double-density 
systems. 

The program is written in machine 
language, a big plus for speed. It sorts 
1,500 file names in less than 40 seconds! 
The program and data reside on the 
same disk, which can store up to 11,000 
programs with up to 255 file names per 
disk. 

The Beginning 

To use the Arranger II, insert the disk 
in drive zero and press the reset button. 
The program checks to see how many 
drives are active on the system and con- 
figures itself accordingly. It works with 
one to four drives of 35, 40, or 80 
tracks. You can also use the 80-track 
drive to update 35- or 40-track disks au- 
tomatically. 

The main menu (see Fig. 1) gives you 
an idea of this program's power and 
flexibility. For those of you familiar 
with the original Arranger, Triple-D 
Software has corrected most of its 



shortcomings and added some new 
commands. 

Your first step in using Arranger 11 is 
to rename all your disks. You must do 
this if you want to use the program in 
the automatic update mode. 

Whenever you want to update a disk 
you've previously added to the library, 
insert it into the drive and enter the Up- 
date command with one keystroke. The 
program goes to the directory, searches 
the name, and automatically replaces 
the old data with the updated informa- 
tion. To use this feature, you must give 
each disk a unique name. 

The program also uses the names to 
sort the disks, so it is advantageous to 
numerically name the disk (e.g., 
OOIGAMES). You can use up to eight 
characters, letters, or symbols in any 
order. 

The Filter function can selectively list 
disks of a certain category. For ui- 
stance, if you set the condition for disk 
names to ???GAMES, the program lists 
only the game disks in your library. 

The Rename command makes chang- 
ing names easy. However, it contains 
one minor inconvenience when you re- 
name a disk that's already in the master 
list. You must manually delete the disk 
in the master list and then add the disk 
with the new name to the list. The origi- 
nal Arranger did this automafically, 
and it's a feature that Triple-D should 
have retained. 

Once you've renamed all your disks, 
you must enter them into the master list. 
This task is a little cumbersome with on- 
ly one disk drive because of the neces- 
sary disk swapping. One nice feature is 
that the program never crashes. 

If it prompts you to insert the Ar- 
ranger II disk and you put in your only 
copy of a great arcade game instead, the 
program won't destroy your game. It 



ARRANGER II— By Dan Foy 

(A)dd a diskette (U)pdatc a diskette 

(F)ind a program (V)iew disk names 

(S)can diskettes (L)ocate free grans 

(P)roduce alpha list {R)ename a diskette 

(T)oggle auto/manual {B)ackup the Arranger 

(M)anijal add (C)hange filter 

(D)elete a diskette (E)xit the Arranger 

Command: (U) 
Figure I. Main menu screen. 



80 Micro, January 1964 • 45 



REVIEWS 



checks first to see if you entered the 
right disk, then lets you know in a 
friendly way that you did something 
wrong. 

The Add command initially enters all 
your disks. Arranger II prompts you to 
insert the disk you want to add and au- 
tomatically does the rest. The program 
finds the directory, reads it in, displays 
it on the screen, and then adds it to the 
Arranger II file. 

The program is smart enough to rec- 
ognize an unformatted disk or one al- 
ready on file, and lets you know its sta- 



tus. You can even print a disk label by 
pressing the clear key after adding or 
updating the disk. 

In addition to recording the file 
names on an update or disk add, the 
program records the number of free 
grans, disk name, date last updated, 
disk type (system or data), density, and 
DOS type. The program doesn't deter- 
mine the DOS type with a single-density 
disk, but sets it to SDEN. You aren't al- 
lowed a comment line describing the 
program. 

You should have a printer on your 



SCAN 

Disk Name Updated 



001 GAME 



08/06/82 



Density 
SINGLt 



ZAPPER/CMD 
CLIMBER/CMD 



STAR4/BAS 
NIGHTR/CMD 



Do-s Type 
SDEN 

TREKl/BAS 



Grans 
1 



Trks 
35 



1 

Type 

SYSTEM 



STARGARD/BAS 



Disk Name Updated 
025GUESS 05/13/82 



Density Dos Type Grans Trks 

DOUBLE NEWDOS/80 12 35 



Type 
DATA 



DOTS/CMD 

VOX/CMD 

SKOOL/BAS 



SAVE/BAS 

LIST 

ENTRAP 



TALK/DAT 
LOAN 



PROG/BAS 
TYPE/CMD 



Figure 2. Sample Disk Scan command output. 



ALPHA LIST 

ACCESS 027NEW1 

ACCOUNT 006BUSS 

ALIEN/CMD .... 002GAM 

BASV20/ILF 023SYSB 

BUDTRAK (MIBUD 

BUSGRA/CMD . 057BUSN 
BUSGRA/DAT . . 057BUSN 



CFB 005TEST 

CHESS OlONEWl 

CLEM/BAS .... OMMUSIC 
COM/CMD ... - 028COMM 
CRYPTO/CMD . . 002GAM 

DATE 033BAKUP 

DATE2 033BAKUP 



Page 

DATE 

DEEPDIVE . . . 
EDIT/CMD... 
FLASH/BAS . . 
GOLF/BAS . . . 
KEEPER/DAT 
SAFETY/BAS - 



1 

. 034DATA 
. 003BGAM 
. ..009SYSA 
. . 065JUNE 
. 003BGAM 
. ..014TEST 
. 008DUMY 



Figure 3. Sample alphabetical listing. 



« Cliange Filter Mode » 
Press ARROWS,<SPACE> to select ,<ENTER> for menu,<@> to reset 
^ Disk name: ???????? (All 99 disks allowed) 



DOS Type allowed: 

DOS PLUS NEWDOS/80 



DBLDOS 



PROTECTED 



SDEN 



Disk type; SYSTEM DATA 

No. of tracks: 35 Other 

Figure 4. Change Filler screen. 



system to take full advantage of this 
program. However, Triple-D realizes 
that not everyone has a printer or wants 
to print out a complete list all the time. 
Therefore, all the commands display 
data on the video screen. 

If more information is present than 
can appear on the screen at one time, 
you can use the arrow keys to scroll up 
or down through the data. By pressing 
the clear key, you direct a printout to 
the printer. 

Commands 

The View command displays the 
names of all the disks on file, including 
the date last updated, type of DOS (if 
the disk is double density), disk type, 
and number of free granules available. 

The Scan command lets you page 
through your disk library a disk at a 
time. The pertinent disk data appears 
along with all the file names on the disk. 
You use the plus and minus keys to step 
through the library one disk at a time. 

1 find it inconvenient to press the key 
each time I want to advance to the next 
disk. It would be nicer to hold down the 
key for a continuous scroll. 

If you want a printout of any individ- 
ual disk, you use the clear key when the 
disk appears on the screen. If you want 
a complete listing of all your disks, press 
the shift/clear keys simultaneously (see 
Fig. 2). This is a handy feature. 

The Find command searches the file 
for a specific file name and displays all 
disks on which it finds that file name. 
Arranger II also finds partial names. If 
you enter TEST as the file name, the 
program finds all file names starting 
with TEST, including Tesfing, Test/ 
BAS, and Test/CMD. 

This doesn't work if you're looking 
for file names that end in TEST or that 
contain only a specific sequence of let- 
ters. You can also search for a specific 
extension, such as /BAS. 

The Locate command is a timesaver. 
It quickly finds the disks that have a 
specified amount of free space. Ar- 
ranger II asks you the minimum 
amount of free space you need, and you 
answer by entering the number of 
granules. 

It then searches through all the disks 
and displays those that have at least that 
much unallocated space. This feature is 
great when you're trying to find enough 
space for a particular program. 

Another useful command is Produce 



46 " 80 Micro, January 1984 



Shape your TRS-80 to 
communicate \A/ith any computer you y\/ant. 




Omniterm is the most flexible, powerful 
terminal program you can buy. Omniterm lets you 
adapt your TRS-80 to communicate with 99.9% of 
the world's computers. Your company's mainframe, 
for example. Or any other personal computer, time- 
sharing computer, or communications service. 

Omniterm overcomes incompatibilities in 
screen formats, baud rates, character sets, control 
codes and file transfer protocols. Seven complete 
translation tables let you change any character, for 
complete compatibility of all input and output 
devices. Omniterm is so flexible, users have even 
set up their ASCII-coded systems to communicate 
with EBCDIC-coded systems. 

You can send ail ASCII characters, even those 
that aren't on your keyboard. Reformat your screen 
to neatly accommodate any line length. Run your 
printer while you're sending or receiving data. 
And even review data that's scrolled off the top 
of the screen. 

Omniterm 's well-thought-out design makes it 
easy to use. You can get a status display of all func- 
tions while on line to tell you what's going on, and 
make any changes at the same time. You can create 
a special file of your settings to make it easier next 
time. You also get X/Y cursor control, single keystroke 
sign-on and auto-dialing. Even a phone directory. 
And lots more. 



You don't have to be a computer expert to use 
Omniterm. Just spend a day with what the review- 
ers call "the best manual in the business." Then if 
you need help,just call, write, or contact us via 
CompuServe, Delphi, or Source. 

Omniterm is the proven terminal program. The 
program thousands of people have used success- 
fully And the one the editors call the "top program 
available" (Bvte. 80-Micro, Infoworld. etc.) 

Omniterm comes complete with sample setting 
files, conversion utilities, a practical text editor, seven 
translation tables, and a 76-page manual with index. 

Available at leading dealers, or prompt shipment 
on direct phone and mail orders. Order Omniterm, 
for a super-smart TRS-80 that's putty in your hands. 



Only S95 for TRS-80 Models I, III or 4 (32K memory, 
one disk minimum). $175 for Models II, 12 or 16 
|64K memory minimum). (In Mass., add 5% sales 
tax. ) MasterCard, VISA, and C.O.D. 
IBM PC version coming soon. 
DEALER IIMQUIRIES INVITED. 



Telephone; (61 7) 852-0233 
CompuServe: 70310,267 
Source: TCA818 
Delphi: Lindbergh 



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^it^. '^'^o^.N 



f See List of Advertisers on Page 227 



''.>c^> 



80 Micro, January 1984 • 47 



REVIEWS 



Alphabetical List. You can output all 
the file names on the master list in al- 
phabetical order, along with the disk 
name where they reside {see Fig. 3). You 
can specify a sort to include only a spe- 
cific file extension, such as /CMD or 
/BAS. 

As with the other commands, if you 
want a printout of this data, you can di- 
rect the output to the line printer by 
pressing the clear key. The program for- 
mats the data alphabetically by column 
in three columns of 60 rows per page. If 
you have more than 180 cataloged pro- 
grams, the program spaces to the next 
page and continues printing. 

The output on the video display also 
appears consecutively in rows, and the 
arrow keys control screen scrolling. A 
limitation of this command is that it 
can't specify printer options such as 
number of columns or bnes per page. It 
would also be nice to have the date ap- 
pear along vvith the title and page 
number. 



Several commands new to Arranger 
II are Delete Disk, Manual Add, and 
Change Filter. The Delete Disk function 
lets you remove a disk from the master 
list. 

The Manual Add command lets you 
type in the name and files of a disk rath- 
er than having the program read it auto- 
matically. This is useful for protected or 
nonstandard disks, such as self-booting 
games. The program sets the rest of the 
information to a default of protected 
DOS type, 35 tracks, and zero granules. 

The Change Filter command is by far 
the most powerful (see Fig. 4). It lets 
you isolate any part of your disk library 
by setting up conditions based on the 
disk name, DOS type, disk type, or 
number of tracks. 

A wildcard character selects the disk 
name. If you want to limit your searches 
to only those disks with a name begin- 
ning with the letter A and a Z in the 
third character position, you enter 
A?Z????? for the disk name. Mastering 



this command saves you a lot of time. 

Toggle and Backup are two miscella- 
neous commands. Toggle switches 
from a manual disk name entry to auto- 
matic and back again. This is useful 
when you don't want to rename all your 
disks. The manual mode requires that 
you enter the disk name to add or up- 
date the disk. The automatic mode, the 
preferred method, reads the name auto- 
matically from the disk directory. 

The Backup command lets you make 
a back-up of the complete program and 
associated data file. 

Arranger II is a high-quality disk cat- 
aloging program. Triple-D took care to 
ensure compatibility and to maintain 
ease of operation. The program arrived 
promptly and the company is helpful in 
providing support. Also, Arranger II's 
error-trapping is excellent. 

Now that I've used this utility, I don't 
want to be without it. If your library of 
disks is growing, you need Arranger II. 
I heartily recommend it. ■ 



VisiCalc Business Forecasting Model 

Tandy/Radio Shack 

One Tandy Center 

Fort Worth, TX 76102 

$99.95 

• • • Vi 

Vis/Bridge/Sort 

$79 

No rating 

Vis/Bridge/RPT 

Solutions Inc. 

97 CoUege St., Box 989 

MontpeUer, VT 05602 

$79 



Viz.A.Con 

Abacus Associates 

Suite 240, 6565 W. Loop South 

BeUaire, TX 77401 

$89.95 

by G. Michael Vose 

This is a look at some peripheral soft- 
ware, utilities, and enhancements to 

48 * SO Micro, January 1984 



an existing program, VisiCalc, These 
four spreadsheet stretchers provide addi- 
tional power and flexibility, including 
sorting, report formatting, consolida- 
tion of templates, and a business fore- 
casting model series. 

VisiCalc Business Forecasting Model 

The VisiCalc Business Forecasting 
Model (BFM) is a series of seven tem- 
plates for the popular spreadsheet pro- 
gram. These seven templates comprise 
four financial models (with three sup- 
port templates) that permit business 




analysis and forecasting, including the 
projection of profit and loss, calcula- 
tion of financial ratios, and balance 
sheet manipulation. 

To use BFM, you need a Model III 
with 48K and at least one disk drive, 
VisiCalc/TRSDOS 1.3, and a printer. 
The BFM software presumes some un- 
derstanding of both VisiCalc and finan- 
cial modeling. 

BFM is a complex financial analysis 
tool. It is designed primarily for manu- 
facturing, distribution, and retail busi- 
nesses doing from a few hundred thou- 
sand to several million dollars worth of 
business per year. BFM would be of lit- 
tle use in your family pickled-marigold 
preserves business unless pickled- 
marigold preserves really catch on. 

The BFM templates provide an In- 
come Statement to track the perfor- 
mance of a business over a period of 
time, typically one year; a Balance 
Sheet, a fiscal snapshot of a firm on a 
given date; a Statement of Cash Flow 
for predicting the amount and date of 
needed capital; and a Financial Ratios 
statement, a common method for deter- 
mining a company's performance in its 
marketplace. 

To build these four models, you use 
three support templates to calculate your 
businesses sales and costs of goods sold. 



ADD A WORLD OF COLOR TO YOUR 

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CHROMAtrs MAKES IT HAPPEN 



This powerful peripheral offers you 
1 5 brilliant colors, lets you pro- 
duce sensational effects the same 
day you plug it in! Easy-to-use 
"CHROMA BASIC" gives you ^ 
71 CHROMA COMMAINDS to 
use in addition to regular 
BASIC. You can devise / 
your own exciting games, 
plot points and lines, do 
3-D rotations.translations, 
create a large range of 
sprite graphics, produce 
charts and graphs, and 
make great sound effects. 



Now You Can Create 
Spectacular Color Graphics... 
Exciting Sound Effects... 
Paddle & Joy Stick Game Action! 



This is a quality product that 
can multiply the value of your 
TRS-86. Supplies are limited and 
prices subject to change. A word 
to the wise: Order TODAY! 



^ -*.'■ 



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k With: 

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D CHROMA BASIC (Previous owners only) 




S30 


a CHROMAtrs assembled & tested. 


USA (Wilh CHROMA BASrQ 


$199 


D CHROMAtrs assembled & tested. European (except France) 


S230 


D RF modulator wilh switch box 






$25 


D Mod 1 nbbon cable 






$12 


a Mod 3 ribbon cable 






S14 


D Cassette software or 




((ree with CHROMAtrs) 


D Diskette software 




((ree with CHROMAtrs) 










N.Y-S. residents add 8,25% sales tax 








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TOTAL 









Check one:-( ) Check ( ) M.O. ( ) COD ( ) M.C. ( ) Visa 

Account # Exp 

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(Formerly South Shore Computer Concepts) 



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Phone orders accepted (516) 569-4390 



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SELECT 
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$20.00 

Why would SolTrends, offer its 
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its original price? The same 
version featured in the two-part 
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Simple. To acquaint you with the 
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accepted for this special offer. 



REVIEWS 




50 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



salaries, and assets and depreciation. 

The support templates provide data 
for the four models. Some of the data in 
each model is used by the other models 
as well. The sections of a model used by 
another model are called drivers in the 
BFM lexicon . Drivers make use o f 
VisiCalc's DIF (data interchange for- 
mat) capability. 

As you might expect, the BFM mod- 
els can be quite large. BFM instructions 
suggest a minimum of two formatted 
data disks for building your company's 
financial models. 

Because of its complexity, BFM is 
best used after studying the manual 
tutorial. This tutorial takes up 46 of the 
manual's 102 pages. 

The tutorial also uses several sample 
templates included on the master disk. 
Together with the written material, 
these samples provide a walk-through 
of building four financial models for 
the fictional ABC Model company. 

The sample templates contain most 
of the data for analyzing ABC Model's 
performance over a five-year period, 
and the tutorial's pages provide some 
additional data and instructions to 
enter it. 

The seven tutorial lessons describe 
how you build the support templates, 
save these files, then load them into the 
appropriate model(s). The last lesson 
guides you through the complicated, la- 
bor-intensive, iterative calculation of 
interest rates. 

The interest rate calculation requires 
that the program pass information in the 
Income Statement and Balance Sheet 
templates back and forth. This is neces- 
sary because banks use different interest 
rates depending on an assessment of the 
debtor's ability to repay, usually deter- 
mined by the Balance Sheet. 

The BFM models consider Interest 
Expense to be a cost of doing business, 
however, and include it on the Income 
Statement. Correct calculation of this 
expense can require as many as sbi ex- 
changes between the two templates. 

Each exchange involves saving the 
relevant figures in a DIF file, exiting the 
current worksheet, loading the other 
worksheet, then loading the relevant 
DIF file numbers. The program makes 
new calculations and you must repeat 
the process to return to the other 
template. 

Presumably, other ways exist to cal- 
culate interest expense with less work. 
But for the manager without access to 



financial consultants, BFM's capability 
to make these calculations is an asset. 

You can walk through the tutorial in 
one and a half to two hours. At its con- 
clusion, most managers will have a 
good grasp of BFM's inner workings. 

BFM's two principal strengths are its 
manual and its parent — VisiCalc. 

Professionally prepared by VisiCorp 
for resale by Radio Shack, BFM bene- 
fits from being an application of Visi- 
Calc. You can easily master VisiCalc in 
a few hours, unlike programming 
languages that can take years to master 
for complex applications. 

Once you learn its command struc- 
ture, you can concentrate on the impor- 
tant matters — your data. Most man- 
agers are familiar with important data 
about their firm or department. 

A VisiCalc application benefits too 
from the relatively simple modifications 
that you can make to a template. Modi- 
f>Tng a Basic or Pascal program can be 
a nightmare, but a spreadsheet is easy to 
change to suit your own particular 
need. 

To make BFM easy to modify, as 
well as use, requires a good manual. 
The BFM manual has three sections. 
Section one is a 16-page outline describ- 
ing what BFM does, its component 
parts, and what you need to operate it. 

Section two is an excellent tutorial 
divided into seven lessons, none of 
which is too long. Section three is for 
reference, explaining the formulas used 
and their rationale. 

The writing is cordial, professional, 
and jargon-free with short paragraphs 
and lots of individual headings. This 
makes possible the most comprehensive 
index I've seen in an instruction man- 
ual: six pages and over 500 cross-refer- 
enced entries. 

BFM has a few weaknesses. It is com- 
plex, you can't print most of the models 
all at once, even in 132-column format, 
and none of the models are directly suit- 
able for a specific business (not a weak- 
ness, but merely an inconvenience since 
modifications are easy). 

These disadvantages are minor in the 
software business. The three-star rating 
is only because I believe BFM has 
limited appeal, mostly confined to man- 
agers and accountants of substantial 
businesses. 



Vis/Bridge/Sort 

Vis/Bridge/Sort is a VisiCalc utility 



REVIEWS 



that sorts portions of a spreadsheet. It 
sorts numeric or alphabetic data using 
as many as five sort keys, and sorts rows 
or columns. 

To use Vis/Bridge/Sort, you need a 
Model I, II, III, 12, or 16, 48K RAM, a 
disk drive, and VisiCalc. 

The program works with special 
identifiers surrounding the data you 
want to sort. You insert these identifiers 
by opening up the borders of your 
spreadsheet using VisiCalc's /IR and 
/IC commands. Vis/Bridge/Sort uses 
negative numbers to specify a descend- 
ing sort and positive numbers for an as- 
cending sort. 

Once the identifiers are in place, you 
save the worksheet as a DIF file. With 
this file in place, you exit VisiCalc and 
load Vis/Bridge/Sort: You answer a 
few prompts to tell the program which 
file to sort, whether you want a row or 
column sort, and the beginning row/ 
column values. 

The utility then takes over, sorting 
your file and reloading VisiCalc. You 
now load your old file and a file that 
invokes VisiCalc's Move command, 
which rearranges your original spread- 
sheet in sorted order. 

You learn to use Vis/Bridge/Sort by 
following a manual tutorial that uses 
a sample data file included on the pro- 
gram disk. The tutorial takes about 20 
minutes. In an hour's time, you can sort 
your own spreadsheets without diffi- 
culty. 

You get a no-frills, 17-page manual 
that is accurate and simply written. The 
program is so straightforward in opera- 
tion that you need little outside support. 
(The rest of the microcomputer soft- 
ware world could benefit from looking 
at VisiCalc manuals generally.) 

All is not roses with Vis/Bridge/Sort, 
however. Its major problem is its price, 
$79. This is almost a third the cost of 
VisiCalc itself and might be too high for 
all but the most sort-happy spreadsheet 
jockeys. 

Now that VisiCorp, and presumably 
Radio Shack in time, offers VisiCalc IV 
with built-in sort capability, maybe So- 
lutions Inc. will lower the price on the 
product. A $29.95-$39.95 range would 
be much easier to take. 

Another quibble I have with this utili- 
ty is the need to clean up your files after 
sorting. You must go back to your un- 
sorted file and take out the identifiers if 
you want to print or reuse the original 
data. While I understand that this diffi- 

^ See List ol Advertisers on Page 227 



culty probably doesn't have a solution, 
I couldn't help disliking this corruption 
of my original files. 

Nevertheless, if sorting spreadsheets 
is a function you need in your work, 
Vis/Bridge/Sort is a valuable addition 
to your VisiCalc utility library. 

Vis/Bridge/RPT 

The company that offers Vis/Bridge/ 
Sort offers another VisiCalc utility that 
provides (within printed reports) 
variable column widths, decimal point 
aligmnent, and segmentation of spread- 
sheets too large to print on a single sheet 
of paper — with the option of adding 
report titles, page numbers, and the 
date. 

The Vis/Bridge/RPT utility also of- 
fers a function to create print image 
(ASCII) files on disk for use outside 
VisiCalc (telecommunications transmis- 
sion, inclusion in word-processing re- 
ports, and so on). 

Vis/Bridge/RPT is even easier to use 
than its cousin. You only need to insert 
a single column of identifiers at the top 
of your spreadsheet to tell the utility 
how to format your reports. These iden- 
dfiers specify column width, column 
justification (left, right, center), digits 
after the decimal point, and omit or in- 
clude column. 

Once the identifiers are in place, you 
save the spreadsheet as a DIF file, exit 
VisiCalc, and load Vis/Bridge/RPT. 
You then answer nine prompts to print 
your formatted report. 

You can specify a title that optionally 
prints at the head of each page, carry 
column and row labels from page to 
page when printing spreadsheets that 
don't fit onto single pages, and add 
page numbers and the date to each 
page — all by simply answering a few 
prompts. 

Like Solutions Inc.'s other package, 
the manual is brief but complete. I did 
not rate this program because I could 
not fully test all its features. But like 
Vis/Bridge/Sort, it's a well conceived 
and executed progjam; only its price 
might be called into question. 

Viz.A.Con 

Viz.A.Con is a VisiCalc worksheet 
consolidation utility. It consolidates 
data from different worksheets, for ex- 
ample, to merge sales figures from Can- 
ada and the U.S. into a North American 
data file. The utility also provides report 
formatting with customized titles, row 



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80 Micro, January 1984 • 51 



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When ordering by mail, include your telephone num- 
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KEWSCRIPT IS a TM of Prosolt 



REVIEWS 



and column headings, and footnotes. 

The program requires a Model lU, 
48K RAM, a disk drive, and TRSDOS 
1.3/VisiCalc. 

Viz. A. Con makes extensive use of 
the VisiCalc DIF capability. It is a disk 
intensive program— two disk drives are 
a practical necessity. 

This is an extremely complex system. 
You must enter a minimum of 21 re- 
sponses once you enter Viz. A. Con to 
prepare a new consolidation process. 
You do this after you create the separate 
spreadsheets that will be combined and 
save them in DiF format. 



Unfortunately, the problems with 
this program are so numerous and ap- 
parent that it is difficult to imagine its 
use in a serious application. 

The flaws I discovered immediately 
included that files to be consolidated 
have to be the same size (if they are not, 
you have to modify them). Viz. A. Con 
also prints reports with integer format 
for numeric data. Printing the data 
from VisiCalc overcomes this deficiency 
but adds more steps. 

You have to keep notes on a form 
provided in the manual to keep track of 
what you're doing. The manual pro- 



vides no tutorial and no sample data 
files to experiment with, and the man- 
ual, while extensive, does not explain 
how to use the program (possibly be- 
cause no explanation exists). 

Viz. A. Con is a classic example of a 
program that only its author could use. 
It's a nice try, but it incorporates all the 
inadequacies that VisiCalc is designed 
to avoid: rigid, over-repeated prompts; 
a preoccupation with the mechanics of 
its operation (you don't see your data 
for long periods and that makes me ner- 
vous); and a lack of flexibility. ■ 



• •••• 

Model 4 Technical Reference Manual 

Tandy/Radio Shack 

One Tandy Center 

Fort Worth, TX 76102 

Hardcover, 389 pp. 

$24,95 

by Mark D. Goodwin 

Radio Shack has recognized the need 
to provide Assembly-language pro- 
gramming information by producing an 
excellent Model 4 Technical Reference 
Manual. This is also a complete refer- 
ence manual for anyone who wishes to 
repair or modify his computer. 

The Model 4 Technical Reference 
Manual comprises two major parts. 
Part one provides complete details on 
the Model 4's hardware, beginning with 
a brief but thorough description of the 
general hardware configuration. 

This introductory section provides in- 
structions for upgrading to 128K of 
RAM and for installing the Model 4 
graphics board option. Next, the man- 
ual presents disassembly and assembly 
instructions covering the case, CPU 
board, FDC board, RS-232 board, 
main power supplies, disk drives, video 
monitor, and video board. 

The remainder of the hardware sec- 
tion provides other information about 
the CPU board, the disk interface and 
drives, the power supplies, the video 
monitor, and the RS-232 board. This 
includes explanations of each board's 
major functions, schematics, compo- 
nent layouts, circuit traces, and parts 
lists. 

The second part of the manual is a 
wealth of information for the Assem- 
bly-language programmer. It begins 



with explanations of disk organization 
and files, device control blocks, the 
drive code table, the disk input/output 
(I/O) table, directory records, the 
granule allocation table, the hash index 
table, and file control blocks. 



"The sample programs 

demonstrate how you 

can use the SVCs in 

your own programs. '* 



The manual then presents program- 
ming guidelines covering the restart 
(RST) vectors; checking the break, 
pause, and enter keys' status; and inter- 
facing the task processor. Bank selec- 
tion for 128K machines, and device 
drivers and filters are other topics of in- 
terest. 

The rest of the software section ex- 
plains supervisor calls (SVCs), presents 
sample programs, and documents a few 
advanced TRSDOS commands. The 
SVCs are TRSDOS routines that you 
can easily implement in Assembly-lan- 
guage programs. The routines cover 
keyboard input, printer and video I/O, 
disk I/O, and a host of other useful 
functions. 

The sample programs demonstrate 
how you can use the SVCs in your own 
programs. They are quite good and 
contain sufficient comments to make 
them clear. 

The manual also features an excellent 
table of contents and a complete index. 
This manual is definitely worth $24.95. 
Its information is essential for the 
Model 4 hardware enthusiast or Assem- 
bly-language programmer. ■ 



• •••• 

DWP-210 Printer 
Tandy /Radio Shack 
One Tandy Center 
Fort Worth, TX 76102 

$799 

by Charies Gulick 

Radio Shack's DWP-210 is a superb 
and, at $799, competitively priced 
printer. It has all the quality for which 
the Daisy Wheel is famous, and the 
same mterchangeable print wheels, but 
with 100 characters (see Fig. 1) instead 
of the 124 characters on the DWP-410 
and Daisy Wheel II printers. 

The DWP-210's 13-inch platen is 2 
inches shorter than on its larger coun- 
terparts. Its speed is a respectable 200 
words per minute. You have the choice 
of high-quality, multistrike carbon or 
nylon fabric ribbon cartridges, and you 
get original and two-carbon capability. 

The unit itself has substantial, im- 
pressive construction. Its handsome, 
user-considerate design includes Tandy's 
new fawn gray case color. 

Unless you work with foreign lan- 
guages, you probably won't miss the 24 
characters left off the 210's wheels. And 
you'll be pleased at some of the charac- 
ters included, such as the copyright, 
trademark, and registered symbols. 

So what's new? For one thing, the 
price is dramatically low for a printer of 
this quality. Judging by its weight (38 
pounds, heavier than either the 
DWP-410 or DW II), this printer is built 
for serious, long-run performance. 

Great news for Color Computer 
users is that the DWP-210 gives you a 
choice of serial or parallel interfaces, 
DIP (dual in-line package) switch select- 

80 Micro, January 1984 • 53 



REVIEWS 



!"#$%&' ()*+,-./0123456789: ; < = >?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQR 
STUVWXYZ[\]"_^abcdefghi jklmnopqrstuvwxyz{ I }-° '"■©©<; 

Figure I. DWP-2W type font with Courier 10 print wheel. 


able. Now the CoCo has a letter-quality 
printer. 

This is the first Radio Shack Daisy 
Wheel printer to offer both interfaces, 
though several of the current dot- 
matrix printers do. The double feature 
is certainly a boon to desk logistics for 
anyone with more than one computer. 

Besides the CoCo, the 210 interfaces 


Changing the character wheels 
couldn't be easier — pull back a lever, 
slip out the resident wheel, and drop in a 
new one. You do have to remove the 
ribbon cartridge first. 

A Courier 10 wheel comes with the 
printer, and a variety of other fonts will 


into the streamlined design. 

The DWP has automatic impact con- 
trol, said to prolong print wheel life, 
and a bidirectional logic seeking feature 
that you should enable (DIP switch 6) 
for maximum printing speed. 

One minor flaw: The rear edge of the 
cover, against which you tear off the 
printed copy, is not well supported so it 


with Tandy Models I, li, III, 4, 12, 16, 
and the new 100 portable. It offers a 
switch-selectable baud rate of 600 or 
1,200 bits per second. 

You can access all function switches, 
including the DIP set, from the printer's 
front/top. The DIP switch is neatly 
concealed under a sliding cover. 

An operating panel at front left 
groups together the on line/off line and 
pitch select switches, and the power on 
and alert lights. The printer has a rib- 
bon end photoelectric sensor plus paper- 
empty and cover-open detect switches. 

The ribbon cartridge loads simply 
and takes just seconds. (By the way, the 
cartridge provided with my unit was in a 
Diablo package, which might. tell you 
something.) 






*'The ribbon cartridge 

loads simply and takes 

just seconds. " 


takes a little care to assure an even edge. 
The best way I've found is to position 
the fingers of one hand lightly on the 
Plexiglas as you tear, vrithout applying 
any downward pressure. 

You can remedy the only other fault I 
find with the optional bidirectional trac- 
tor feed (26-1443). I'm using fanfold 
bond paper, and it tends to shift to the 
right when printing multiple pages. This 
is a minor inconvenience that 1 can 
overcome with a little manual attention. 

All in all, the DWP-210 is a very well 
built and cost efficient Daisy Wheel 
printer, with all the most desirable 
features you could expect at its price. It 
should be able to hold its own against 
the competition and serve the serious 
user handsomely for a long time. ■ 


be available. The operating manual 
mentions special wheels, but doesn't 
describe what they will accomplish. At 
any rate, a DIP high/low impact switch 
suggests that something cute is coming. 
Print density and type uniformity are 
excellent, and by Daisy Wheel stan- 
dards the machine is quiet — around 65 
decibels. A *'silence cover" is integrated 



• •••• 

Soul of CP/M 

Mitchell Waite and Robert Lafore 

Howard W. Sams & Co. Inc. 

4300 West 62nd St. 

Indianapolis, IN 46268 

Softcover, 39t pp. 

$18.95 

by Alan Neibauer 

Qfoul of CP/M can have anybody writ- 
kj ing and understanding Assembly- 
language programs within one hour. For 
those of you who find low-level lan- 
guages frustrating and difficult to under- 
stand, this new CP/M manual is re- 
markable. 

Soul of CP/M doesn't explain CP/M 
functions like DIR, STAT, and PIP; it's 
intended for persons already familiar 
with the popular operating system. 

To get the most from the book, you'll 

54 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



need a CP/M disk with DDT, Load, and 
ASM. Model I users with recompiled 
versions of CP/M will have little trouble 
applying the logic and sample programs 
to their system. 

But because Assembly language is 
taught using built-in CP/M system calls, 
it's difficult to transfer the techniques 
presented here to some non-CP/M 
systems. 

Oi^anization 

Waite and Lafore make learning 
Assembly language easy because they use 
CP/M BDOS (Basic disk operating sys- 
tem) system calls that automatically han- 
dle most input and output routines. The 
calls provide a sort of library of subrou- 
tines that saves the novice from manually 
writing these functions into a program. 
You only have to learn basic calling se- 
quences for each routine to perform 
complex input/output (I/O) tasks. 

By linking the calls with the DDT 



debugging program, you almost have 
an immediate mode like Basic's with 
which you can experiment. You can 
write a short Assembly-language pro- 
gram, save it, and run it without the 
long compilation process. If you make 
mistakes, you can reload DDT and the 
program and check for errors. 

The opening chapters introduce 
CP/M and explain the use of several 
basic system calls as well as a few 
Assembly-language instructions. By the 
end of the second chapter, however, 
you understand the mvi, call, rst, jmp, 
ora, jz, jnz, pop, push, inr, cpi, and ret 
instructions. The book covers the Con- 
sole Output, Get Console Status, and 
Console Input calls. 

To make this progress, the authors 
explain the use of DDT, CP/M's de- 
bugging monitor. They guide you 
through calling up DDT and placing it 
in the assemble mode. As you type in- 
strucrions, the monitor automatically 
assembles them. 



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In SUPREME RULER you must protect youreconomy (orelse 
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Supports up to 9 countries (4 with 16K), either human or com- 
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1 Model 




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^ See List of Advertisers on Page 227 



80 Micro, January 1984 • 55 



Due to the proliferation of SOFT- 
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REVIEWS 



(prepare for system call) 

(place ASCII for 8 in E) 

(call console output to prinl character in register E) 

(prepare for system call) 

(place ASCII for zero in E) 

(call console output to print character in register E) 

(loop back to 100) 

Program Listing 1. Assembled program to fill the screen with 80. 



0100 


mvi 


c,02 


0102 


mvi 


e,38 


0104 


call 


5 


0107 


mvi 


c,02 


0109 


mvi 


e,30 


OlOB 


call 


5 


OlOE 


jmp 


100 



For example, to output a character to 
the screen, place the value 2 in the C 
register and the ASCII value of the 
character in E. The call is made to ad- 
dress 5, the console output system call 
location. 

Writing an Assembly-language pro- 
gram to constantly fill the screen with 80 
requires calling the routine twice. First, 
invoke DDT from the system prompt; 
A> DDT. 

The program is written and assembled 
starting at location 0100, so enter the 
command alOO. Now as you enter As- 
sembly-language instructions, DDT as- 
sembles them. The final program ap- 
pears as Program Listing 1 . 

Once you write the program, enter a 
blank line for the next instruction to exit 
the Assembly mode. The command gO 
returns to the system prompt. Save the 
short program, stiU in memory, to disk 
with: 

A > save 1 show80.com 

You can load and execute the sample 
program, now saved on disk under the 
file "show80.com", directly from the 
system with A > showSO. 

By using the system call, you don't 
have to write the actual output (display) 
routine itself. In fact, you can write sim- 
ple programs for input just as easily us- 
ing the Get Console Status routine. 

Use of these BOOS functions frees 
you from much of the mechanics of As- 
sembly language and lets you concen- 
trate on the logic and syntax. 

For Model I users with recompiled 
CP/M, all the locations and calls ex- 
plained in Soul of CP/M would jump 
to the wrong locations. However, since 
the Model I system was "moved" up 
4200 hexadecimal (hex), adding 4200 to 
every locarion and call solves the prob- 
lem. The short program in Listing 1 
works on the Model I in the form shown 
in Program Listing 2. 

As you learn the system calls, add 
4200 hex to the entry points. The 



a4300 






4300 


mvi 


c,02 


4302 


mvi 


e,38 


4304 


call 


4205 


4307 


mvi 


C.02 


4309 


mvi 


e.30 


430B 


call 


4205 


430E 


jtnp 


4300 



Program Listing 2. Listing 1 for the Model L 



sample programs in the text work just 
as if they were calling the traditional 
CP/M locations. 

Chapter 3 looks into more advanced 
nondisk system calls and has you write 
programs inputting data and outputting 
to both the screen and printer. 

Chapter 4 introduces the ASM (as- 
sembler). By this time, you're quite 
comfortable with Assembly language 
and BDOS routines, so the move to as- 
sembling is painless. Assembly syntax 
and the ORG directive bridge the gap 
between using DDT and fully assem- 
bling programs. 

Chapters 5 and 6 detail system calls 
for opening and writing to disk files, 
both sequential and random. Because 
of the powers of DDT, learning how 
CP/M handles disk routines is relatively 
easy. 

Chapter 7 discusses the file and direc- 
tory structure, explaining how to re- 
trieve erased files and use wildcards. 
Stack management and the system bit 
map are discussed and illustrated in 
programs. 

For those having vrithdrawal pains 
from Basic, the eighth chapter deals 
with merging Basic and Assembly-lan- 
guage programs. The authors cover the 
subjects of locating Assembly-language 
programs, passing parameters between 
Basic and Assembly language, and 
automatically POKEing hex files for 
use by Basic programs. 

For the truly adventurous, the final 



56 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



FLURP- 



Mainframe Accuracy with a IMicro 

If you need a multilinear regresssion package with the accuracy of a 
number-cruncher, you need FLURP (Flynn Laboratory's Ultimate 
Regression Package). FLURP has easy data input, disk file archiving, 
and outputs a complete set of statistics. These include;mulitcollinear- 
ity diagnostics, hypothesis testing, an analysis and plot of the 
residuals, and more. FLURP is available for 8" CP/M (requires 
IvlBASIC). TRS-80 I and III, and soon for the IBfvl PC. 

D My $99,95 is enclosed rush me FLURP (add $5.00 for foreign 
shipping) 

□ Enclosed is $29.95 for the manual {credit to the purchase of 
FLURP) 

□ Bill company (include purchase order) 

D Charge my Q Visa Q l\4asterCard 



Card Number , 

Name 

Address 

City 



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Signature (credit card orders) 

IVIail to- LEDS Publishing Co.. Inc., PO Box 12847, Research Triangle 

Park, NC 27709 (919) 477-3690, 

^155 
Traoemarks I9M.I6M Core f^LURP-LEDS Pubi'Siung Co CP/M.Oigiiai Rese.ircn 
TRS-eO.Tangy MBASlC-Microsoll 



€0]^^vEirr MOD m 

BASIC I^O MOD 4 

Good Newsl The Model 4 is twice as fast as the Model III. 

Bad Newsl Model 111 disk BASIC programs only run at 

half speed on the Model 4. 

Best Newsl "CONV3T04" will automate many of the 

changes required toconveft Model III BASIC 
programs to Model 4 BASIC, Your Model III 
BASIC programs will run twice as fast as they 
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In minutes this powerful ulilily can insert all required spaces, recalculate 
PRINT® addresses, adjust TAB ( ) addresses, insert correct exponentiation 
symbols, and flag and list unresolved line numbers, 

Ottier options enable your programs to run even faster ■ remove REM's, 
comments, down arrows, and unnecessary spaces. 

Or, format your programs and make ttiem easier to read and debug - insert 
down arrows and indent between multiple Instructions, IF. THEN, and ELSE 
statements. 



I aqtSB. Il's fool'«h 10 'on my Modoi ill disli BftSIC oroo'nms ai nail snc*-i on ii\e Model 4. Spnd "lo 
"CONV3r04"lo(lav>Enclas<KiiBinyciieck/nio"E)/c<()e'lD(S<)d95pius S2OO'n'si>iDI>n{|/Mn0ii'>g 
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NAME- 



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EDUCATIONAL MICRO SYSTEMS, INC. 

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201-879-5982 



-85 



AZTEC C80 

A powerful, professional, and portable 
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A2tec C80 for the TRS 80 Includes: 

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with UNIX I/O 

Aztec C80 is fully compatible with Aztec C 
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Aztec C is currently in use in thousands of 
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Micro C80, a newly released student ver- 
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Aztec C80, Model 4 $199 

Aztec C80 Model III $199 

Aztec CSC/Pro (III and 4) . $349 
Aztec C II for CP/M 

all TRS 80 Models $199 

Aztec Cll/Pro for Model II 

CP/M $349 

Aztec C80 or C It Upgrade 

to/Pro $150 

CP/M-BO to TRS 80 Cross $750 
PC DOS or CP/M-86 to 

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UNIX(8086,68K)to 

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Micro C80 with K&R or 

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Order by Phone or Mail 

Dealer Inquiries Invited 

Prices Subject to Change 

Call Before Ordering to 

Check Availability 



f See Ust of Advenisers on Page 227 



80 Micro, January 1984 • 57 



REVIEWS 



chapter deals with modifying the CP/M 
Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) it- 
self for special primer configurations or 
other tasks. Performing major surgery 
deep in the heart (or soul) of CP/M is 
remarkably easy. 

The book ends with several useful ap- 
pendices detailing hexadecimal notation, 
8080 instructions, CP/M system calls, 
and a summary of DDT commands. 

Sou! of CP/M does have some limi- 
tations. It isn't a general Assembly lan- 



aguage text. Because of its focus on 
CP/M system calls, you can't automa- 
tically run sample programs on a stan- 
dard Radio Shack computer even if the 
8080 and Z80 instruaions are compatible. 

Since MS-DOS (for 16-bit systems) 
uses similar system calls, however, the 
basic theory works if you make changes 
in the instructions themselves. 

If you're using CP/M and wish to 
learn about its heart and soul, this book 
is for you. ■ 



• • • • 1/2 

VEDIT l.lSe 
Compuview Products Inc. 
1955 Pauline Blvd. #200 
Ann Arbor, MI 48103 

Model U, CP/M 
$150 

by Charles R. Perelman 

VEDIT is a full-screen text and pro- 
gram editor that offers you com- 
plete keyboard customization and lets 
you tailor other editing operations to 
your liking. It's easy to operate, of good 
quality, and flexible. VEDIT offers 
many word processing features and 
responds to your commands quickly. 

Produced in various formats for 
CP/M, CP/M 86, and MS-DOS, 
VEDIT for the Model II has two ready 
to run versions, one for Pickles & Trout 
CP/M and the other for all other Model 
II CP/Ms. 

You can develop your own custom- 
ized editor with a menu-driven program 
covering keyboard layout, use of special 
characters, a wide range of formatting 
and operational controls, screen param- 
eters, buffer size, and sign-on message. 

The beauty of setting up your own 
keyboard is that you can duplicate com- 
mands you've learned for word process- 
ing or with another editor for controlling 
cursor movement and other functions. 

You can implement alternate keys for 
a conmiand. For example, on the Model 
II you can use the arrow keys and the 
control key with your favorite letters or 
numbers for four-way cursor movement. 

As soon as you install the familiar 
controls, you can use the visual mode of 
the editor without constant reference to 
the manual. Learning time to use 

58 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



VEDIT with reasonable speed is 
minimal. 

If you consistently need a particular 
format or want to implement specific 
cursor, tab, indent, and similar param- 
eters through use of extended com- 
mands, place this information in a spe- 
cial file with INI as an extension. 
VEDIT calls them automatically on 
start-up. 

In addition to a wide variety of com- 
mands for full cursor movement about 
the screen, to beginning or end of words 
or paragraphs, for next page or prior 
page, and to the beginning and end of 
the text buffer, visual mode includes 
most basic word processing functions. 
You can delete characters, the next 
word, a prior word, the end of a line, or 
an entire line. 

You can also insert, automatically in- 
dent, set the right margin, word wrap, 
format paragraphs, and set text mark- 
ers. The Undo key is a neat facility that 
restores a line altered by insertion or 
deletion (except where you deleted the 
entire Une) prior to additional cursor 
movement. 

You can use 10 text registers for cut 
and paste operations and VEDIT prints 
any part of a file. These impressive 
features give VEDIT a great deal of 
flexibility. You can painlessly extract 
from other files or programs for inser- 
tion into your current project. 

You essentially get screen display on 
the printer, although you can embed 
control codes or nonprinting lines for a 
formatting program. 

VEDIT's documentation is a plea- 
sure. A four-page supplement for 
Model II owners describes the specific 
installation files, critical customization 
information, and sample customiza- 
tions for keyboard and other param- 
eters that coincide with the furnished, 



ready to run command files. 

The balance of the 8/2- by 11-inch 
manual is approximately 1 50 pages 
long, generalized for all versions of the 
software. Therefore, this includes func- 
tions not available for the Model II. 

It' s well organized , nicely spaced , 
easy to read, and written in reasonably 
concise, plain English. I was disap- 
pointed by the number of typographical 
errors that are cosmetic distractions. 
The table of contents is adequate and 
the helpful index contains references to 
all commands in visual and command 
modes. 

Appendix A's details for customiza- 
tion are useful and informative, and 
follow the sequence of menus you en- 
counter in setting up your personalized 
editor. 

Other appendices contain a help list 
with explanations of all editing com- 
mands, an expanded description of 
error messages to help you interpret 
cryptic messages or recover from error 
conditions, and a reference to two 
limitations (bugs) in VEDIT. 

To handle lines exceeding 258 char- 
acters, you need a customized version 
of VEDIT that you can obtain from 
Compuview. This shouldn't be a prob- 
lem under normal circumstances. 

The second bug occurs if you try to 
read a file originated with a word pro- 
cessor, such as WordStar, that sets bit 7 
of some characters. You're likely to see 
a messy display of inverse video and 
strange characters, and you won't be 
able to process the file properly with 
VEDIT. 

Conversely, formatted files produced 
with VEDIT end lines with hard carriage 
returns like the nondocument WordStar 
mode and might require considerable 
editing for satisfactory printout with a 
WordStar type word processor. 

Manual contents are arranged in a 
friendly and efficient manner. An initial 
brief overview introduces beginning 
word processing and visual and com- 
mand modes. 

A tutorial with graphics aids gives se- 
quential steps for use of each visual 
mode function key and some of the 
command mode functions you're most 
likely to use while editing. A quick 
reference to the appropriate page of this 
section tells you what you need to know 
to use each feature. 

The next chapter offers more descrip- 
tive information for the visual mode. A 



TRS-80 MODEL 4 

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□ Same pov^^erful editing features as ZORLOF II, with dozens more 

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a Versions also available to run on MODEL I, MODEL III, LNW-80, 

PMC-80, and MAX-80 (80x24 display). 

LeScript costs ^200 less than 

competing products matching its capabilities. 



CALL 1-305-259-9397 AM1TE]\ 

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A maintenance tool for "CMD" 
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Z-80 assembler/editor supporting 
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Transfer files directly to DOS 
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PRO-CURE supports Omikron, IBM, 
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Disassemble directly from disk 

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source output generates 100% 

labels and handles data. $40 




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A 4-function utility package 
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D0C0NFI6; MEMOIR; PARMDIR; and 
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An on-line quick reference card 
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custom HELP files, too. $25 





This Is the LC C-language 

compiler now compatible with DOS 
6.0. LC includes the PRO-CREATE 
macro-assembler package. $X50 



A utility to build and maintain 
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Collect many small files into 
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A block-graphics screen editor 
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MISOSYS 

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LDOS Is a trademark of Logical Systems, Inc. 
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The Next Generation: 



SUPERLOG 

ADVANCED ELECTRONIC NOTEBOOK 
BYKSoft 

Over trie past two yea/s. LOG Electronic Notebook has quisHy been creating a revokjiion in 
persona] intormation management. DssJQned to emulate a tamilia/ pencil and notebook. LOG 
Electronic Notebook ca;i do lor random Inlormation what a spreadsheel program does for 
numbera. 

Now. even the best has been improved! KSoft la pleased lo announce SUPERLOG. the next 
genaration o( tfie LOG family. SUPERLOG is no! a patch! II is a totally rewritten version of the 
original LOG concept, fuNy compatible virith the LDOS 5.1.3 operating system cun'ently 
endorsed by Tandy. 

SUPERLOG retains all of the versatile features of LOG while adding many new options 
requested by professional users: Ftoppy or Hard disk. Any number of LOG files per diskette. 
1 to 32767 pages per file. Password protection and en-or checking. New text editing com- 
mands include automatic text Wrap-Around, Expand and Delete lor entire lines, a Page Copy 
command, and an Undo key to reverse editing changes. Cursor motion is more flexible with 
new Key commands plus a Forms simulator. The SEARCH function is greatly enhanced with a 
WHd-Cafd cf^aracter. case -independent search, and multiple word search at 10 pages/sec- 
ond. 

ALSO Note: SUPERLOG is now fully inlerrupt activated: it msy be accessed from practically 
any foreground task including LOOS Utilities. LBASIC, LSCRIPT. EDAS. etc. with non- 
destructive return to the foreground program. No ottier inlormation management program is 
ttiis versatile I 

Wnie or celt Today! We'll be glad lo lel you about SUPERLOG and what it can do lor you! 



SUPERLOG Specify Model 1 or III. 

LDOS 5. 1 .3, 4aK, and 2 Drives required. 

(Model IV version to be offered soon.) 

LOG TRSDOS verskins, Models I. Ill still available. 

KSoft (601)992-2239 



$119.95 



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Mastercard and Visa accepted. 

Add $5.00 for shipping and handling. 



(TRSDOS is a trademartt of Tandy CoTJOration) 
(LDOS IS a trademartt of Logical Systems Inc.) 



■331 



60 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



REVIEWS 



fairly involved discussion of command 
mode usage precedes an expanded ver- 
sion of the reference list of commands 
in Appendix B. This section concludes 
with reference manual type descrip- 
tions, examples (some of which are 
complex), and comments for each edi- 
tor command. 

The manual is easy to use and quite 
complete in its coverage. A cardboard 
Help sheet with editor commands on one 
side and spaces for keyboard controls on 
the other, or a Help screen with this in- 
formation, would be welcome additions. 

Using VEDU 

If you've used the CP/M editor ED, 
you'll feel comfortable with the VEDIT 
command mode. Most of the same 
commands perform simple functions, 
and they generally operate identically. 
VEDIT goes beyond ED with numerous 
improvements and an entire series of ex- 
tended two-letter commands that begin 
with E and two-letter register com- 
mands that begin with R. 

Since it's easier to perform common 
editing functions in the visual mode 
with control keys, you use editing com- 
mands primarily with execution of 
macros, search and replace functions (a 
full repertoire including wildcard char- 
acters), and beginning and ending edits. 

You use extended commands for 
program parameters that you set once 
and then forget at the beginning of each 
new session. Register commands let you 
accomplish all kinds of multiple file in- 
serts and concatenations. 

Perhaps the most outstanding im- 
provement to ED is the powerful 
command macro function. You create 
complex combination commands to 
perform sophisticated search and re- 
place, to set up formats for a file auto- 
matically, and to edit multiple files. 

For repetitive edit functions or for- 
mats, you save a great deal of time by 
wrifing and saving a library of macros 
on disk that you implement for future 
edit sessions by calling the file name. 

Manipulation of 10 text buffers gives 
VEDIT substantial clout. You can take 
data from several files and store it in the 
registers to append to or insert into the 
current program. 

Put previously defined macro files in- 
to registers or store macros defined for 
the present edit in text registers for later 
use. Calling the register executes the 
macro. Any buffer is immediately avail- 
able for readout to the screen or printer 

^ See Ust of Advertisers on Page 227 



whether it contains text or a macro. 

Screen action with VEDIT is notice- 
ably more rapid than with WordStar and 
similar programs. VEDIT automatically 
buffers large files to and from disk. The 
automatic indent feature and insertion 
capabilities are useful in pulling 



"Screen action with 

VEDIT is noticeably more 

rapid than with WordStar 

and similar programs. " 



previously written routines into a new 
program and maintaining a structured 
outline or indented program format. 

When you use the paragraph format 
function on the last paragraph of the 
current text, VEDIT has a nasty habit 
of scrolling all the text off the screen. 
You are left with a cursor descended 
several lines into a blank screen. 

For further editing, you must use a 
command to recall the prior page or 
paragraph, neither of which returns the 
cursor to the end of the file or the spot 
from which you started formatting. A 
similar fate awaits when your ZEND 
function key flips you to the end of the 
file. 

Unfortunately, the repeat key func- 
tion that permits repetition of given 
procedures a specific number of times 
from the visual mode doesn't work with 



the Model II. You can use the repeat 
key on the Model II with keyboard 

commands if you have sufficient digital 
dexterity to reach all the necessary keys 
concurrently. 

Disk Full error messages can make a 
user weep, particularly since they 
always occur after two hours of im- 
possible editing and with an impending 
deadline. VEDIT treats these problems 
like a champ, letting you close part of 
the file on your current disk and insert 
another disk for saving the balance. All 
screen editors and word processors 
should have this capability. 

If you save your revised file with the 
original file name, VEDIT designates 
the old file a .BAK file. Disk directories 
are accessible without leaving VEDIT, 
which facilitates working with other 
files on the same disk. With all these 
abilities, the VEDIT com file is packed 
into only 14K. 

Compuview offers an interesting 
technical support option that they claim 
is elected by nearly 40 percent of 
VEDIT purchasers. For $50, you re- 
ceive two new releases of VEDIT 
approximately six months apart as they 
continue to upgrade the software. 

If you like to patch together pro- 
grams and text from data in several 
other files, and want to minimize the 
time required to become acquainted 
with a new tool's commands, get 
VEDIT and customize the visual mode 
controls to the sequence you already 
know or the one you've always wanted 
to use.H 





FOR USE WITH MOST MICRO COMPUTERS 



PLE iiT«ni com 



DOnE TEXAS IHSTRUMEHTI 



["] PAYMENT ENCLOSPD $ " Add 

$1 00 per order for postage and handling Oul 
side USA add $2 50 per unit ordered, send II,S 

(unds only 'J Visa {~\ MasterCard 

^ P.O. BOX 7008 

P^rMril\J BOSEVILLE. Ml 48305 

' P0OO«<Ts 1-8O0-732-0614 

^127 
Michigan Residents Add 4% 



80 Micro, January 1984 • 61 



REVIEWS 



• '/2 

Lynn Video Instruction Series: 
Using TRSDOS 6.0 
Written by Michael Sokolewicz 
Produced by Ron Lynn 
Lynn Computer Service 
6831 West 157th St. 
Tiniey Parti, IL 60477 
S39.95 (VHS or Beta format) 

by Jim Heid 

Tping TRSDOS 6.0 is a perfect ex- 
Cy ample of how not to produce a vid- 
eotape instruction course. This two- 
hour tutorial on the disk operating 
system for the TRS-80 Model 4 is poor- 
ly recorded, poorly narrated, and 
neglects to exploit the potential of video 
instruction. 

The Video 

The video portion of Using TRSDOS 
6.0 consists of a shot of a Model 4's 
screen — nothing else. The most action 



you'll see is a flashing cursor. No shots 
show the beginner how to turn on the 
computer, how to insert a disk, or how 
to boot the system. 



'Using TRSDOS 6.0 is a 

perfect example of how not 

to produce a videotape 

instruction course. " 



The video doesn't use superimposed 
titles explaining a command's syntax. 
Even when Using TRSDOS 6. explains 
a command that uses a printer, the cam- 
era remains trained on the video screen. 

Worse yet, the camera doesn't show 
the whole screen at once. When a dis- 
play fills the screen, the camera pans 



slowly from left to right. 

The Audio 

The audio portion of Using TRSDOS 
6.0 is worse. The sound quality is poor, 
with lots of popping P's and an overall 
tinny sound. 

The narrator speaks in a monotone 
throughout. She goes from one com- 
mand to the next without the slightest 
pause or change in inflection. 

Her delivery is inconsistent, too. 
Sometimes she pauses for several sec- 
onds for no reason; other times she 
races along. 

The audio and video aren't perfectly 
synchronized , either. Sometimes the 
narrator starts on a new command 
while the screen still displays the results 
of the previous one. 

The information presented in Using 
TRSDOS 6.0 is accurate, but it isn't 
geared toward the type of person who 
would need a video instruction course — 
the beginner. 

Terms like cylinder, logical record 



^.^;:;rMl„T *°°^'" ''"" "™''" ''^"'^ RIBBON SALE exact replacements 

RADtO SHACK • CENTRONICS • COMMODORE • EPSON • ANADEX • BASE 2 • IBM • NEC • C. ITOH • IDS • DATA ROYAL • OTHERS 


PRINTER 

MAKE, MODEL NUMBFR 
(Corilact us if your printer is 
not listed. We can probably 
RELOAD your old cartridges.) 


RIBBON 
SIZE 

Inches 

by 
Yards 


INSERTS EZ LOAD'"^ 

DROP IN, NO WINDING' 
EXACT REPLACEMENTS 

made in our own shop. 
Cartttdges not included 


RELOADS 

You SEND your used 
CARTRIDGES to us. We 

put OUR NEW INSERTS 
in them. 


NEW CARTRIDGES 

[from the various 

manufacturers. Subject 

to availability. ' ) 


SILVER DOLLAR 

WIND to LOAD 

WHY DO WE SELL THESE? 

This IS Ihe lype nbUon you nei 
r vou order from our fellow 
advertisers We sell them tor 
Irss siricp we make them 
ourselves Do you really likp 
(he mess and inconvenience of 
Linwindmg and dumping ihis 
lyoe ribbon into a wastebaskpt 
or out on a newspaper and'or 
winding n into your cartricfge^ 
Wi- don't know why these are 
hfing sold Computers should 
■iimplify your life nol make it 
more comple> lusi to save a 
(fw pennies You are welcome 
lo order these il you cannot af 
Imd our EZ LOAD"" INSERTS, 
RELOADS, or NEW CAR 
TRIDGES But BEWAREI You 
now know hum tn avoid disap 
pointment One more cauliori 
be sure to check rf^e length of 
any ribbon BEFORE you buy it 
For instance an MX 100 rib 
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not 20 as in rlie MX 80 


DIABLO 610/6Z0-XEROX MEMORYWfllTER 610/620 


f, I6«230 






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530/2 587/6 5168/12 


C ITOH Prowriter 1550/8510 - NEC 8023/8025 
APPLE DMP - DEC LA50-RA 


■ .18 


S15/3 S54/12 S288/72 


$7/1 $68a/2ormor8 


516/2 548/6 5 96/12 


C PTOH Starwriter F10 CARBON FILM BLACK 
DIABLO HYTYPE II FABRIC BLACK 


6 'fuii 


S24/6 S42/12 S234/7Z 
S21/3 S78/12 S510/72 


$5afl3-n 5486 12ormo,8 
$8/1 S78B/2ormor8 


$18/3 S60/12 S348/72 

$18/2 551/6 5 96/12 


RADIO SHACK 
CARBON FILM - DWP-210 (1445) Black 
DAISY WHEEL ll-DWP-410 (1419) Black 
Red, Green, Blue, Brown (14191 Colors 
FABRIC ILong-Life) DWP-210 (14581 Black 
DAISY WHEEL II (1449) Black 
LP l-ll-IV 700 Zip Pack (1413) 
CENTRONICS 730/737/739/779 


5 le.u'i 


S24/6 S42/12 S234/72 


S5aa3-11 548B 12ormore 


S18/3 560/3 S348/72 


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S24/6 542/12 $234/72 


S5Ba3-11 S4eBl2o,more 


$18/3 S60/12 $348/72 


■.. . 1 30 


S30/6 S52/12 S288/72 


S6 8fl3-11 S5ea12ormore 


521/3 572/12 5420/72 


5 16.17 


S21/3 S78/12 S510/72 


S8/1 $78a/2ormore 


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■.. . 26 


S21/3 S78/12 S510/72 


S8/1 S7 9a/2orrt.o,B 


518/2 551/6 $ 96/12 


5 IB IS 


S12/3 S45/12 S252/72 












DMP-200, 120 (1483) 
DMP-500 (1482) 
DMP-2100 - TOSHIBA PI 350 (1442) 
LP lll-V (1414) 
DMP-400/420, LP VI-VIII (1418) 
DMP-100, LP VII (1424) 
COMMODORE 1525 - GORILLA BANANA 


■,,^0 


S15/3 S54/12 S288/72 


S7/1 $69B/2ormore 


$27/2 $81/6 5162/12 


', .;o 


$15/3 S54/12 S288/72 


S7/1 56 8a/2 or more 


$24/2 $72/6 5144/12 


\-10 


$18/3 S66/12 S360/72 


S8/1 57 8a/2o,mora 


524/2 $72/6 5144/12 


■■,■15 


$15/3 S54/12 S288/72 


S7/1 $6 8a/2orr,>or8 


515/2 $42/6 5 78/12 


512/3 $44/12 S252/72 


5 ifi.ij 


$15/3 S54/12 S288/72 


S7/1 $6 88/2 or more 


515/2 542/6 S 78/12 


511/3 S40/12 S228/72 








$16/2 548/6 $ 96/12 


. 








EPSON MX/FX/RX 70/80 IBM PC 
MX/FX 100 - IBM PC 


'1 .30 


S15/3 S54/12 S288/72 


S7/1 S69a/2ormorB 


S14/2 S36/6 S 66/12 


S12/3 S44/12 5252/72 


'■.«» 


S18/3 $66/12 S360/72 


S8/1 5788/2ornior8 


524/2 S69/6 5132/12 


S15/3 554/12 $288/72 


COMMODORE 8023P CENTRONICS 152-2 


ii.i; 


$15/3 S54/12 S288/72 


S8/1 S7ea/2ormo,6 


SEND CHECK MONEV ORDER. OR COD TO: 

«_ BCCOMPCO -„^ 

V/SA 800 South 17 Box 246 l|fl^ 
^^^> SUMMERSVILLE, MO 65571- ^^^ 

CAll FOR LESS O/V SATURDAY' S -W In 5 00 ICT} 


ANADEX 9000 Series 


■,,30 


$18/3 S66/12 $360/72 


$8/1 S78a/2oTmor8 


WORRIED ABOUT ORDERING BY MAIL' Rela. We've Been in business for many years and can please the smallest and largest accounv 
You receive some of the finest ribbons available made of our own exclusive IMAGE PLUS i '"' fabric ana carbon film. Our ribbons fit your 
nnniei eiacily COMPARE. IhiI BFWARE' We ordpi all oui cnrnpetiior's products and are amazed at i^liat we get We use the latest staie-of 
ihe art iwcxluciion eguipment and are blessed with a fine, dedicated staff We guarantee everything we make, period Our ribbons are made 
tre^h daily and our goal is to ship your order within 24 hours Write for our brochure, pnce list, and newsletter. INK SPOTS"" 


COST PLUS 10% 

RADIO SHACK COMPUTERS SOFTWARE SUPPLIES-ACCESSORIES 
Call Bob Case or write for our COST PLUS 10% FL YER'H 




President 


Wi PAY UPS SHIPPIN 

PLEASE INCLUDE STREET 

FOREIGN ADD 1 


3 on PREPAID ORDERS 
DDRESS tor UPS DELIVERY 
5%. U S FUNDS 



62 • 80 Micro, January 1984 




MONTEZUlMk 
l^ICRO 



P.O. Box 2169 

Camp Verde (Lizard Flats) 

Arizona 86322 

WE KEEP YOU RUNNING 



COMPUTERS 



26-1067 

26-1 o«e 
S6-1069 
26-1080 
26-3003 
26-301 1 
26-3026 
26-3027 
26-3590 
26-3601 
28-3650 
26-3601 
26-3B02 
26-1004 
26-4006 
26-fi004 
26-6005 
26-6006 
26-6D!iO 



with 2 Unvei S RS-232 64K Complete 
I m Model 4. Pura RaOia Shack 
Idr Mo<tel 4, Pure Fla<JKi Shack 
2dr Mcxlal 4 64K fiS232, Piirp Hadio Snack 
N6wt MoOel 4 Portable 
54K Color Compuler 
MC-10 Micro Color ComputCf 
1 6K Color Compuler 2 
1 6« EirehOBd BASIC Color ComiHitet 2 
Packs! Computei 3 
Pa*sr Compute! 2 
Pothel Computer 4 
MOOellOO 3H Potable Compiler 
Model lOOaiKPonatile Compuler 
Mooel '2 2-0'ive 
Mooei 12 2-Onve 
MoOel 1 6B I -Dnve 
MoOel 16B 2-Dtl»e 

UoOel 16B«.lhDiiilt-in IJMBHara Dl5k 
DI-1 Terminal 



2593 
3199 
4249 
4928 
S949 



LNW MocM II CompuWr, 1I2K. HS-232. TRSOOS 
CompatiOle Complele wilh CP/M 22 dhO IDL5 ol FHEE 
Soltware 1436 

70HBA PonablB 2 DSDD On«s. 80i26. 4Mhz. grapiiiq^. 7 
green pnospnor screen RS-232. IEEE-488S Centronics Don^. 
"ilhWorO^ta^MaplMerge.SupciSon CatStai 1695 



MODEMS 



26-1084 Mo-Jel 4P Modem Snaro 

26-1 1 73 DC Mooem II 

26-1174 AcoustKCouplerUoilem 

26-1175 DCMoOemlB 

76-1006 DC-1£00H.gn Speed Modem 

76-1009 AutoDaliltaenmentlorDC-IEOO 
Anchor Mart^ I Modem, 300 Baud 
P3S5»ord300/1200Beut) Modem 
Hayes Smanmodem 300 Baud 
Hayes SmarTrnoOeni l?OOBaurt 



PERIPHERALS 



LNWModel 1 EicanusnlnlanacD. 32KSFI^232 
12" Green I BMHz NonGlara Vtdeo Monitor 
12" Amber 20MHz NonGlare Video Monitor 
Video caWe for Model i kevboard-lo-monitor 

16-0230 13 Remole Conlro' CaOle Ready Color TV 

16-0601 Model lOVweoTapeRecoi-aer WRemote 

26-1130 Modal 1 3 4 5MB Hard Disk Primary 

26-1131 Model 1 3 4 5MB Hard D.5k Secondary 

26-1183 Model 1D0 Bar Code Reader 

36-i!M CCR-ei Cassette TapeRewrder 

26-1410 Model 100 MooemCaDie 

26-3007 CoKx Computei Carryins Case 

26-3006 CotorComputerJoystrcks, Pel Pair 

26-3012 NEWI Oeluie Joyslick/each 

26-3022 Color Computer Disk Dnve K" 

26-3023 Color Computer Disk Dnve 1 .2 01 3 
Same as aOoveencept our brand Save$$$I 

26-3024 Color Computer Mulli-Pak Inlerlace 

26-3025 Color Computei Mouse 

26-3029 Disk Dn>.e (or the Coloi Computer 2 

26-3503 PC 1 Cassene inierlac? 

26-3506 PC 1 Carrying Case 

26-3606 PC 2 Canying Case 

26-361? PC 2RS-232C Interlace 

26-361 5 PC 2 4K RAM Module 

26-361 6 PC 2 8K RAM Module 

26-3651 PC 4 Cassetle Inierface 

26-3653 PC 4 I K Ram Module 

26-3654 PC 4 Canvir*i Case 

26-3804 Model 1 00 AC Adapter 

26-3B05 Model 1 00 Acouslc Coupler 

26-3609 Model 1 OO Canytng Case 

26-361 6 Model 1 00 aK P AM Module 

Santeasabovee^ceptourDrand SaveSSSS 

26-41 52 Model 2.1 2. 16 1 2MD Haid Disk Primary 

26-4153 Model2.12.1612MDHaiO Disk Secondary 

26-4160 Modei2 1 -Disk e<pansion Bay 

26-4162 Moaei2 3-Disk Excansioneay 

26-4165 Model 12. 16 SlimLme )-Onve Evpansion 

26-416b Mtxlell2 16 SlimLine 2-DnvB E.pansion 



1379 

1104 
1763 



FURNITURE 



26-1305 
26-1308 
26-1324 
26-1325 
26-4301 
26-4303 
26-4304 
26-4305 
26-4306 
74-0550 



Model 3 Syslem Desk 
Universal Prmter Stand 
Computei Table 
Ptailorm 

Model 2 Desk. . . 
Deluxe Sysiem Desk 
System Desk Drawer 
Del uxePnnfer Stand 
Terminal Stand 
Dec u- Rack Stand 



PRINTERS & ACCESSORIES 



26-1155 OuK;k Printerli 

26-1166 Dai5/"heelll 

26-1190 Ptotler 

26-1181 Mulli-Pen Plolter 

26-1192 GCP-1 15 Color Graphics Printer 

26-1193 Flatbed Plolter/Pnnter 

26-1195 D-gitiier 

26-1 1 96 Cokjr Computei Graphics Input Table! 

26-1250 DWP-410 Oaisywneel Printer 

26-1251 DMP-400 1 40cp5 Printer 

26-1252 OMP-500 220cp5Prinler . 

26-1253 DMP-100 50tjis Printer 

26-1264 DMP-200 1 20cp5 Printer 

26-1255 DMP-120 1 20eps Dual Mode Primer 

26-1256 DMP-21M 1 60cps Dual Mode Printer 

26-1267 DWP-210 Daisyi~lieel Printer 

26-1 260 Envelope Feeder for trte DaisywTieei 11 

26-1261 TP-10 Theimal Malrii' Pnnter 

26- 1 266 CH-51 Computer Card Readei 

26-1267 DMP-420 140cps Triple MOOePiintei 

26-1268 CQP-220ColorlnkJetPrinler 

26 1269 PTC-84 64K PrknterController{Buriaf| 

AH 129 PnnlHhaslI 

All 139 PnntwhMlI 

26-1440 Single Bin Slieet Feeder 

26-1441 Bi-Directiorial Tractor 

26-1443 Bi-Directional Tractor 

26-1447 Bi-DirectionalTractor . 

26-1443 Single Bin Sheet Feeder 

26-1455 ALOust'CCovpr 



1695 

679 
1015 



26-1459 
26-1401 
26- 1 40B 
26-1409 
26-4401 
26-1490 
26-1491 
26-1492 
26-1493 
26-1495 
26-1496 
26-1498 
26-1499 
26-3505 
26-3691 
26-3605 
26 3652 



8510 



Bh- Directional Tractor 

Model 1 M3. M 4 Printer Cable 

HS-232C Cable 

Model too Printer CaCile 

Model2.M12 MlSPrinierCaOle 

10 RS-232C Cable 

25 RS-232C Cable 

50 RS-S32C Cable 

100 nS-232C Catjie 

RS-232C Cable Ek tender 

RS-232C Null Modem Adapter 

Parallel Pnnter Switch 

RS-232C Selector Switcb 

PC 1 Printer 

PC 3 Primer 

PC 2 Printer 

PC 4 Primer 



C.ITOH 



Prowritei 1 2t5cps. Fr»ctiDn,'Tractor Parallel 
Prowrifei?. 1 20cps. for Wide Paper Parallel 

F 1 0-40 Staiwiter . 40cps Daisyivheel 

FlO-55 Printmasler 55CP5 Dais^heel. FAST 

FID Bi-DiieolHinal Tractor, with Plastic Cover 

ElO Single Bin Sheet Feeder 

8600 Near Letter Quality. leOcos.J-Cmw 

GX-lOO Gonlla Banana 50cps 

ex -4600 Printer Plotter 4-Color 

ANADEK 



DP-9620 ISOcpsPrinier 
DP-9625A 200CP5 Triple MOPe Pnnter 
WP-600D 285cps Near Letter Quality Pnnter 
OP-6500 500cps Super Tnck Includes Tractor 

tractor Assembly Ipr WP-6000 

Automatic Sheet Feeder (or WP-6000y6500 i 

We bave dust covers lor most every printer we sell Be sun 
order one wiin your new printer to keep it like new lor years 



1199 
1299 
2099 
2299 



MONTEZUMA'S REVENGE 

rr-..i, I ■■ .V,. ■■, ■■„ . '.-- ■■, .III -. ■ .-, '■■ ■' M22 

■ '1 ■' . -. tie the 

■, - . , 1 . ., ■. . - ,,r i125 

See the Holmes ads ineo Micio 
RetdilPiiceS524 50 YOUR COSTONLy . $399 



SOFTWARE 



NEW CP/M 2.2 by M0iits!;um8 Micro For The Model 4 

NEW MBASiciortneModeu 

26-0310 TRSDOS2 3ForTheModel 1 

26-0312 TRSOOS 1 3 For The Model 3 

26-031 3 TBSDOS 6 For The Model 4 

26- 1 507 Slockpack 

S6-1610 Tienaei 

26-1512 NEWI Target PlannerCalc 

26-1515 NEWI pis (lie 

26-1516 NEWI pisieport 

26-1518 NEWI pis lile lor the Modal 4 

26-1620 NEWI Modci4 i/isiCalc 

26-1 521 VisiCaic Business Forecast 

26-1530 NEWI Model 4 Mulliplan 

26-1540 NEWI Model 3 Geneial Ledger 

26-1541 NEWI Model 3 Accounts HeceivaOle 

26-1543 NEWI Model 3 Payroll 

26-1552 General Ledger 

26-1553 Inventory ConlJol 1 

26- 1 S54 Accounts Pay3l>le 

26- 1 566 Accounts Receiusble . 

26-1656 OiskPayiol 

26-1567 ConoreteTaKe-OK 

26-1 558 Business Maihng List 

26-1559 Manulactunng Inventory Control 

26-1560 Filed Assets 

26-1662 Profile 

26-1563 Sciipsit 

26-1564 fiflailgram 

26-1565 Microlile 

26-1566 Model 1 VisiC^C 

26- 1 568 Medical Ottice Systems 

26- 1 569 Model 3 VisiCalc. Enhanced Version 

26-1579 RealEstate 

26-1680 Ptoiecl Manager 

26-1681 Personnel Manager 

26-1582 Time Manager 

26-1584 Ctwckwnler80 



26-1585 Business Crieckwnter 

26-1588 VideoteiPius 

26-1589 MICnO/Couriei 

26-1590 SuperSCniPSIT . . 

26-1591 ScnpsilDtctionary 

26-1592 PiolilaPlus 

26-1 593 Piolile Plus LD/HO Version 

26-1694 Desktop/Plan-eO 

26-1595 NEWI SupeiSCRIPSIT ForTne Model 4 

26-1596 NEWI Scnpsit For The MOOel 4 

26- 1 597 Business Graphics Pak 

26-2010 Mod 3 BASIC Programming Course 

26-21)1 1 EDAS. Tape Version 

26-2012 Assemtjiy Language Developmenl CrxJrse 

26-2013 EDAS.DiskVeision 

26-201 4 Mod 3 Disk Course 

26-2017 NEWI AssemblyLanguageCourse. Tape 

26-2018 NEWI AssemtjIyLanguageCourse, Disk 

26-2022 NEWI PoweiToot 

26-2023 NEWI DotPlol 

26-2150 tntioductionloBASIC 

26-2200-1 Model 1, Model 3 FORTRAU 

26-2201 Model 1 FORTRAN 

26-2203 COBOL 

26-2204 Compiler BASIC 

26-2205 PILOT . . 

26-2206-7 COBOL Runtime Disk 

26-;206-9 Compiler BASIC RuminiE Disk 

26-2210 NEWI BASCOM 

26-2211 PASCAL 

26-2212 NEWI PASCAL For TheModel4 

26-2213 Model 1 LDOS 

26-2214 Model3LD0S 

26-2216 CP/M Plus For Tbe Model 4 

2S-G000 The Good CP/M lor the Model 4fMM) 

26-2217 CBASICFoiTheModel4tRaquirEsCP(Ml 

26-2220-23 Vttleolei 

26-2224 Videotei Compuserv Kil 

26-2709 Color Computer PILOT Tao. 



26-4602 

26-4503 
26-4604 
26-4505 



26-4511 
26-4512 
26-4513 



26-2710 Color Compuler PILOT Disk 

26-2718 PILOTIII ' 

26-2721 ColPr Computoi LOGO, Disk 

26-2722 LOGOHOMPack 

26-301 9 Diagnostic ROM Pack 
26-3030 NEWI OS-9 Foi The CokH Computer 
26-3036 NEWI BASIC ■ 09 For The Color Computer 
26-3821 NEWI Model lOOLearningLab 

ALL Co'C Compinai GAMES 35% OFF CsUIOf Pnce 
ALL PC SOFTWAHE 30% OFF Calalog Price 
26-4501 GeiffiraiLedge I 

Inventory Management ^ysfm I 

Payroll 

Accounts Receivabl'- 

Accouits Payable 
26-4506 Maitng Uat 
26-4507 Mailing List II 

26-4508 Medial ONice Systems f 

26-4509 Manulactunng Inyenlory Control t 

26-4510 versatile 

VisiCac 

Profile 

Job Cos g 
26-4514 OrderE 
26-4515 Profile 
26-4516 Profile 
26-1517 ProfileP Upg de 
26-4520 Time A uu g 
26-4621 VisiCa 
26-4525 Electron B oke 
26-4531 SCRIPSIT2 
26-4532 SCRIPSITUlilityDisK 
26-4534 SCBIPSIT Dictionary 
26-4536 SCRIPSIT Plotter Onver 

Statistical Analysis 

Litigation Support ; 

NEWI BusinessSraphicsAnylsisPak I 

Accounts Receivable 

Menu Geneialoi 

Profile Forms .... 

Profile Archive 

Profile Prosoit - - 

Prolook 

WEST LAW ; 

MuioPlan. Model 2 9 Model 1 2 Version ; 

General LeiJger 

Invenloiy Control System 



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26-21 1 4 Sourcebook, Now Edition 

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62-2084 TRS-80 Pockel BASIC Handbcoh 

TRS-80 Disk S Other Mysteries 

Microsoft BASIC Decoded 



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80 Micro, January 1984 • 63 



REVIEWS 



length, and parameter are tossed 
around without a single definition. 
Much of the script is awkwardly written 
and filled with run-on sentences deliv- 
ered at breakneck speed. 

Summary 

Video is a powerful instructional 



medium, but the producers of Using 
TRSDOS 6.0 miss the boat. They try to 
stuff too much information into the 
tape. It takes lots of experimentation 
and reading to fully exploit the power of 
TRSDOS 6.0. It cannot be taught (or 
learned) in two hours. 

Using TRSDOS 6.0 doesn't teU you 



anything that isn't covered in the man- 
ual. If you want to learn to use TRS- 
DOS 6.0, get a couple of blank disks, sit 
down at the computer, open the man- 
ual, and try each library command, ex- 
perimenting as you go. You'll learn 
TRSDOS and you won't spend 
$39.95. ■ 



• • • • '/2 

Datagraph 

Models I, U, in, 12, and 16, LNW-80 

48K, two disk drives suggested 

Printer 

$79.95 

• •• 

Pie Chart Option 
$34.95 

Micro Software Systems 
Micro plot Inc. 
1815 Smokewood Ave. 
FuUerton, CA 92631 

by Thomas L. Quindry 

Datagraph is a Model I/II/III graph- 
ing program that lets you generate 
high-resolution dot-matrix graphs and 
plots with specified printers (listed in 
Micro Software Systems' advertise- 
ments). You can also produce pie plots 
with the pie chart option. 

Overall, Datagraph is a worthwhile 
program. It's versatile and easy to use, 
and it generates professional quality 
graphs. 

The program does have some draw- 
backs, however. At times, it generates 
unnecessary line feed commands, an 
annoying inconvenience. Also, it always 
prints the name of the file from which 
the program draws data on the graph, a 
feature that should be optional. 

System Configuration 

For this review, 1 used the Epson 
MX-80, MX-lOO version of Datagraph 
with my MX-80-compatible printer. 
Check with Micro Software Systems to 
choose the right version if your printer 
is not listed. More than 14 versions are 
available for different computer con- 
figurations. 

Datagraph uses data that you've saved 
in a VisiCalc Data Interchange Format 
(DIF) file. If you don't have VisiCalc 

64 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



and are a fairly good programmer, you 
can create a Basic program that saves 
data in DIF format to use with this plot- 
ting program. 

The Basics 

Datagraph is a hybrid Basic and ma- 
chine-language program. It lets you plot 
up to 1,000 data pomts on a graph. You 
can combine linear plots, stairstep 
plots, bar graphs, and relative bar 
graphs on the same graph (see Figs. 1 
and 2). 

Datagraph's linear plots can incor- 
porate a curve-fitting enhancement that 
provides more plotting points than the 
straight-line connection between points 
you get with conventional linear plots. 
You can specify the number of points 
the program interpolates between data 
points. You also have the option of 
adding customized labels for the 
horizontal and vertical axes (see Fig. 2). 



''Datagraph lets you plot 

up to 1, 000 data points 

on a graph. " 



You can plot graphs in any size from 
1 inch by 1 inch to 7 inches by 24 inches. 
The smaller sizes are limited only by the 
number of horizontal and vertical divi- 
sions you specify. 

A key describing the data set and line 
type or symbol appears at the top of the 
graph if you name your data set. This 
lets you draw unnamed reference lines 
on the graph that don't show on the 
data key. 

You can suppress the grid within the 
graph if you prefer. This is most useful 
with bar graphs. Grid lines are solid 
lines, not dotted. 

The program has an auto-scaling 
function that sets the minimum and 
maximum values and increments of the 
X and Y axes. It uses a data statement 



withm the Basic program to provide 
rounded scale increments that are easy 
to determine and are divisible numerical 
values. This gives you easy-to-read 
graphs. 

You can change the values in this 
data statement to suit special situations. 
In addition to auto-scaling, you can 
specify the minimum and maximum 
values of X and Y for a graph. This 
overrides the auto-scaling feature for 
setting these values if the graph meets 
certain conditions. The manual de- 
scribes the reasoning behind this and the 
procedure in great detail. 

Using Datagraph 

First, the data you use must be in a 
DIF format to generate the information 
you want plotted. I'll assume you're us- 
ing VisiCalc for this procedure. This is 
strictly a tabular operation where the 
program lists information on the elec- 
tronic spreadsheet in column or row ori- 
entation. 

The only restriction is that the X and 
Y coordinates of each curve you want 
plotted have a one-to-one correspon- 
dence (i.e., they must be aligned and 
parallel to each other on the worksheet). 
If the X and Y data are distributed 
along rows, the corresponding values 
must be in the same column. If column 
distribution is used, they must be in the 
same row. 

For plotting purposes, the program 
considers Y the dependent variable and 
X the independent variable. Plots that 
contain several curves can use either the 
same set of X values for plotting or a 
different set of X values. Thus, one 
curve can have more plotting points 
than another. Standard increments be- 
tween points are unnecessary. 

You should also place any specialized 
horizontal or vertical scale labels on the 
worksheet at this time. You can use only 
one set of vertical scale labels, but you 
can use as many horizontal scale labels 
as you wish. You can place any other 
extraneous information you want on 



DATAGRAPH 



T.M. PRINTER 

GRAPHICS 
PROGRAM 



TRANSFORM YOUR VISICALC FILES INTO HIGH-RESOLUTION CUSTOM 
GRAPHS ON YOUR TRS-80" COMPUTER AND GRAPHICS PRINTER. 



EL-ECTROMZC^ MOFtKSME^T 



Ja»u inu S!'A 



MJ Elf E« !.iia!K EkIIcii fc 'hi b. Vcl 



TJ.ti M.n I?3.!e llt.t! U5.7i 

r:,:£; t!i.43 iis.i: i^ 



571 :4.3J3 ll.30i 




av.zi 
■.n.v. 

131.12 
J£u!i 




TOTAL = 51440. 
PftTEhJTS iiNO LlCEhJSES (200) . "X . 
ACCOUNTS RECEiyflBLE (4000) ?.&/.■, \ 

CORPORATE BONOS (?00) l.TY. 
INSURANCE PREPAID (300) .6'/. 
PREFERRED STOCK (500.2) IX 
AIRCRAFT LEASE (2000) 3.r/' 
SECURITIES < 1000> \ .9'/: 
TRUCKS ( 1288. A5> 2.5'/; 
CAPITAL STOCK (39S) .SV. 

EQUIPMENT (3000) S.ff/.- 



REAL ESTATE (S000> 9 .?■/. 



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SSETS o«^/: 

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TAiSTrnULUS VALu: 



1 

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« HIBH RESOLUTION 
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CAPACITY - 1000 
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HRAPH SIZES - From 



- 60 X 72 
LARQE DATA 
Input Data 
« SELECTASLE 
1" aq. to 7" 




3/lJ £■:(■ 3' 



NEW! 

MODEL 
11/12/16 

VERSION 



u 21" * STANDARD DATA SOURCE - 
Plots Data from VISICALC or 
USERS DUN PRQQRAnS using th> 
DIF'-t Standard Format. » GRAPH 
FEATURE SELECTION - Fill out 
Pr»-formatod Form ori VISICALC 
•cr»Bn or In uaars own program. 
■ MINIMAL ENTRY RE0UIREMENT3 - 
Entar only nam* of Datafila and 
location thardln of data to 0» 
plottad, * MULTIPLE FUNCTION 

QRAPHS - Plota over 10 Data 

Sata par graph. * DATA SYMBOLS - Plots data with uaar cornpooad 
■ymbol shapea. I DATA INTERPOLATION - connactB data points with user 
compoaad Una shapaa. * LINE/SVHBDL LIBRARY - Plota oach Data Sat 
with dlffarent lina/symbol anapa choaan from IS lino library. > 

CUSTOM LINES AND SYMBOLS - Ha» interactive ncrson-graphlca program 
for compoaing aymbol ahapas- t AUTO SCALINB - Svlecta acala valuss 
far aaaa of graph intarpratation. Uaer adjuatable Mantlasa Table. t 
GRID SELECTION - Prlnta aelectable numbsr of vertical and horizontal 
grid llnea. » CALENDAR SCALE - Optionally print* namea of month on 
horlsontal acale. « CURVE SELECTION -'Can Hlx Scattar, Lina, Curve- 
Fit, Stairstep. Bargrapha. Pie Charts. « OPTIONAL NIN/MAX VALUES - 
Extends graph beyond the values of the Data Sets. * DATA SET 
DESCRIPTIONS - Prints teHt descriptions of each Data Set In graph 
legend, t TEXT ENTRYS - Prints graph title, aula labels, and date on 
graph. t USER FRIENDLY - Checks validity of input datA and dlaplaya 
cause of errors. « COMPLETE DOCUMENTATION - Comprehensive 73 page 
Users Manual with BKBinple* covering data preparation, graph feature 
entry, camposlng lines and symbols, and technical notes. 



MODEL I, ill 
$79.95 

PIE CHART OPTION: 
$34.95 

MODEL 11/12/16 
$129.95* 

'INCLUDES PIE CHARTS 

USER REQUIREMENTS 



COMPUTER 

• TRS-80 MODEL 1. Ill 48K 

« TRS-80 MODEL 11, 12, 16 

• LNWeO. LNWII. MAX-80 
DOS 

• TRStXDS 1.3. 2.3. 2.0, 4.2 

• NEWDOS, NEWDOS/80 

- DOSPLUS3.4/S, IDOS5.1 
DISK DRIVES 

• SINGLE DRIVE 

• DUAL DRIVE (PREFERRED) 



GRAPHICS PRINTER: 

• MX-80 GRAFTRAX, OR GT + 

• MX-lOO, FX 80/100 

• LP VIIL DMP 200-2100, 120 

• NEC 8023 A-C, C.ITOH 8510 

• IDS 460/560, 480, 80/132 

• OKIDATA 82/83, 92/93, 84 

• GEMINI 10/15 



TO ORDER: Send check, purchase order, or request for COD shipment. Specify Computer 
and Printer Type. Include $2.50 for postage and handling. Calif, residents add 6% tax. 

MICRO SOFTWARE SYSTEMS • MICROPLOT, EsJC. 



DEALER 

INQUIRIES 
WELCOME 



1815 SMOKEWOOD AVE. • FULLERTON, CA 92631 • (714) 526-8435 



-526 



TRADEMARKS; DATAGRAPH (MICRO SOFTWARE SYSTtMS); VlSiCALC (VISICORP); TRS-W (TANDY CORPIr 
DIP (SOFTWARE ARTS INC.t: PRISM (INTEGRAL DATA SYSTEMS} 



VISA/MASTERCARD 
ACCEPTED 



REVIEWS 



the spreadsheet. Not all the information 
on the spreadsheet must appear on the 
resulting graph. 

After you include all plotting infor- 
mation on the spreadsheet, you must 
save it in the DIF format. The VisiCalc 
manual explains this procedure. 

Next the VisiCalc spreadsheet gener- 
ates a table that provides specifications 
for Datagraph on how and what to plot. 
Datagraph produces a file called 
Form/DIF that provides a ready-made 
table. All you do is fill in the blanks on 
this table and save it in DIF format. 

This form includes places to enter the 
graph title, data file you want used, 
date, vertical and horizontal labels, size 
of graph, divisions, minimum and max- 
imum scale dimensions (optional), data 
descriptions, location of data descrip- 
tions on the data file (rows and col- 
umns), and line type desired. 

A feature for the horizontal division 
specification is selection of a calendar 
scale. If specified, the months appear in 
place of the numbers 1-12 on the bot- 
tom scale. For numbers greater than 12, 
the remainder after subtraction of mul- 
tiples of 12 determines the month. 

The most powerful control on the 
forms page is the line type specification. 
You choose one of 12 different line 
types from a symbol table. 

Each line type specifies a symbol used 
for data points, the maximum number 
of interpolation points, and the symbol 
used for interpolated points. This is a 
straight-line interpolation unless you 
specify the curve-fitting option. 

You can generate your own line types 
and symbols and save them in this file. 
However, doing so destroys the file sup- 
plied with the Datagraph program. You 
can manually restore the original line 
types by copying the symbol and other 
information from the Datagraph 
manual. 

It would have been much easier to 
create separate symbol files. One more 
entry on Form/DIF could mdicate 
which file to use. 

Use the line type specification on the 
Form/DIF sheet to specify the type of 
graph you're plotting. Just giving a 
number gives you a linear plot. The let- 
ter C followed by a number before the 
line type specification invokes the 
curve-fitting routine for the number of 
interpolation points you specify. 

The letter S gives you a stairstep 
graph. The letters B and R produce bar 
66 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



graphs and relative bar graphs, respec- 
tively. 

A relative bar graph plots the bar be- 
tween two points using two sets of data 
for the Y scale. For both types of bar 
graphs, you must also specify the rel- 
ative offset in the horizontal direction. 
This lets you determine the order in 
which multiple bar graphs appear on 
the graph. 

The letters V or H specify vertical or 
horizontal labels to replace the numer- 
ical label that normaUy appears. You 



can center horizontal labels on a grid 
line or between grid lines. 

You can also print the horizontal 
label in regular or condensed mode. If 
you specify regular mode when you 
have insufficient space, the program 
uses the condensed mode. If you don't 
have enough room for the condensed 
mode label, an error message appears 
before plotting commences. 

Pie Charts 

The letter P generates pie charts. The 



^ SALES 

= 8R0SS PROFITS 



DOLLARB/MONTH 



1 500 

1000 

500 
























^ 














1— ' 


^ 


^ 


^ 


^" 






^ 


^ 


- 


-^ 


'^ 






..» 


__-^" 






— — . 


— 




mrn^ 





—J 














J»l FEB IW: tfT? fWY JU^ JUL AUG SEP OCT hCV DEC 
MONTHS 

Figure L Linear and stairstep plots with calendar label option. 



m == SALES 
I I = COSTS 
= SALES TREND 

DOLLARS/MONTH 



*2000. CiO 



$1500. 00 



$1000. 00 



$ 500. 00 



$ 0.00 



u 



1 1 } 




1/32 2/82 3/82 4/82 5/82 6/82 7/82 8/82 9/82 10/8211/82 12/82 
MONTHS 

Figure 2. Bar graphs and relative bar graphs combine with a linear plot. 



Reado 




every month 

ALL THE NEWS YOU NEED FOR THE 80*S 



80 Micro is news. News like our in-depth coverage of 
Tandy's Model 100 debut in Boston and its impact on the 
market. News like U.S. Senator Paul Tsongas' speech on 
Asian competition and the importance of innovation. News 
like what's happening at Texas Instruments and why. You'll 
agree that 80's "NEWS TfflS MONTH" column is the news 
you need to stay informed. 

80 is also a practical journal. It gives you the information 
you need to expand your TRS-80 computing potential. Infor- 
mation like: 

• New product reviews — save valuable time getting the facts 
and figures on the latest equipment releases. 

• Hardware modifications— upgrade your computer and 
become more familiar with its functions whUe you save 
money and increase its value. 

• Debugging techniques — 80 Micro saves time with expert 
solutions to common and uncommon problems. 

• User-application programs— written by readers like you 
who need programs to maximize the productivity of their 
machines. 

And 80 Micro doesn't stop there. Every month, from 
cover to cover, you'll get top rate REVIEWS: whether you're 
buying or Just looking, 80 keeps you informed on what 
statenaf-the-art can do for you. 



If you want to get ahead with your TRS-80, get 80 Micro. 
the news source of the 80's. 



YES! Give me the news I need to put me 
ahead and help me stay there. Send me 12 
issues of 80 Micro for $24.97. 

a MC D VISA n AE D CHECK/MO D BILL ME 

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US funds drawn on US bank. 

Please allow 6-8 weeks for delluery. 

■TRS-80 is a trademark of Radio Shack, 
a division of Tandy Corp. 



341 R8 




80 Micro • PC Box 981 • Farmingdale. NY 11737 



REVIEWS 



Pie Chart Option costs an additional 
$34.95. You can specify different line 
types for the pie diameter and dividing 
spokes. Pie charts can be anywhere 
from 1 inch to 3 inches in diameter. 

The same Fonn/DIF format specifies 
the information for pie charts. You 
don't need all the information re- 
quested and you should change some of 
the labels on the Form/DIF spreadsheet 
form. I made up a Pieform/DIF 
spreadsheet by making label changes to 
Form/DIF. 

You need two entries for each pie 



chart data point: a label entry and a 
data entry. The main fault I found with 
pie chart generation is that you have 
limited space for pie chart labels. If a 
label is too long, the program truncates 
it. As few as five characters or as many 
as 22 characters are available for your 
label depending on the segment's loca- 
tion on the pie and the pie's size. 

All segments of the pie are white. No 
cross hatching or coloring of segments 
is possible. I am still impressed with the 
program, though; the Pie Chart Option 
is useful. 



C ITON 

Prowriter 




C. lion's ieneiBO't Prowrllar 
na9 9poad<i20cp3l. n duller 
IVSK), 10. 12. a iGcD^lplusa 
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coy 10, 12. 17 cpi. lISllC9.D 
cones DO ntlancfl loni. dol 
gnphics & s 1 K bullor Filcllon/ 
Ira CIO r loea. Uao plain spool 
iibbons Tno Qamlnl IS a mo 
132 column version Tno Dalla 
10 has all mo (oaluias nbovo plus 
paralloi S serial interlaces, 1 60 
cps inini scaad. on BK bu'lc. Tna 
Dalla 18 Is me 1 36 column 
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Tractor 1 



dal'acldres9ab(eQraphics|i20x 
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Is slanda'd 

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Parallel roiortaco are stanBarO 
Issue 

Trro MIorolln* 62 A Is a data 
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on 60 columns. Tba MIorollna 
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sua graplim aro optional 

MIC(0lina62A taBB.aa 

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FX, RX & MX 

Trie FX-80 (160 CDS) hasa 
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lrlciior>/oin feed (ino adlu stable 
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6B • 80 Micro, January 1984 



Problems and Praise 

Two annoying conditions exist in 
Datagraph. First, you must turn on the 
printer when using the program, so 
printer initialization results in a line 
feed. When you go to VisiCalc, another 
printer initialization to different condi- 
tions sends another line feed command. 
Your page gradually creeps up. 

The second problem is the label giv- 
ing the graph file and date that appears 
in the upper right comer of the print- 
out. The program contains a method 
for suppressing the date but not the 
graph file. This is relatively easy to 
change since the label is printed from 
the Basic program. 

The Datagraph manual is difficult to 
read because of the many enhancements 
made to the original program. Rather 
than upgrade its manual, Micro Soft- 
ware Systems has taken the more expe- 
dient route of adding sections describ- 
ing the enhancements. 

Thus, some information you read 
early in the manual is corrected later. It 
would be more prudent for Micro Soft- 
ware Systems to rewrite their manual 
than to confuse the user. 

Other than the contradictions, the 
manual does explain what is happening 
and what to expect. The only confusion 
I experienced was in using horizontal 
labels. 

When centering labels between grid 
marks, you must specify an extra label 
entry. Also, when using numeric labels, 
you must be sure that VisiCalc specifies 
a label rather than a value. The manual 
does not explain these two points. 

One serious limitation I see for busi- 
ness graphics is Datagraph's inability to 
plot logarithms. You can fool the pro- 
gram into producing log plots, but it's 
no easy task. 

Micro Software Systems has done a 
fine job in programming Datagraph. It 
is surprisingly quick in generating 
graphs, and it contains a good selection 
of error messages. A repeat feature lets 
you plot as many copies of a graph as 
you wish. Color plotting is also quite 
impressive. 

The pattern that Micro Software Sys- 
tems seems to be following is continual 
upgrade of Datagraph with a corre- 
sponding increase in price. The best en- 
hancement they could make is to free 
the user from having to purchase 
VisiCalc. ■ 



REVIEW DIGEST 



Home Accountant, Continental 
Software, 11223 Hindry Ave., Los 
Angeles, CA 90045, Models I and 
III, $49.95. 

"For a reasonable price, this sys- 
tem keeps track of all monthly in- 
come and outgo, reconciles bank 
statements, prints out personal bal- 
ance sheets and net-worth state- 
ments, allows custom search-and-re- 
trieval of any particular transaction, 
creates professional-looking graphs 
of your own financial picture and, 
on some computers, can provide 
forecasting. It is an accessible, easy- 
to-leam system that, even on first 
use, will give anyone a real sense 
that they are gaining additional 
knowledge and control of their 
financial situation." Personal Soft- 
ware, November, p. 123. 

Electric Webster, Cornucopia Soft- 
ware, P.O. Box 5028, Walnut 
Creek, CA 94596, Models I and III, 
$149.95. 

" . . .After looking at nine proof- 
reading programs, I have settled on 
Webster to keep my final copies ac- 
curate.. . 

". . .if English 101 is where you 
caught up on your sleep, then you 
will appreciate the grammar option. 

"Writers. ..will find the auto- 
matic hyphenation a big help; and if 



your spelling is less than perfect or if 
you have ever missed a typo, then 
you will love this fast and accurate 
dictionary program." Creative Com- 
puting, November, p. 108. 

TRS-80 Model 4, Tandy/Radio 
Shack, One Tandy Center, Fort 
Worth, TX 76102, $1,999. 

"The design of Radio Shack's 
new TRS-80 Model 4 computer is 
proof that large corporations can be 
responsive to the needs of their cus- 
tomers. An enhanced version of the 
popular TRS~80 Model III, its new 
features read like a Model III own- 
er's wish list. 

"...Given all the new features 
in the TRS-80 Model 4 and a 
price that's lower than its prede- 
cessor, the popular Mode! Ill, it's 
safe to say that Radio Shack has a 
guaranteed winner." Byte, Octo- 
ber, p. 292. 

Disk Trendex Stock Market Trend 

Analysis, Tandy /Radio Shack, One 
Tandy Center, Fort Worth, TX 
76102, Models I and III, $49.95. 

"... This . . . program provides 
solidly based statistical analysis of 
the stock market and of your own 
portfolio without all the confusion 
traditionally found in technical 
analysis software. 

". . .these programs. . .are based 



upon solid statistical methods used 
every day by stock market profes- 
sionals to identify market trends." 
Personal Computing, November, p. 
196. 



6.0 Plus, Micro-Systems Software 
Inc., 4301-18 Oak Circle, Boca 
Raton, FL 33431, Model 4, $49.95. 
"6.0 PLUS takes TRSDOS 6.0 to 
new heights of utility and versatil- 
ity. It may very well become the de 
facto standard utility package for 
TRSDOS 6.0, at least until the com- 
petition catches up." Basic Com- 
puting, October, p. 79. 

Lynn Video Instruction Series: 
DB-1 Using ProfUe m-H, Lynn 
Computer Service, 6831 West 157th 
St., Tinley Park, IL 60477, VHS or 
Beta Format, $39.95. 

"I found the material to be care- 
fully developed and quite appropri- 
ate. They carefully covered all op- 
tions of the software and even gave 
some tips that are not in the Profile 
III + manual. Much is covered, and 
more than one viewing is recom- 
mended. It does get boring, but a 
fast-forward button on the VCR 
will quickly get you to the material 
that needs a second look." Basic 
Computing, October, p. 83. 




CHILD'S PLAY 

AN EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM FOR CHILDREN AGES 2 TO 7 YEARS 




This machine language program contains fasi animation, sound effects, tunes, and 

speech. The speech has two options' it can be generated Oy compLiter or by a VS100 
speecn synthesiser (speech options described later). The program is easily controlled by a 
friendly menu-man who points lo the options that may be chosen The mam menu contains 
four sections. • Learn the Alphabet • Learn to Count ■ Learn Shapes • Learn Words 
Each section contains three subsections which can easily be manipulated, giving twelve 
games in all. The menu selection is accompanied by a different nursery rhyme tune tor 
each menu 

LETTERS 

This option allows the child lo select letters at random, match the current letter displayed, 
or type in the next letter. When a correct response is given, an animation associated with 
the letter moves across the screen, e.g . Z for Zebra The computer says the letters also 

NUMBERS 

This option allows the child to select the numbers ?ero to nine at random, match the current 
number displayed, or type in the next number Men walk out on the screen equal lo the 
number chosen. This section also contams speech 

SHAPES 

This section allows the child lo control the menu-man, moving shapes from the lett hand ot 
the screen to the right hand ot the screen The tirsl level allows the child to pick up shapes 
using the spacebar. The second level, in addition, allows the child to control the menu-man 
with the arrow keys The third level puts a small 'Bee' on the screen which the child must 
avoid while manipulating the menu-man and shapes 

WORDS 
This final section allows the child lo type in letters to lorm words. The tirsl level asks for a 
word 10 be typed in, then to oe repeated before another word can be tried, ^'nfi second level 



prompts the child with a word which must be malched before an animation will appear on 
the screen. The last level shows the animation on ihe screen Then the child must type in 
the correct word before the next animation is shown. This section contains speech also. 

SPEECH 
The program can be boughl as a stand-alone program with computer-generated speech, 
which uses 'your' speaker amplifier. However, we have also made the program compatible 
with an 'Alpha Products VS100' speech synthesiser (or improved speech qualily (This can 
be purchased from 'Alpha Products' subject !o availability) The speech is noi available for 
a 16K machine. 

Software available fortheTRSBO* Models 1, III, and IV. Also soon available lor theTimex. 
16K tape (no speech) 32K tape. 32K disk. 48K disk All programs for' cqq nr 

ilmlMiid lendenls add 5% s<ifes (dx. COD 3M $2.00) 



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Cily/State./Zip _^_^^_ 

Total Enclosed $ 

Charge my VISA D MaslerCharge G 

Card # _^___^ __^__. 

Signature _^^________ 



Address 



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txp Date / / 



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.0. BOX 627 • COLUMBUS, INDIANA 47202 

'IRSRO i.^ii rsyislereO traclemark of TanOyCoip 



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^ See UsI of Advertisers on Page 227 



80 Micro, January 1984 • 69 




Makes Its Move 



by Eric Maloney 



For a year now, the 
TRS-80 world has 
nervously watched a 
convoy of computers swing 
into the fast lane and pass by in 
a cloud of dust. When, the 
faithful asked, would Tandy 
bring out a machine that could 
compete with the heavy metal 
taking over the road? ■■■HHH^i^a^^^MHHM 

Well, wait no more — the Model 2000 is here. It is unlike 
anything Tandy has ever produced. And if it lives up to its 
advance notices, the 2000 will erase all doubts that Tandy is 
ready to meet the challenge of its super-charged competitors. 

The phrase some Tandy executives are using to describe 
the machine is "ultra-high performance." The specifications 
speak for themselves (see Table 1). 

The 2000 uses the 16-bit 80186 microprocessor from Intel 
Corp. and operates under MS-DOS from Microsoft. It 
comes with 128K RAM, expandable to a whopping 768K. 
Two disk drives are standard, with 720K storage per drive 
(that's about 1.4 Mbytes on two floppies). And it runs at a 



Editor's note: This article is not a review, since a review unit 
was not available at press time. It is based on a demonstration 
of the Model 2000 and material provided by Tandy. 



ne 16-bit Model 2000, 

with MS-DOS and hi-res 

color graphics, is Fort Worth 's bid 

to move into the mainstream 

and take on the Boys in Blue. 



breakneck speed of 8 MHz. 

But wait — there's more. The 
Model 2000 is capable of 640- 
by 4<X)-pixel high-resolution 
color graphics. In hi-res mode, 
you can display up to eight col- 
ors, choosing from a palette of 
15. You can also create mono- 
chrome graphics. With either 
^^mm^immi^^^mmmm^^ the color or mono screen, you 
have an 80- or 40-character by 25-line display. 

Then there's the software. Tandy will offer some of 
the most popular MS-DOS-compatible software avail- 
able, including Microsoft's Word word processor. Soft- 
ware Systems' MultiMate word processor, dBase II from 
Ashton-Tate, Microsoft's Multiplan spreadsheet, and the 
complete PFS business package. In addition, the company 
will sell a line of MAI/Basic Four accounting software 
packages, until now available only on the Basic Four 
minicomputers. 

The price? The base unit without the monitor goes for 
$2,750 (K250 with the optional 10 Mbyte hard drive), and 
$4,197 with the color monitor and graphics capability. Ex- 
panding internal memory to the full 768K costs an additional 
$1,895. So a complete system, minus the TV/joystick option 
and the monochrome monitor, will go for around $6,500 
(see Table 2 for the price list). 



70 • 80 Micro, Januar/ 1984 




All photos courtesy of Tandy. 



80 Micro, January 1984 • 71 



What's So Different About the 2000? 

Nearly every step of the way, the 
Model 2000 offers something new: 

The 80186. The 2000 is one of the 
first micros to use the 80186 micropro- 
cessor. It is, unlike the IBM PC's 8088, 
a true 16-bit microprocessor, with a 
16-bit bus. At 8 MHz, it is significantly 
faster than the IBM (4.7 MHz) or Tan- 
dy's other 16-bit machine, the Model 16 
(6 MHz). Tandy says that its bench- 
mark tests show the 2000 to be almost 
three times faster than the IBM. And 
they say 80186 object code is compati- 
ble with the 8086/8088. 

User-accessible expansion. Another 
first for Tandy is the manner in which 
the 2000 permits expansion; you do it 
yourself. The main unit comes with 
four expansion slots in the back. You 
slide your expansion board into one of 
the slots like a tray (see Photo 1 and Fig. 
la). Two lock buttons attached to the 
board hold it in place. 



The slots can be used for the follow- 
ing boards: 

• Two 128K external memory boards, 
each expandable to 256K. (The first 
128K expansion kit is installed in- 
ternally.) 

• A hi-res monochrome graphics 
board. 

• A TV/joystick board. 

• A DigiMouse/clock board (Digi- 
Mouse required). 

The hi-res color graphics kit includes 
chips that you or a Computer Center 
dealer plug in to the hi-res monochrome 
board. 

Mass storage. The drives are double- 
sided, double-density thin-lines, for- 
matted 96 tracks per inch. The 720K 
storage per disk is four and one-half 
times greater than the Model 4's. 

Three graphics options. The 2000 sup- 
ports medium-resolution color gr^hics, 



The Model 2000 


in a Nutshell 


CPU 


16-bit Intel 80186 


Internal memory (standard) 


I28K 


Internal memory (ina.ximum) 


768K 


Disk drives 


2 


Disk storage per drive 


720K 


Speed 


8 MHz 


Operating system 


MS-DOS 2.0 


Expansion slots 


4, user-accessible 


Graphics options: 




Medium-res color 


320x200 




4 colors 


Hi-res color 


640x400 




8 colors 


Hi-res mono 


640x400 


Video di^lay (color) 


14". 80/40x25 


Vkleo display (mono) 


12". 80/40x25 


External connections 


RS-232 




Parallel port 




AC outlet 




Mono monitor connector 


Options 


Hi-res mono monitor 




Hi-res mono graphics 




Hi-res color monitor 




Hi-res color graphics 




TV/joystick interface 




DigiMouse/clock board 




DigiMouse 




10 Mbyte built-in hard disk 




Monitor pedestal 




CPU floor stand 


Table J. Model 2000 specifications and options. 



hi-res color graphics, and hi-res mono- 
chrome graphics. 

The medium-res option requires that 
you have a color television and the 
TV/joystick expansion board, and 
gives you 320- by 2(X)-pixel graphics. 
You can use four of 15 colors at one 
time. 

The hi-res color option requires the 
CM-1 color monitor, the monochrome 
graphics option board, and the color 
graphics option kit. Resolution is 640 by 
400 pixels, and you can use up to eight 
colors (see Photos 2 and 3). 

Available colors are black, blue, 
green, cyan, red, magenta, brown, 
gray, light blue, light green, light cyan, 
light red, light magenta, yellow, and 
white. 

The hi-res monochrome option re- 
quires the monochrome graphics option 
board and either the VM-1 mono- 
chrome monitor or the CM-1 color 
monitor. Resolution is 640 by AOO 
pixels (see Photo 4). You have two 
shades of white (normal and high-inten- 
sity), and you can create reverse-image, 
invisible, highlighted, and underscored 
characters. 

The keyboard. The keyboard layout 
is shown in Photo 5. The 12 function 
keys are programmable, and the caps 
and number lock keys have indicator 
lights. The print key prints each charac- 
ter as displayed, while shift/print prints 
the current screen. The character key- 
board is tiered, while the numeric pad is 
flat for easier use. 

The name. Perhaps one of the most 
telltale changes is one of the most 
minor: the name. If you look closely at 
the front of the main unit, you'll no- 
tice that the machine is called the 
Tandy Model 2000 Personal Computer. 
"Radio Shack" has been dropped from 
the label. This is, more than anything 
else, an indication of how much Tandy 
wants to alter its image of a company 
that makes computers for hobbyists in- 
stead of serious businessmen. 



What's It Look Like? 

In keeping with the Models 4, 4P, 
and 12, the Model 2000 has a textured 
white case. The main unit includes the 
CPU, the two drives, and the expansion 
slots, with the power and reset switches 
mounted on the unit's front (see Fig. 1 
for diagrams). 



72 ■ BO Micro, January 1984 



Tandy has designed the Model 2000 
to be set up in a number of ways. Nor- 
mally, the monitor rests on the main 
unit whUe the keyboard sits in front. 
The keyboard includes extendable legs 
to give it more tilt. When not in use, the 
keyboard slides under the main unit. 

But if you buy the optional floor 
stand, you can mount the CPU vertical- 
ly and set it up to eight feet from the 
keyboard and monitor. You can also 
buy a monitor pedestal for the VM-1 
that both tilts and swivels. Tandy claims 
that, with the keyboard in your lap and 
the CPU on the floor, you reduce the 
2O0O's footprint to about 104 square 
inches, which is about nine inches more 
than that of the Model 100 portable. 



Now for the Software 

All discussions of the Model 2000's 
software must start with its operating 
system— MS-DOS 2.0. 

Tandy's reason for choosing MS- 
DOS is simple: It is the DOS of choice 
for the IBM PC and has spawned a 
huge software base for MS-DOS ma- 
chines. Thus, the Mode! 2000 user has 
immediate access to a variety of off-the- 
shelf packages. 

One has only to leaf through the IBM 
or general-interest magazines to get an 
idea of the software base for MS-DOS. 
Current manufacturers include Micro- 
Pro (WordStar, MailMerge, SpellStar, 
CalcStar), Ashton-Tate (dBase II, Fri- 
day!) , IMSI (Bisybase , Investment 
Manager, the IMSI Accounting Series), 
Pearlsoft (Personal Pearl), Sorcim 
(SuperWriter, SuperCalc), Perfect Soft- 
ware (Perfect Writer, Perfect Calc, Per- 
fect Filer), and, of course, Microsoft. 
And it's reasonable to expect that, if the 
Model 2000 takes off, manufacturers of 
IBM software will adapt their products 
to the 2000. 

Tandy will start users off with several 
proven software packages. They include: 

• Three word processors. At the high 
end ($375) is Microsoft's new Multi- 
Tool Word. The mid-priced model 
($249.95) is MultiMate from Softword 
Systems, currently being implemented 
on the IBM PC. At the low end is PFS's 
PFS:Write, one of four programs includ- 
ed in an integrated package. (PFS:Write 
and Word were still imder development at 
press time.) 



Photo 1. The Model 2000's expan- 
sion boards install easily. The board 
comes mounted on a tray; you slide 
the tray into an expansion slot at the 
back of the CPU case. Two lock 
buttons on either side of the tray 
hold the board in place. 




Photo 2. A screen display of the Model 2000's high-resolution color graphics. Shown are geometric 
patterns developed with G W-Basic. 




Photo 3. A screen display of mathematical functions. 



80 Micro, January 1984 • 73 



1a 



Connect 
Monitor Signal 
Cable Here 



AC Out 
(CRT) 




AC Power 



Graphics 

Option 

Board 



Connector 



1b 




. Drive B 



Drive A 



Keyboard 
Connector 



Drive Lights 



1c 



Input Output 
BUS 



Second Drive 
Data 



Second Drive 
Control 




AC Power 



Monochrome Parallel 
Monitor Printer 

Connector 



RS232 



• Three electronic filing packages. 
Leading the pack at $595 is the vener- 
able dBase II from Ashton-Tate. Also 
available are PFS:File ($140) and PFS: 
Report ($125), which work together to 
store data and create tabular reports. 

• Microsoft's Multiplan electronic 
spreadsheet ($249). 

• Under development is PFS:Graph 
($249), which creates graphs and charts 
from data stored in PFS:File. 

• The MAI/Basic Four small business 
accounting software. These packages 
have been converted from Basic Four 
minicomputers. Included are seven inte- 
grated modules: General Ledger ($495), 
Accounts Payable ($495), Accounts 
Receivable ($495), Inventory Control 
($495), Order Entry ($495), Purchase 
Orders ($395), and PayroU ($495). The 
last four were still under development at 
press time. 

• Videotex Plus ($49.95), an enhanced 
version of Tandy's communications 
package. 

• In languages, Tandy will offer the 
MS-Pascal Compiler ($299.95), the 
MS-GW Basic CompUer ($299.95), MS- 
Fortran ($349.95), the MS-Assembler 
($99.95), and Cobol. 

How compatible will the Model 2000 
be with the IBM PC and MS-DOS? 
Tandy is quick to emphasize that the 
2000 is not an IBM clone. Thus, while it 
will run some IBM software, those pro- 
grams that hook into the IBM hardware 
probably will not be compatible. But 
the 2(XX) should run any software writ- 
ten strictly under the conventions of 
MS-DOS 2.0. 

The 2000 comes with GW-Basic, an 
enhanced version of Microsoft Basic. 
Its extensive support of color and 
monochrome graphics includes com- 



Figure 1. Model 2000 schematics, (la): The two- 
drive Model 2000 as seen from the back, with the 
color monitor option installed on the mono- 
chrome graphics board, (lb): Front view of the 
CPU case. Note the two thin-line disk drives to 
the right; in accordance with MS-DOS protocol, 
the drives are labeled A and B. The keyboard 
connector and the power and reset switches are to 
the left. (IcJ: A second rear view of the CPU case. 
This unit includes the optional built-in hard disk 
drive with a single floppy disk drive. The input/ 
output board includes an interface for a second, 
external, floppy disk drive. Note the built-in 
monochrome monitor interface and the par- 
allel and RS-232C interfaces along the bottom 
of the case. 



74 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



BASF QUALIMETRIC FLEXYDISKS: 
A GUARANTEED LIFETIMEOF 
OUTSTANDING PERFORMANGE. 



BASF Qualimetric FlexyDisks feature a unique lifetime warranty* firm 
assurance tliat the vital information you enteron BASF FlexyDisks today 
will be secure and unchanged tomorrow. Key to this extraordinary 
warranted performance is the BASF Qualimetric standard,., 
a totally new set of criteria against which all other 
magnetic media will be judged. 

You can count on BASF FlexyDisks because the Qualimetric 
standard reflects a continuing BASF commitment to 
perfection in magnetic media. One example is the 
unique two-piece liner in our FlexyDisk jacket This 
BASF feature traps damaging debris away from 
the disk's surface and creates extra space in the 
head access area for optimum media-head 
alignment The result is a guaranteed 
lifetime of outstanding performance. 

For information security that 
bridges the gap between today 
and tomorrow, look for the 
distinctive BASF package with 
the Qualimetric seal. Call 
800-343-4600 for the name 
of your nearest supplier. 




ENTER TOMORROW ON BASF TODAY 

© 1983 BASF Systems Corp.. Bedford, MA ,,33^ 




Photo 4. A screen display illuslralins ihe Model 20OO's high-resoluiiori monochrome graphics. Shown 
is an excerpt from Tandy's demonstration program, indicating a possible Model 2000 system setup. 
The monitor (on its optional pedestal) and keyboard sit on the desk, while the CPU stands on its (op- 
tional) Jloor mount beside the desk. 



mands that produce lines, arcs, and 
circles. 

With color graphics, the Paint com- 
mand tints screen designs, and you can 
bit-patlem (tile) the design to produce 
textured graphics. GW-Basic's Get and 
Put commands insert graphics into di- 
mensioned arrays, which you can put 
back on the screen to simulate anima- 
tion. 

Other GW-Basic features include 
screen windowing, music and sound 
commands, light pen and joystick sup- 
port, full-screen editing, full RS-232 
capability, and a "soft key" utility that 
lets you define function keys as Basic 
key words. 

(See sidebar for capsules of Multi- 
Mate, dBaseil, and MultiPlan.) 

The Documentation 

The Model 20(X) comes with three 
manuals: an 80-page introduction to the 
Model 2(XX), a guide to GW-Basic, and 
a guide to MS-DOS. 

The guides are departures from pre- 
vious Tandy manuals, coming in 5- by 
8'/2-inch three-ring binders. The Basic 
manual is 368 pages long, and the MS- 
DOS manual 296 pages. 



Hardware 




Software 




Base unit (includes main unit and keyboard. 




MultiMate 


$249.95 


128K, two drives) 


$2750.00 


PFS:FUe 


140.00 


Base unit with 10 Mbyte hard disk 


4250.00 


PFS:Repon 


125.00 


VM-1 monochrome monitor 


249.00 


dBase II 


595.00 


CM-1 color graphics monitor 


799.00 


Multiplan 


249.00 


Hi-res monochrome graphics option 


399.00 


Videotex Plus 


49.95 


Hi-res color graphics option 


199.00 


MS-Pascal Compiler 


299.95 


TV/Joystick option (avail. 3/15/84) 


249.95 


MS-GW Basic Compiler 


299.95 


Digi-Mouse/Clock board (avail. 3/15/84) 


119.95 


MS-Fortran 


349.95 


Digi-Mouse 


99.95 


MS-Assembler 


99.95 


Internal 128K RAM kit 


299.00 


•Cobol 


595.00 


128K External memory board 


499.00 


The Home Accountant Plus 


124.95 


128K RAM upgrade kit 


299.00 


Planetfall 


49.95 


Monitor pedestal 


89.95 


The Witness 


49.95 


Floor stand 


145.00 


MAI/Basic Four Accounting Series: 








General Ledger 


495.00 






Accounts Payable 


495.00 






Accounts Receivable 


495.00 






'Inventory Control 


495.00 






•Order Entry 


495.00 






•Purchase Orders 


395.00 






•Payroll 


495.00 






•Multi-Tool Word 


375.00 






•PFS:Graph 


140.00 






•PFS:Write 


140.00 


Table 2. Price list of Model 2000 hardware and software. 


•Product still under development at press time. 





76 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



'THE RESULTS ARE IMPRESSIVE.,: 

— Dennis Kitsz. 80 Microcomputing; 12/82 



Langley-St. Clair's* Soft-View 

Replacement CRTs 

eliminates the strobe, 
flicker and fatigue 
from TRS-80's: 

rSow you can upgrade your monitor with 
the new medium persistence green or 
amber phosphor tube. 

State-of-the-art systems such as IBM™ 
and Apple ill'" do not use the less costly 
*'P4" B£rW display tube because it is 
actually intended for TV viewing and its 
rapid strobes (60 times per second) 
cause irritating eye fatigue. 

No amount of "green plastic" will solve 
this problem. But the new Soft-View 
CRT display tube from Langley-St. Clair 
will. 



cm 



• Available in slow decay Green or medium decay 
"European Amber" (the standard in Europe) 

- Made with Lead/Strontium impregnated glass that 
stops X-ray emission. 

Of high-contrast face glass that also stops most 
G.V. radiation. 

Available in frosted glass with extra Anti-Glare 
benefits. 

• Easily installed. ..comes with pre-mounted 
hardware. 

- Warranted for one full year against manufacturing 
defects or tube failure. 

The finest quality double-dark glass phosphor 
fields to produce dramatic contrast. 

• Ideal for Word Processing and Programming, yet 
fast enough for Games and Graphics. 



Lsis Soft-View^CRTS 

D "Gri42 Green Phosphor ^79.95 

D "GiN42G Green Phosphor w/ Anti-Glare 589.95 

D "OR34 Amber Phosphor $89.95 

n "OR34G Amber Phosphor w/ Anti-Glare $99.95 

also available: 
D "R22G Red Phosphor w/Anli-Glare $139.95 

D ''B22G Blue Phosphor w/Anti-Glare $139.95 

Plus: $7.00 for packing and UPS Shipping 

$ 1 7.00 for Overseas. Parcel Post or UPS Blue l^bel 
Add Sales Tax where applicable. 
(Inquire about the CRTs we have available for 
many other computer models) 



For MasterCard and Visa Orders only, call 

800/221-7070^91^76, 

Langley-St. Clair Instrumentation Systems, Inc. 

132 West 24th St.. New York. N.Y. lOOll 




.^462 



Artual unrt-luuciied photo, 
* World's largest supplier ol upgratltd re place mciil CRT's, 
Soft-View. IBM. Apple and TRS-80 and iradt-niarks of 151S. IBM. Appir CompuiiT and Tandy Corp 




Photo 5. The Model 2000 keyboard. The non-number keys are tiered down the keyboard, but the numeric keypad keys lie flat. 



Tandy will also offer a Programmer's 
Reference Manual for Assembly-lan- 
guage programmers, and will include 
hardware information in the Model 
2000 Technical Manual. 

(80 Micro will review the manuals in a 
later issue.) 

Finding a Place in the Market 

Tandy does not consider the 2000 to 
be an IBM copy. They are selling it, 
rather, as a high-performance MS-DOS 
machine. 

'*It is not in any way an IBM work- 
alike," says Don White, a product line 
manager at Tandy. "It is truly a next- 
generation product. 

"In every aspect you could mention, 
from disk space to graphics, it is superi- 
or to anything out there." 

Director of Merchandising Ed Juge 
echoes White's sentiments. "The world 
doesn't need more IBM copies," he 
says. "If you want an IBM-like ma- 
cWne and don't want to buy an IBM 
product, there are plenty of machines 
just like it." 

Juge sums up Tandy's attitude to- 
wards IBM thus: "They're a good com- 
pany. But they're not known for mak- 
ing leading-edge products. I think we 
got the jump on them this time." 



But there is no question that Tandy is 
aiming the Model 2000 squarely at the 
IBM PC market. Their benchmark tests 
compare it to the IBM. Their advertise- 
ment includes a Model 2000-IBM PC 
comparison chart. And IBM naturally 
comes up in nearly any conversation on 
the 2000. 

Ironically, Tandy will use the soft- 
ware base largely developed by IBM's 
influence. The strategy, says White, is 
to go with well-knovm software that's 
proven and immediately available. 

"The intent is to have the most popu- 
lar software products available for this 
machine," he says. 

Most of that software, and the soft- 
ware Tandy will offer initially, is obvi- 
ously aimed at the businessman. But 
Juge says that Tandy will not sell the 
2000 specifically as a business machine. 
"We won't target it at a specific mar- 
ket," Juge says. "Whether you want a 
computer for your business or home, if 
you want MS-DOS with beautiful color 
graphics and lots of expansion capabili- 
ties, this machine is for you." 

With the Model 2000, Tandy now 
covers nearly every comer of the micro- 
computer market. The Model 4 contin- 
ues with TRSDOS, the Models 12 and 4 
run CP/M, and the Model 16 runs 
Unix. 



"The market is segmented, no ques- 
tion about it," says Juge. "It might stay 
that way, or it might follow MS-DOS. 
It doesn't much matter to us." 

What remains to be seen is how the 
TRS-80 computers do against each 
other. Will the Model 2000 encroach on 
the Model 4 from one side, while the 
Model 4P takes away sales on the 
other? How will the 2000 affect the 
Model 12? Will it see any penetration 
outside of business or will the Model 4 
and Color Computer maintain the 
home market? 

Again, Juge isn't concerned. "I don't 
think (the 2000) will have a great effect 
on the rest of the line," he says. 
"We feel that each product will stand 
on its own." 



A Final Word 

Naturally, no final judgments about 
the 2000 can be made until people have 
a chance to see, and the press has a 
chance to review, the machine. But if 
the 2000 lives up to its potential, we can 
expect the company to reestablish itself 
in the microcomputer marketplace over 
the next year or so. 

And this will be good news to all 
TRS-80 owners, no matter what system 
they own. ■ 



78 • BO Micro, January 1984 



Model 



• • t 



Review Roundup 



These three reviews are condensed evaluations of 

products available for the Model 2000. Although the 

authors based their judgments on each product's 

performance with another system, these capsule 

reviews give you insight into the quality and abilities of 

MultiMate, dBase II, and Multiplan. Read them for a 

glimpse of the power available to you now. 



MultiMate 

Softword Systems Inc. 

52 Oakland Ave. North 

East Hartfonl, CT 06027 

$495 



MultiMate is one of the better de- 
signed and organized word process- 
ing packages available. It's a scaled- 
down mainframe system, so until 
now many of its features have been 
available only on dedicated word 
processors. 

For the money, MultiMate offers 
unparalleled features and is more 
friendly than the competition. It 
comes with my highest recommenda- 
tion because of its quality and, just 
as important, because Softword Sys- 
tems Inc. seems prepared to fuUy 
support it. 

The Package 

The package includes three disks, 
one labeled Boot, the actual word 
processing software; one labeled Sys- 
tem, the help files and printer action 
tables; and the third labeled Utilities, 
which contains software to convert 
ASCII files to MultiMate files and 
vice versa, a recovery program that 
attempts to rebuild documents that 
have lost data because of system er- 
ror, and an edit program for the 
printer action tables. 



Using the Program 

While you start MultiMate from a 
menu, it's misleading to say that 
MultiMate is a menu-driven pro- 
^■am. Many functions are available 
through ingenious implementation 
of the function, numeric, and alpha- 
betic keys in conjunction with the 
shift, ALT, and control keys. More 
than 50 functions allow almost un- 
limited flexibility in moving within 
text and formatting a document. 

Twenty-seven other key combi- 
nations available on the regular 
keyboard and numeric keypad let 
you invoke functions such as print 
pitch control, subscripts, super- 
scripts, and so on. An excellent on- 
line help facility describes which keys 
do what. 

Another impressive feature of 
MultiMate is the speed with which it 
moves text around on the screen. 
Pages don't scroll onto the screen — 
they appear instantaneously. 

MultiMate is a page-oriented word 
processing system, which means that 
it stores each page as a separate doc- 
ument on the disk. If the system 
should crash while you're working 
on a document, the most damage 
you'll do is lose the page on which 
you were working. 

Also, page-oriented word process- 
ing obviates system memory problems 
that some packages have because the 



entire document doesn't have to 
reside in memory at once. 

Another feature of MultiMate is 
its ability to add and subtract col- 
umns of numbers in a text docu- 
ment. MultiMate can also copy, de- 
lete, insert, or move columns of 
numbers or text. 

A key feature of MultiMate is the 
use of highlighting to demarcate the 
text you've manipulated. By using 
the cursor control keys or the various 
function keys (word, line, sentence, 
or paragraph highlight), you tell the 
computer what text to copy or move. 
That text then appears highlighted 
on the screen. 

MultiMate has a sophisticated and 
comprehensive list of document for- 
matting features. The program sup- 
ports most printers found in the 
home and office. Softword Systems 
will customize MultiMate to match a 
printer you own if it doesn't current- 
ly support your particular model. 
They provide a toll-free support line 
to answer questions on printer sup- 
port or handle problems you might 
have with the program. 

MultiMate lets you insert printer 
control codes in your documents. 
The program supports underlining 
with the Epson dot-matrix printer, 
five-line headers and footers, alter- 
nate page headers and footers, and 
automatic page numbering. A merge 



80 Micro, January 1984 * 79 



function creates form letters that au- 
tomatically insert variables. 

Unique to MultiMate is the ability 
to instruct files to print at a later date 
or time. Also, you can request that 
MultiMate print the document in the 
foreground or background; if you 
choose the background option, you 
can work on a new document while 
the first one prints out in the back- 
ground mode. You can also specify 
the start and stop page numbers. 

MultiMate offers a unique record- 
keeping system to track documents 
as you create them. When you enter 
the Create New Document mode, you 
are presented with a header document 
screen that lets you identify specifics 
about the text you're creating, such as 
the author, system operator, iden- 
tification key words, and comments. 
The program automatically enters the 
creation date and update date. 

If you later want to find the docu- 
ment, you can search for it using the 
fields from this same screen. For in- 
stance, you can specify a date or a 
range of dates by which to search 
and enter information such as au- 
thor, operator, or subject. The pro- 
gram locates all documents that meet 
the search criteria. 

MultiMate requires a lot of ran- 
dom-access memory because all the 
programs reside in memory while 
you're using the package. Additional 
memory provides little benefit since 
the program works on one page at a 
time. 

The only practical way to use this 
program is with two disk drives. 
While in theory you could use one 
drive, there would be little room left 
on a single disk for a document be- 
cause the system disk is already al- 
most full (on single-sided drives). 

The program isn't copy-protected 
so you can make back-up copies as 
required. MultiMate's documenta- 
tion is conveniently tabbed and well- 
organized, and the instructions are 
clear and concise. 

Drawbacks 

Even MultiMate has a few faults. 
The cursor moves slowly when mov- 
ing word by word, which seems odd 
for a program that otherwise runs so 
fast. When renumbering a document 
after making many changes, end-of- 
paragraph markers sometimes ap- 
pear in the text at the end of lines. 



Also, it is a bit of a nuisance to have 
to use a third disk for the utilities; 
given the size of MultiMate, 1 do not 
see any alternatives. ■ 



This condensed review of Multi- 
Mate is based on the review by 
Shawn W. Bryan that appeared in 
the November 1983 issue of Desktop 
Computing. Bryan evaluated the 
MS-DOS version for the IBM PC 
with J28K of RAM. 



dBase n 

Ashton-Tale 

9929 Jefferson 

Los Angeles, CA 90230 

$700 

dBase II is a relational data base, 
which means it is a data base struc- 
tured like a table. As with any data 
base, you can categorize and store 
data in table format and later recall 
that data according to category or 
combination of categories. 

The program is written entirely in 
Assembly language and so operates 
very quickly. It's written in the style 
of a command-line interpreter so you 
don't have to wade through a series 
of menus to get to the desired opera- 
tion. This feature also lets you write 
programs in the dBase II data-ma- 
nipulation language so you can eas- 
ily set up custom applications or 
automate a frequently used sequence 
of commands. 

dBase II works with up to 65,535 
records in one file. Each record con- 
tains up to 32 fields and up to 1,000 
characters. However, by employing 
a Link option, you can treat two files 
as one for a total of 64 fields and 
2,000 characters per record. This 
translates into a 130-Mbyte file that 
dBase II can manipulate. 

Obviously, you aren't software 
limited with dBase II, but hardware 
limited with most microcomputers. 
Any given field of a record can have 
a maximum of 254 characters. 

You can use two data files simul- 
taneously, and by entering Use fol- 
lowed by a file name, you can sub- 
stitute a new file for one of the 
current files. Several commands in- 
volve a third file in their operation, 
providing even more versatility and 
convenience. 



dBase II provides over 50 major 
commands, most of which allow sev- 
eral options. You can use the ma- 
jority of these commands inter- 
actively, and you can use all of 
them in the command files to form a 
structured programming language. 
However, the casual user can effec- 
tively use dBase II interactively wath 
only 11 commands: Create, Use, Ap- 
pend, Locate, Display, Delete, Re- 
call, Edit, Sort, Report, and Quit. 

You enter data into dBase II from 
the keyboard or from other data files 
by using the Append command. 
These files can be either dBase II for- 
matted files or in a delimiter-type 
format. 

Similarly, you can write data out 
in dBase II format or a delimiter- 
type format with the Copy com- 
mand. This ability, in combination 
with chaining capability, lets you 
conveniently interface dBase II com- 
mand files to other programs. 

A general Report command is 
available for generating quick table- 
type reports. There are also cursor 
positioning commands for special 
printing needs or custom displays. 

You can use data files to update 
other files, either adding to or re- 
placing data in certain fields if cer- 
tain conditions (which you specify) 
are met. 

Calculational commands total a 
given data base's numerical data to 
another data file or transfer the sums 
of a designated field to in-memory 
variables. In both cases, you can 
embed conditional instructions in the 
commands to limit their effect. 

dBase II also contains a full-screen 
editor that you can use to edit rec- 
ords and build command files. 

You can organize dBase II data 
bases in either of two ways. Sorting a 
data base rearranges the records on 
the file according to any field you 
specify, which takes time on a large 
file. You can use successive sorts if 
you require different levels of organ- 
ization. If you use this method regu- 
larly on a given file, you can set up a 
simple command file to do successive 
sorts automatically. 

You can also index any given data 
file on any combination of fields 
totaling fewer than 100 characters. 
Indexing a file is considerably faster 
than sorting it. You only need to in- 
dex once, since subsequent appends, 



80 • 80 Micro, January 1984 




Don't waste another second waiting for your printer to finish 
before you can use your computer again. With Microbuffer 
printer buffers you can print and process simultaneously! 

MICROBUFFER. 

SO WHAT ARE YOU WAITING FOR?. 



Another fine product It om ^= ^^ PHACTICAL 

BPERIPHERALS 



31245 La Baya Drive, Westlake Village, California 91362 

(213) 991-8200 • TWX 910-336-5431 



edits, replaces, or deletes automati- 
cally update the Index file. You can 
maintain up to seven indexes simul- 
taneously on one file. 

Once you index a file, you can use 
a Find command to locate a specific 
record. Typical search times on a 
floppy disk system take under two 
seconds. Also, a Locate command 
searches out data whether or not 
you've indexed a data file, although 
not as quickly. 

If you have two data files with dif- 
ferent structures but with at least one 
common field to serve as a key, you 
can use the Join command to form a 
new data file from a combination of 
the two. 

dBase II is well documented with 
over 350 pages split between a tutori- 
al and a reference manual. It's also 
well supported and is continually 
being improved. Several other pro- 
grams are available to support dBase 
II, including program generators for 
quickly building command files, and 
programs that interface dBase II to 
other established software packages. 
All in all, dBase II is an exciting alter- 
native and a program worthy of seri- 
ous consideration. ■ 

This review is a condensed version 
of one by Clyde Lightfoot that ap- 
peared in Microcomputing, October 
1982. Lightfoot evaluated dBase 11 
for CP/M systems. 



Multiplan 

Microsoft Corp. 
10700 Northup Way 
BeUevue, WA 98004 

$275 



Microsoft's Multiplan spreadsheet 
program performs superbly. It's a 
two-disk package that provides im- 
pressive versatility in what-if cal- 
culations. 

Multiplan 's disks are called Boot 
and System. I found out quickly that 
the System disk doesn't boot up un- 
less you first load the Boot disk. 
Afterward, you're asked to insert the 
System disk and type RETURN. A 
spreadsheet then appears on your 
screen. 



The spreadsheet consists of 25 
rows by 63 columns, for a total of 
more than 16,000 locations or cells. 
Cells can contain values, formulas, 
or labels, and sometimes a combina- 
tion of these. 

Features 

You can perform any kind of a- 
rithmetic calculation in single cells or 
by interaction of cells. You can also 
name individual cells, rows, and col- 
umns, and then continue to con- 
struct your spreadsheet. For in- 
stance, you could ask the program to 
arrive at costs by adding the col- 
umns "Material" and "Labor" and 
"Overhead," instead of using a 
much more complicated formula. 

AH standard statistical functions, 
such as minimum, maximum, look- 
up, sum, and others, are available. 
You will find built-in logical and 
transcendental functions, such as 
True, False, Not, Or, If.. .Then... 
Else, trigonometric functions, log, 
and so forth. Multiplan also sup- 
ports dollar and percent formats not 
found in other spreadsheets. Addi- 
tionally, you can sort either 
alphabetically or numerically. 

If you're working with a large 
spreadsheet, you can divide it into 
"windows." It's possible to main- 
tain eight active windows at one 
time, allowing you to keep track of 
many critical areas simultaneously. 

Internal rate of return (of an in- 
vestment) is one of the more compli- 
cated, and sometimes controversial, 
calculations Multiplan performs. It 
can solve most internal rate of return 
problems by iteration. It also calcu- 
lates standard deviations and net 
present values. 

Multiplan offers various features 
not available with VisiCalc. Multi- 
plan's scrolling is faster and more 
versatile, and you can move the cur- 
sor in any direction. Cells can con- 
tain values plus letters, a dollar, 
or a percent format. Variable col- 
umn widths are available. 

You can name columns, rows, or 
whole blocks of data for future refer- 
ence in calculations. You can lock in- 
dividual cells or blocks of cells to 
avoid losing formulas or data acci- 
dentally. If you have made changes 
in your model since you loaded it, 



the program recalculates when you 
ask to save a file. 

You can tell the program where to 
print your model by specifying right 
and top margins. And you can save 
print parameters in your model file 
so you don't have to remember a 
print format every time you use the 
program. 

The program displays the main 
menu at the bottom of the screen at 
all times. This makes it possible, 
most of the time, to give commands 
in plain English. A special help menu 
is available to explain commands 
further. The menu can be distracting 
once you learn the commands, and 
there's no way to get it off the screen, 
a disadvantage. 

Documentation 

The Multiplan package includes a 
handy Quick Reference Guide and a 
421-page manual. It's certainly one 
of the better software manuals — 
detailed and well- written. But, 
because of the complexity of the sub- 
ject matter, many intricate features 
aren't fully explained. You'll still 
need hours of experience before you 
fully master Multiplan. 

One of the first things you leam 
from the documentation is how to 
make one back-up copy of the soft- 
ware. It's highly recommended that 
you do this ri^t away. With care- 
less handling, it is possible to lose 
this one-time ability on the original 
disk. The System disk is not copy- 
protected. 

If you get stuck, Microsoft oper- 
ates one of the better telephone sup- 
port systems in the industry. I had 
occasion to call the hot line and 
received prompt, courteous, profes- 
sional answers to my questions every 
time. 

Multiplan has so many features 
that it is impossible to describe them 
all here. As a matter of fact, I have 
only scratched the surface. It's un- 
likely that you will come across a le- 
gitimate problem in the framework 
of spreadsheets that Multiplan will 
be unable to solve. ■ 

This condensed review of Multi- 
plan 1.06 is taken from the review by 
G.R. Brieger that appeared in Desk- 
top Computing, July 1983. Brieger 
evaluated the version for the Apple 
He with 128K of RAM. 



82 • SO Micro, January 1984 




We'll give you a 3M Post-it^ Note tray and a 
sample pack of Post-it Notes— a $4.98 value. 
AbsolutelyfreelJust buy any specially marked 
box of 3M diskettes and send in the proof of 
purchase— with 75C for postage 
and handling. Complete details 
inside specially marked diskette 
boxes. 

One 3M value 
deserves another. 

3M diskettes have long been 
noteworthy for their unparalleled 
reliability. A reputation based 




on over 30 years experience in manu- 
facturing high quality computer media. Now 
we're giving you one more good reason to 
use high quality 3M diskettes. 

So buy a specially marked box of 
3M diskettes. And send for your 
free Post-it tray and notes today! 
Look in the Yellow Pages under 
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..'208 



3M 



MS-DOS 

Overview 



MS-DOS is the disk operating sys- 
tem (DOS) used by Tandy's new 
Model 20CX) and the IBM Personal 
Computer and its many clones. The 
technical differences between MS- 
DOS and other TRS-80 operating 
systems are too extensive to ade- 
quately cover in a single article; 
therefore, I'll consider only the ma- 
jor differences you'd encounter. 

The two versions of MS-DOS in 
wide use are MS-DOS l.X and MS- 
DOS 2.x. The MS-DOS 2.X series is 
generally compatible with its prede- 
cessors. The Model 2000, like the 
IBM PC, runs under MS-DOS 2.0. 

Commands and File Names 

The Table lists the MS-DOS com- 
mands and their functions. MS-DOS 
has two types of commands: external 
and internal. The code that executes 
interna] commands always resides in 
memory, while you must load the 
code that handles external com- 
mands from a system disk. 

MS-DOS file names can be one to 
eight characters long, with an op- 
tional three-character extension sep- 
arated from the file name by a period 
(for example, PINBALL.BAS). MS- 
DOS lets you use certain special 
characters {$, #, "^o, < , and so on) in 
file names; non-2000 TRS-80 operat- 
ing systems allow letters and num- 
bers only. 

Another difference found with 
MS-DOS is that its drives aren't 
numbered; they're lettered A, B, 
C, and so on. And the drive let- 
ter must appear before the file 
name, not aJfter it (for example, 
AiPAYROLL.DAT). 



by Jim Held 

When you use a lot of MS-DOS 
commands, you can use wildcard 
characters in your file name. The 
command DIR *.COM, for exam- 
ple, displays a directory of all files 
with the .COM extension. Similarly, 
the command ERASE T7T.BAS 
erases files named TOT.BAS, TAT 
.BAS, and TXT.BAS. 

One annoying difference between 
MS-DOS and aU non-2000 TRS-80 
DOSes is that MS-DOS deals only 



with one disk drive at a time. When 
you boot up MS-DOS, drive A is ac- 
tive, or logged. If you need a file on 
drive B, you must specify B: in the 
file name. MS-DOS won't automati- 
cally search other drives when it 
doesn't fmd a file on the logged 
drive. (MS-DOS shares this limita- 
tion with CP/M.) 

MS-DOS also lacks disk names 
and password protection. Anyone 
can see, update, and erase your files. 



Command 


Purpose 


TRS-«0 Equivalent 


CHKDSK 


Reads a directory, reports free space, number of 
files, free memory. 


DIR (A) 


COMP 


Compares two files for differences. 


none 


Copy 


Copies files (supports wildcards). Also appends 
files and copy to or from a device. 


Copy 


Date 


Changes system date. 


Date 


DEL 


Identical to Erase (below). 


Kill 


DIR 


Displays directory of files (supports wildcards). 


DIR 


DISKCOMP 


Compares two disks for differences. 


none 


DISKCOPY 


Copies an entire disk. 


Backup 


Erase 


Deletes a file from a disk. 


Kill 


EXE2BIN 


Converts files produced by Link program to 
.COM (command) format. 


none 


Formal 


Initializes a disk. 


Format 


Mode 


Sets mode of operation of a printer for a dis- 
play connected to color graphics adapter or for 
serial communications port. 


Fonns 


Pause 


Pauses system during batch-file execution. 


Pause 


REM 


Displays remarks from within batch files. 


period (.) 


REN 


Identical to Rename. 


Rename 


Rename 


Changes the name of a disk file (supports 

wildcards). 


Rename 


SYS 


Transfers operating system files. 


none 


Time 


Changes system time. 


Time 


Type 


Displays contents of a file on the display. 


List 


Table. Summary of MS-DOS commands. The TRS-80 equivalents column lists similar 


commands found in some TRS-80 DOSes. Some equivalents do not function exactly like 


the MS-DOS command, but are similar enough for comparison purposes. 



84 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



utility Programs 

MS-DOS comes with a debugging 
utility (Debug), a linking program 
(Link), and an archaic, line-oriented 
editor (EDLIN). 

The Debug program has the usual 
commands to display and modify 
memory and register contents, and 
it lets you execute a machine-lan- 
guage program with up to 10 break- 
points. When Debug encounters a 
breakpoint, it stops execution and 
displays the registers, flags, and the 
next instruction you want executed. 
The program doesn't support single- 
stepping. 

Debug also edits the contents of a 
disk file, compares two blocks of 
memory, fills a block of memory 
with a given value or values, searches 
memory for a specific string or val- 
ue, performs disassemblies, per- 
forms hexadecimal arithmetic, and 
inputs or outputs a byte to or from a 
given port. Debug is a fairly power- 
ful utility, but no more so than the 
LDOS or TRSDOS 6.0 debugging 
programs. 

The Link program produces relo- 
catable modules and combines sepa- 
rately produced object modules. It is 
most valuable to Assembly-language 
programmers. Its closest relative in 
the TRS-80 world is LDOS's CMD- 
FILE and, more distantly, NEW- 
DOSSO's LMOFFSET. 

EDLIN is a text editing program 
most often used to create batch files 
(do-files or JCL files to the TRS-80 
user) and small Assembly-language 
source code files. EDLIN has limited 
search and replace capabilities, and 
not a whole lot more. 



Since it's a line-oriented editor, 
you press the enter key at the end of 
each line, and you edit lines one at a 
time. Conversely, a full-screen editor 
lets you move a cursor around the 
screen and reformats a block of text 
if you make deletions or insertions. 

MS-DOS 

Introduced in the spring of 1983, 
MS-DOS 2.0 was originally written 
for the IBM PC-XT, a PC with buUt- 
m hard disk drive. MS-DOS 2.0 uses 
the same commands as its predeces- 
sors, and adds a special directory 
structure that makes it easier to 
manage the megabytes. 

The directory structure is most 
similar to that of the Unix operating 
system. It lets you group any related 
files in their own directories, making 
file management much easier. 

You could, for example, put all 
your word processing files in one di- 
rectory, all your payroll files in an- 
other, and all your data-base man- 
agement files in a third. Instead of 
seeing hundreds of file names scroll 
by when you display a directory, you 
see only the file names of the cate- 
gory in which you're interested. 

In the pre-Model 2000 TRS-80 
worid, only TRS-Xenix (available 
for the Model 16) offered this kind 
of convenience. (For more informa- 
tion about this type of directory 
structure, see the "Using Unix- 
Xenix" series in 80 Micro (Part I, 
November 1983, p. 212).) 

MS-DOS 2.0 also lets you redirect 
program input and output. You 
could tell a sorting program, for in- 
stance, to use the output of the direc- 
tory command as its input. You 



could instruct a data-base manager 
to send its output (which would nor- 
mally go to the screen) to a mailing 
list program to be used for input 
(which would normally come from 
the keyboard). This technique is 
called piping, because you can redi- 
rect data as if it were going through 
pipes. 

In general, MS-DOS 2.0 seems to 
be a stepping stone toward what 
might some day be a multi-user, 
multi-tasking operating system. 

Conclusion 

MS-DOS is not the ultimate DOS. 
Like the computer that first made it 
famous, it's actually quite conven- 
tional. Also like the IBM PC, it's in- 
credibly popular. More software is 
written for MS-DOS than for any 
other 16-bit operating system, and 
that's something to think about for 
the consumer who's buying a new 
machine, and for the programmer 
who's writing a new program. MS- 
DOS is where it's at. 

Moreover, MS-DOS is going some- 
where. Version 2.0, with its Unix-like 
directory structure and flexible de- 
vice handling, is only a glimpse at the 
power and flexibility that tomor- 
row's — or, in the case of the 20(X) — 
today's microcomputers offer. 

Look for a menu-driven com- 
mand processor that makes using the 
system easier for noncomputerists. 
Look for file and record locking, as 
well as password protection. MS- 
DOS will change and evolve as the 
hardware it runs on changes and 
evolves, and each new generation 
will make computers more powerful 
and easier to use. ■ 



80 Micro, January 1984 • 85 



WE UNLEASH in 
POWERFUL GRAP 






■■■H^ 



\ 



4 



.-^^ 



^■^ 





E W0RLD3 MOST 
HKS TECHNOIiOGli: 




/ 



4 




.■:L^ 




I 




You'll never see Infocom's graphics 
on any computer screen. Because 
there's never been a computer built 
by man that could handle the images 
we produce. And, there never will be. 
We draw our graphics from the 
limitless imagery of your imagi- 
nation—a technology so power- 
ful, it makes any picture 
that's ever come out of a 
screen look like graffiti 
by comparison. And 
nobody knows how 
to unleash your 
imagination like 
Infocom. 

Through our 
prose, your 
imagination 
makes you part 
of our stories, 
in control of 
what you do 
and where you 
go— yet unable 
to predict or con- 
trol the course of 
events. You're con- 
fronted with situa- 
tions and logical puz- 
zles the like of which you won't 
find elsewhere. And you're immersed 
in rich environments alive with per- 
sonalities as real as any you'll meet 
in the flesh— yet all the more vivid 
because they're perceived directly by 
your mind's eye, not through your 
external senses. The method to this 
magic? We've found the way to plug 
our prose right into your psyche, and 
catapult you into a whole new 
dimension. 

Take some tough critics' words 
about our words. SOFTALK, for 
example, called ZORK® Ill's prose 
"far more graphic than any depiction 
yet achieved by an adventure with 
gi-aphics." And the NEW YORK 



TIMES saw fit to print that our 
DEADLINE'^^' is "an amazing feat 
of programming." Even a journal as 
video-oriented as ELECTRONIC 
GAiVlES found Infocom prose to be 
such an eye-opener, they named one 
of our games their Best Adventure 
of 1983. 

Better still, bring an Infocom game 
home with you. Discover firsthand 
why thousands upon thousands of 
discriminating game players keep 
turning everything we write into 
instantaneous bestsellers. 

Step up to Infocom. All words. No 
graffiti. The secret reaches of your 
mind are beckoning. A whole new 
dimension is in there waiting for you. 

(For more information on Infocom 
games contact: Infocom, Inc., P.O. 
Box 855. Garden City, NY 11530.) 




inFocoia 

The next dimension. 

I'or your: Aupiu 11. Ai.iri. Comniwlore ftt. CWM 8; DEC Rainbow. 
nRC RTll. IRM. MS-IX)S3.0. NfX ^VC. SKC I'C- 8000. Osborne, 
Tl Prak-ssional.Tl 99MA, TRS.80 Modd I. TRS-80 Mik!i-I HI. 



'284 



1 — — r 



& 




1 








1 








1 








1 








1 








1 




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fleaeto®!? 




A ir and David Barnard 
by A.J. Barnard Jr. ana 1^ 






to communicate using^ 



^A useful means of comm ^^^ 

-""^rrrl^Spped persons, -ing a 
physicaUyhandicappe P 

typewriter is ^"^'^"i^ revised Model 
^This article Pr^sents^^d toSTYPER 
l/UI Basic ProS^^^r into a sound- 
that turns your "™P" " Uriter (see 
or touch-actuated ^y^ „ gO 

.■voice-controlled lyP ^^^^^^ 
Micro, Decemto 19S2 P^J^^,^ un- 
persons with Wtle or n ^ e, to 
Pol, but «* nomi^ int^J ^^ ^^^ 
manipulate the screen 
charactersthroughapnnten^^j^^^^. 
The program s two ^v _ 



,3eacomputertocornmunic^-,^^tr 
teringasoundo^toucmg^^^^^^^^^p 

SSn^-P^ranl communi- 
'Shrough written text. 



sound vs. Touch Con'ro^ ^^^^^^ 

m the original program V^^t by 
the character or comn^andy^^^^^^^^^ 

making a sound as tn ^^^ ^p^,^. 

throu^ a screen d^'^^^ ^^^^^s^ 
bet, some punctuation ^^^ ^^^^^ 



88 • SO M/cro, January 1984 



rn 




Illustration by Daniel J. Collins 



80 Micro, January 1984 • 89 



recorder operating in the play/record 
mode. The signal goes to the computer 
through the earphone jack. An INP 
(255) command polls the cassette port 
before the cursor moves from one 
character to another. 

We reduced this sound-actuated con- 
trol to the subroutine in line 60 of the 
Program Listing. When it receives a re- 
sponse, the program sets the F flag. 

Some handicapped persons, regard- 
less of their abiUty to utter a sound, 
have sufficient muscular activity and 
control to tap with a pencil, press a but- 
ton, and so on. Our revision allows op- 
tional selection of characters by a key 
press through the routine in line 50; 



PEEK{15359)>0 corresponds to an 
INKEYS command. 

TOSTYPER (touch or sound typer) 
is more compact than the ori^nal pro- 
gram, placing the character set in an ar- 
ray, using numeric offsets for screen 
positions, and introducing subroutines 
and For... Next loops. The program 
prompts you (or an aide) to select sound 
or touch control. 

Character Sets 

To make characters or commands as 
easy as possible to enter, we arranged 
the screen display of the character set so 
that the most frequently used text char- 
acters are closest to the home position 





■ 


■ 


■ 


■ 


■ 


■ 


■ 


■ 


SPACE 


N + 


T + 


R + 


L + 




, 


ERASE 


E + 


1 + 


S + 


M + 


H + 


9 


8 


7 


A + 


0+ 


P + 


G + 





6 


5 


4 


C + 


u+ 


B + 


K 


I 


2 


3 


; 


D + 


Y+ 


V + 


7 


J 


• 


" 




F+ 


Q 


X 


J 


( 


) 


< 


> 


W + 


z 


/ 


- 


* 


+ 


= 




PRINT 


ff 


% 


t 


& 


$ 






ADJST 


C-SET 


XTRA? 


@ 












RETURN 


EA 


ED 


EN 


ER 


ES 


ENT 


ERE 


ERS 


EVE 


EAT/ 


END/ 


EACH/ 


EASY/ 


EARLY/ 


EVERY/ 

EVERY GOOD BOY = = 











= 987654321 


Figure 


/. Regular character set in 


enhanced mode with secondary display for teller E. 



Un« NumbeKs) 


Module Descriplion 


30 


Go: title/initialize/instruct/start 


50 


Touch control subroutine 


60 


Sound control subrouiine 


70 


Delay subroutine 


100-120 


Set display and mark print line 


150-160 


Move cursor and select column 


200-210 


Move cursor down column and select character or control 


250-320 


Process selected character or control 


350-390 


Display and allow selection of multi-letter combinations 


400-460 


Allow adjustment of cursor speed and print line length and spacing 


500-510 


Define variables 


550-640 


Read multi-letter combinations to array 


700-720 


Read character sets to array 


730 


Put sequence numbers of first and last characters in columns in arrays 


740 


Put legend for adjusts in array 


750-760 


Title; verify printer ready 


800-820 


Select touch or sound control 


850-880 


Give instructions for sound control 


900-950 


Show general instructions 




Table L TOSTYPER Modules. 



of the cursor. Since you use the blank 
space most frequently, it appears in the 
home position. 

We include two character sets with 
TOSTYPER. The first, a simple char- 
acter set, consists of the alphabet (in 
uppercase), the 10 digits, and some 
punctuation marks. The second, a full 
character set, incorporates the simple 
set and all of the Model I's other print- 
able characters. The full set is shown in 
Fig. 1. 

Both the simple and full character 
sets are in array E$ (lines 700-720). 
Each set is arranged in an eight-column 
format. 

When you first run the program, it 
installs the simple character set. Select 
C-SET with the cursor to change back 
and forth between the simple and full 
sets. Offset CH has a value of 8 for the 
simple set and zero for the full set. The 
program controls screen arrangement 
(lines 100, 110, and 200) from CH and 
the H and L arrays, which include the 
sequence number of the first and last 
character in each column (line 730). 

The Enhanced Mode 

To enhance the character set further, 
you can add some frequently used, two- 
letter combinations (digrams) to the 
program. A more effective enhance- 
ment involves placing frequently used 
digrams, trigrams, and common words 
in an array that you call from the main 
character set display. 

On the main display, each letter that 
has an enhanced mode appears with a 
plus sign appended. To get into the en- 
hanced mode (flag EN set) or back to 
the regular mode, use the cursor to 
select the XTRA? option. Fig. 1 shows 
the enhanced mode we developed for 
the letter E. If you select E + , 15 op- 
tions beginning with E appear at the 
bottom of the screen and you select one 
of these words as the cursor moves 
through the display. Select Return and 
only the E registers. 



The Key Box 

Models I and m 

16K RAM Cassette Basic 

32K RAM Disk Basic 

Printer 

External Microphone Optiona] 



90 ' 80 Micro, Jarjuary 1984 




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OTO 



-■J 30 



eo-MICROI-84 



Program Listing. TOSTYPER. 



'STATUS 5/20/83 

• -=- TOSTYPER -=- 

TOUCH- OR SOUND-CONTROLLED PRINTING 

FOR TRS-80 HOD I & III 

A. 0. BARNARD, JR. & DAVID BARNARD 
I 

' BASED ON H, RIGSBY, 80 MICRO 12/82, 72-7 

' OPTIMIZED BY SUBR. ' S/LOOPS & CHAR.-FREQ. BASED 

DISPLAY, ALLOWING CHANGE IN PRINT LINE LENGTH 

& SPACING, & USE OF ENHANCED CHAR. MODE. 



30 CLEAR1400:GOSUB750:GOSUB500:GOSUB800:GOSUB400:GOTO100 
50 P=0:CS=120-Q*10:IFFSTHEN60ELSEFORX=1TOCS 

J IFPEEK (15359) THENF=1 ;X=CS : NEXT: RETURNELSENEXT: RETURN 
60 FORX=1TOCS:OUT255,00:IFINP(255) >200:F=1:X=CS:NEXT:RETURN 

ELSENEXT:RETURN 
70 FORX=lTO75+50/Q:NEXT:RETURN 
80 GOSUB70:GOTO50 
100 CLS:FORI=0TO7:PRINTg(3+I*8) ,CHRS{160) :NEXT 

:F0RK=1+CHT08+CH:F0RI=H(K1T0L(K) :ET$='"' 

:IFEN=0ANDLEN(E${I) ) =2THENETS=LEFTS{E$( I) ,1) ELSEET$=ES ( I) 
110 PRINTei31+(K-CH-l}*8+(I-H(K))*64,ET5;:NEXTI,K 
120 FORI=0TOP-10:PRINT§PL+I,S5; :NEXT:PRINT"987654321"f 

:IFB>0THENPRINT@PL,A5; 
150 K=0 
160 GOSUB70:GOSUB70:POKECC+8*K,U:K=K+1:GOSUB80:IFFTHEN200 

ELSEP0KECC+8*(K-1} ,V: IFK<8THENl60ELSE150 
200 GOSUB70:C=R-9+K*8:POKEC-128,V:POKEC,U:GOSUB70 

:K=K+CH:FORI=H(K)TOL(K) :GOSUB80 : IFFTHENBS=ES( I) :I=L(K) 

ELSEIFI<L(K)THENZ=C+64:POKEZ,U:POKEC,V:GOSUB7fl:C=Z 
210 NEXTI:POKEC,V:IFF<1THEN150 
250 N=LEN(BS) : IFN>2THEN260ELSEIFN<2THEN270 

ELSEBS=LEFT5(B5,1) : IFENTHEN350ELSE270 
260 IFB$="ADJST"THENGOSUB400:GOTO100ELSEIFBS=''ERASE"THEN300 

ELSEIFBS="PRINT"THEN290ELSEIFBS="XTRA?"THEN310 

ELSEIFBS = "C-SET"THEN320ELSEIFBS="SPACE''THENBS = " " 
270 A5=A?+B$:B=LEN(AS) : IFB<PTHENPRINT@PL,ASlELSE290 
280 IFLEN(BS)>1THEN150ELSEGOSUB50:IFFTHENB=B+1:GOTO270ELSE150 
290 LPRINTAS:AS="":B=0:GOTO120 
300 IFBTHENB=B-1:AS=LEFT$(AS,B) : PRINT@PL+B,SS : GOSUB50 

:IPFTHEN300ELSE150ELSE15 
310 IFENTHENEN=0:GOTO100ELSEEN=1:GOTO100 
320 IFCHTHENCH=0:GOTO100ELSECH=8:GOTO100 
350 A=ASC(B$) -65 :PRINT@PR, "RETURN"; :N=0 

! FORJ=0TONW : IFT5 ( A , J) =" "THENJ=NW : NEXTJ 

ELSEPRINT@PR+(J+1)*8,TS(A,J) ; :N=N+1: NEXTJ 
360 FORJ=0TON:GOSUB70:POKESP+J*8,U 

:IFJ>0THENPOKESP+(J-1)*8,VELSEPOKESP+N*8,V 
370 GOSUB80:IFF<1THENNEXTJ:GOTO360 
380 IFJ>0THENB$=TS(A,J-1) 

:IFRIGHT${B$,1)="/"THENB5=LEFT$(BS,LEN(BS)-1)+" " 
390 J=N:NEXTJ:FORI=0TO2:PRINT@PR-9+I*64,STS! : NEXT!GOTO270 
400 CLS:W=15360:ZX=0:I=0:G=Q:GOSUB460:CI=1:CL='1:CH=10 

;GOSUB410!Q=G:G=P:GOSUB460:CI=5:CL=15:CM=80:GOSUB410:P=G 

:G=LL:GOSUB460:CI=1:CL=0:CH=66:GOSUB410:LL=G: RETURN 
410 FORE=1TO3:POKEW+(E-1}*20,U 

:IFE=lTHENPOKEW+40,VELSEPOKEW+(E-2) *20,V 
420 GOSUB80:IFFTHENZ = E:E=3:NEXTE!ONZGOTO43 0,440 J RETURN 

ELSENEXTE:GOTO410 
430 G=G-CI:IFG>CLTHEN450ELSEG=CL:GOTO450 
440 G=G+CI:IFG>CHTHENG=CH 
450 P0KEW+(Z-1) *20,V:PRINT@PY,G:GOTO410 
460 POKEW+40,V: Z=l+( I+ZX)*2:A=1 9+1*256 :PY=15+A:C»114+A 

:PRINT@A,D$(I+9+ZX) ; :PRINT@PY,G; :PRINTeC,DS( Z) ) 

:PRINT@C+20,D5(Z+1) ; :PRINT@C+40,RS; :W=R+I* 256 : 1=1+1 : RETURN 
500 PRINT@666,29:POKE16553,255:DEFINTA-Z:NW=15:DIH E5(117), 

H(17) ,L(16) ,DS(12) ,TS{24,NW) : U=191 : V=128 : Q=6 :CH=!8 !B=0 :P=30 

:EN=0:PL=896:S$=CHRS(140) :CC=15362!PR=713:SP=1607 2:LL=1 

:R=15491:PC=666 
510 PRINTgPC,28:STS=STRINGS{64,128) !W1$="PRESS ANY KEY" 

:WS=''-> MAKE A SOUND TO GO ON <-" :RS="CONTINUE" 
550 FORI=0TO24:FORJ=0TONW:READTTS:IFTT$="*" 

THENJ=NW:NEXTJ,IELSETS(I,J)=TTS:PRINT@PC,27-I;:NEXTJ,I 
560 DATA AL, AN, AR, AS, AND, ARE, ATE, ATI, ALL/. ANY/, ABLE/, ABOUT/, 

ABOVE/ , AFTER/ , ALONG/ . * , BE/ , BY/ , BIG/ , BUT/ , BACK/ , BEAT/ , BEEN/ , 

BEST/ , BOTH/ , BEGIN/ , BEING/ .BRING/ .BEFORE/ , * 
570 DATA CE, CO, COM, CON, CAN/, CUT/, CALL/, CAUSE/, COUNT/, COULD/, 

CROWD/, CHANGE/ ,*,DE, DO/ , DAY/ , DRY/ , DEAR/ .DEEP/ ,DOES/ ,DONE/ , 

DOWN/ , DAILY/ , DOING/ , DRIVE/ ,* 

Luting coniinued 



On initialization, the program places 
the combinations and words in array T$ 
(lines 550-640), and dimensions it (line 
500) for the letters A-Y and up to 16 
combinations per letter (NW= 15). 

Note the trick in line 550 to avoid in- 
cluding a lot of null elements in the data 
statements. As the program reads data, 
it checks for an asterisk. If it finds one, 
it leaves that element and the remaining 
elements for that letter empty. 

The data we installed in the enhanced 
mode includes about 40 common di- 
grams that you can't enter more effi- 
ciently as single letters, the 21 most fre- 
quently used trigrams, the 100 most 
common words of general English text, 
and a few additional words useful in 
personal writing. 

As seen in Fig. 1, Return is the first 
item in a secondary display. If you se- 
lect it the single letter enters. The sec- 
ondary display is further arranged by 
the number of characters and alphabeti- 
cally. We added wordspace to words 
that are not also often-used digrams or 
trigrams — a slash indicates a word 
space. 

In either mode, by holding down a 
key, or longer sound utterance, you can 
create a repeating action, thus typing 
double letters and spaces faster. 



Program Operation 

When you run the program (printer 
must be ready), the title page appears as 
the program counts down from 29 while 
it loads the arrays. At the end of the 
countdown, the program displays direc- 
tions on how you select sound or touch 
control. 

At this point the screen presents three 
options: Touch, Sound, and Continue. 
The cursor momentarily stops at each 
option. Press the spacebar (or any key) 
to select the option when the cursor is 
adjacent to it. Then do the same with 
Continue. From this point on, a handi- 
capped user can operate the program in- 
dependently. 

The program presents you with more 
directions and allows you to make ad- 
justments. You can adjust cursor speed 
from slow (1) to fast (10), select a line 
length of from 15 to 80 characters, and 
set line spacing. Do this by stopping the 
moving cursor at the appropriate posi- 
tion. 

When you continue, the program 
starts in the simple character set, dis- 



92 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



playing characters and commands. The 
cursor flashes across the top of the eight 
columns. Respond (in the touch mode) 
by pressing a key to make the cursor 
travel down a column with the letter or 
command you want to execute. 

The commands are Adjust, C-Set, 
XTRA?, Print, and Erase. Adjust 
brings you back to the adjustment op- 
tions, and C-Set sends you back and 
forth between the simple and full char- 
acter sets. XTRA? displays the en- 
hanced character set with words, di- 
grams, and trigrams for each letter with 
a plus sign. These commands don't 
wipe out partial print lines. 

The Print command prints out the 
line of text that you put together. The 
Erase mode wipes out any errors start- 
ing at the back of the line, one character 
at a time (unless you respond continu- 
ously by holding down a key or by mak- 
ing a continuous sound). 

Additional Remartts 

Refer to Table 1 for the program 
modules. It is a handy reference if you 
want to alter or specialize the program. 

You can add sound control with an 
external microphone connected to a 
tape recorder, thereby placing the 
recorder farther from the user and re- 
ducing concern over room noise. The 
inexpensive Radio Shack replacement 
microphone 33-103A is appropriate. It 
lets you turn the recorder on and off 
with the slide switch on the mike throat 
if you plug the two line jacks into the 
auxiliary and microphone ports. 

When you have 32K RAM or more in 
your system, you can increase the 
CLEAR 1400 in line 30 (i.e., CLEAR- 
MEM/3). If you want more words 
available in the enhanced mode, add 
them in the data statements of line 
560-640. A word should be fewer than 
seven letters long. For a seven-letter 
word, there is no wordspace (no slash). 
You can increase the number of combi- 
nations and words allowed for a single 
letter, from 16 to 22, by changing the 
value of NW in line 500 because the di- 
mensioning of T$, reading data to it, 
and operation of the secondary display 
aUtietoNW.B 



For correspondence concerning 
TOSTYPER, contact A J. Barnard Jr., 
J.T. Baker Chemical Co., Phiilipsburg, 
N J 08875. 



Listing conimued 



580 DATA EA.ED,EN,ER,ES,ENT,ERE,ERS,EVE,EAT/,END/,EACH/,EASY/» 
EARLY/, EVERY/,*, FAR, FOR, PEW/, FALL/, FELL/, FIND/, FROM/, FIRST/, 
POUND/ , * 

590 DATA GO/, GET/, GAVE/, GIVE/, GOES/, GONE/, GOOD/, GROW/, GOING/, 
GREAT/, GUESS/, GIVING/.*, HA, HE, HAD. HAS, HAT, HER, HIS, HIH/, HEAR/, 
*, I/, IC, IN, 10, IS, IT, IF/. ILL, ING, ION, ITH, ITS/, INTO/, INSIDE/,* 

600 DATA *,*,LE, LAY/. LIE/. LET/, LAST/, LATE/, LIKE/, LIVE/, LOOK/, 
LIGHT/, LITTLE/,*, HE, MY/, HAN/, HAY/, HADE/, MANY/, MORE/, HOST/, 
MUCH/, MUST/, HIGHT/,* 

610 DATA ND.NG, NT, NO/, NEW/, NEAR/, NEED/, NONE/, NOTE/,*, OF, ON, OR, 

OU, OFF/, OLD/, ONE/, OUR/, OUT/, OWN/, OURS/, OVER/, *f PR fPAV/, PUT/, 

PAIR/ , PART/ , PASS/ , PICK/ , PLAN/ , PI ECE/ , PLAIN/ , PRINT/ , * , * 
620 DATA RA, RE, RI. RES, RAN/, RUN/, READ/, REAL/, REST/, RIDE/, RISE/, 

RESULT/, *,SE, ST, SO/, SEE/, SET/, SHE/, SHOW/, SLOW/, SOME/, SUCH/, 

SHALL/, SINCE/, SHOULD/,* 
630 DATA TE. TH,TI, TO, TER,THA. THE, TIO, THAT/, THEH/, THEN/, THIS/, 

THEY/, THEIR/, THERE/, THESE/, UP/, US/. USE/, UPON/. UNDER/, UNTIL/, 

UP TO/, USEFUL/, *,VE,VER, VERY/, VIEW/. VISIT/, VALUE/,* 
640 DATA WE/, WAS/, WHO/, WHY/, WANT/, WENT/, WILL/ .WITH/ .WHOM/, 

WORK/, WHERE/, WOULD/, WRITE/,*,*, YES/, YET/, YOU/, YEAR/, YOUR/, 

YOUNG/, YOURS/,* 
70 PRINT@PC,2:FORI=0TO1X6:READE5(I) : IFE? ( I) ="XX"THEN 

ES(I)=CHR?{3 4) ELSEIFE${I)=''YY"THENES(I)=CHRS{91) 
710 NEXTI:PRINTgPC,l:DATA SPACE, E+,A+,C+,D+,F+,W+, PRINT, ADJST, 

N+, I+, 0+, U+,Y+,Q,Z,», C-SET, T+,S+,P+,B+,V+,X,/,%, "XTRA?", 

R+, M+, G+, K, ?, J, -,YY,g,L+,H+, 0,1, !,(,*,&, 

",",9,6,2,"'",) , + ,S,",'',8,5,3,XX,<, = ,ERASE,7,4,";",":",> 
720 DATA SPACE, E+,A+,C+,D+,F+,W+, PRINT, ADJST, 

N+, I+, 0+, U+, Y+,Q,Z, C-SET, T+,S+,P+,B+,V+,X,/, "XTRA?", 

R+,M+,G+,K,?,J,-,L+,H+,0,1,I,".",9,6,2,"'",",",8,5,3,XX, 

ERASE, 7, 4,", •",":" 
730 H(1}=0:PORI=1TO16:READL{I) :H{ I+l) =L(I) +1 :NEXTI 

:DATA 8,17,26,35,43,51,58,64,73,81,89,96,101,106,111,116 
740 P0RI=1T012:READD$(I) :NEXTI:RETURN:DATA SLOWER, FASTER, 

SHORTER, LONGER, LESS, MORE, TOUCH (0) .SOUND { 1) , "SPEED SETTING: " , 

" LINE LENGTH:"," LINE SPACING: ", "TOUCH VS SOUND:" 
750 CLS:PRINTCHRS{23) ;PRINT@8,"-=- TOSTYPER -=-"; 

:PRINT@128, "TOUCH- OR SOUND-ACTUATED PRINTER"; 

:PRINTgl96,"WITH ENTRY OF KEY WORDS AND"; 

:PRINT@260,"HULTI-LETTER UNITS ALLOWED."; 
760 IF(PEEK{14312) AND240) <>48THENPRINT@530, 

"READY PRINTER!"; :GOSUB70 :PRINT@530 ,STRINGS( 18 ,32} ;:GOTO760 
770 PRINT@588,"==> INITIALIZING <==";:RETURN 
800 CLSrPRINT 

" NOW SELECT TOUCH OR SOUND CONTROL ( OR 1 SETTING)." 
810 PRIHT:PRINTTAB(8}Wl$;" WHEN THE CURSOR (WHITE BLOCK) IS" 
PRINTTAB(5) "NEXT TO 'TOUCH' OR ' SOUND ',": PRINT 
PRINTTAB(9) "TO GO ON, ";WlS;" WHEN THE CURSOR IS" 
PRINTTAB(6) "NEXT TO 'CONTINUE'." 
820 I=2:ZX=1:G=0;GOSUB460:CI=1:CL=0:CH=1:GOSUB410:FS=G 
850 IFFS<1THEN900ELSECLS:PRINT"TO ACHIEVE SOUND CONTROL: 

1. REMOVE THE 'AUX' AND 'MIC PLUGS FROM THE RECORDER. 

2. PLUG AN EXTERNAL MICROPHONE INTO THE 'MIC PORT OR 
FOR THE BUILT-IN ONE HAVE THE ROOM QUIET AND PUT" 

860 S=15955:T=S+64:Y=T+64:Z=Y+65:PRINT 
THE RECORDER ON A HARD SURFACE. 

3. AS PICTURED , DEPRESS 'RECORD' k 'PLAY' AND THE 
SHALL PIN AT THE COHPARTHENT REAR." 

870 POKES, 151 :P0KES+1, 143 :FORI=2T013:POKES+I, 131 :NEXT 
:POKES+14,171:POKET,149:POKET+14,170:POKEY,181:POKEY+14,186 
:F0RI=1T013 :POKEY+I, 176: NEXT :P0KEZ,U:P0KEZ+2,U 

880 PRINT@908,W5; !GOSUB50 :IFFTHENCLS; PRINT: GOTO910 
ELSEPOKES+1,131:POKES+2,131:POKEZ,V:GOSUB70:POKEZ+2,V;GOTO870 

900 CLS:PRINT 

" TO SELECT A CHARACTER (OR A CONTROL) . PRESS THE SPACEBAR OR 

ANY KEY ON THE KEYBOARD, EXCEPT ' BREAK '.": PRINT 

910 PRINT 

" THERE ARE 2 CHARACTER SETS: SIHPLE & FULL. TO CHANGE SETS, 

SELECT 'C-SET', EACH SET HAS 2 MODES: REGULAR & ENHANCED, TO 

CHANGE MODES, SELECT 'XTRA?'." 

920 PRINT:PRINT 

" IN THE ENHANCED MODE, IF THE SELECTED LETTER HAS '+' ADDED, 

YOU SELECT A HUI-TI-LETTER COMBINATION OR WORD, OR BY 'RETURN' 

ENTER THAT LETTER." 

930 PRINT:PRINT 

" INITIALLY, YOU ADJUST THE SPEED FROM 1 (SLOW) TO 10 (FAST), 

LINE LENGTH FROM 15 TO 80 CHARACTERS, AND THE SPACING OF PRINT 

LINES FROM NONE UP. TO ALTER THESE SETTINGS, SELECT 'ADJST'." 

940 IFPSTHENPRINT@972,WS; :GOSUB50 : IFFTHENRETURNELSE940 

950 PRINTe992,"-> ";W1S;" <-" ; : GOSUB50 : IPFTHENRETURNELSE950 



80 Micro, January 1984 • 93 



GENERAL 



LOAD 80 



Dot Talk 



by Mike Rigsby 



Braille is a writing system for the 
blind that uses raised dots in place of 
letters and characters. Dedicated, com- 
mercially available braille character 
generators are expensive, so I wrote a 
Model l/lll Basic program called Braille 
that translates conventional text into 
braille and prints it on a letter-quality or 
dot-matrix printer (see the Program 
Listing). 

Braille prints braille text on paper 
using the impact of the print head to 
produce the dots. To read the generated 
text, you have to turn the paper over. 

The Program 

This program produces Grade I 
braille only, a simple letter-by-letter 
translation of text to braille (Grade II 
braille uses a compacted dot pattern 
and increases the rate at which you can 
read material). 



This program translates 
conventional text 
into braille characters 
using a standard printer. 



Braille supports only lowercase let- 
ters, spaces, and periods (see the Fig- 
ure). The program lets you store and 
print braille code to and from tape. You 
can thus produce multiple copies of the 
same text. 

Printers 

The ideal printer for this braille 
system is a converted IBM selectric or 
daisy-wheel printer. Set the impact 
force to maximum and use a low- 







■ ■ 






■ ■ 






• 


a 


b 


c 


d 


e 


f 


g 


h 


i 


J 


k 


i 


m 


n 


O 


P 


q 


r 


s 


t 


u 


V 

Figure. 


w 

Braille 


X 

alphabet. 


y 


z 





quality bond paper. You get the best 
results when you insert four sheets of 
paper into the printer together. 

If you have a dot-matrix printer, 
don't despair. Use a 9-inch strip of 
Vi -inch wide double-stick cellophane 
tape and latex rubber from household 
dishwashing gloves. Tape the latex side 
of the glove rubber and expose the 
flock-lined side. Tape this to the platen 
behind the computer paper. This system 
uses a letter O to produce the impact on 
the paper. 

Program Operation 

Braille uses the INKEY$ function to 
determine when you've pressed a key. It 
converts the character you enter to 
ASCII code and produces the proper 
dot combination. I programmed Braille 
to produce only lowercase letters, so the 
ASCII code for an uppercase letter gets 
converted. 

After you type in 15 characters, the 
program scans the entered text for a 
space, at which point it begins printing 
or recording. More than 20 characters 
makes the printer overshoot the edge of 
convenrional 8- by 10-inch paper. 

The dot pattern produced by this pro- 
gram is readable, but it's slightly larger 
than the standard size for braille docu- 
ments. A printer capable of advancing 
in increments of half-spaces produces 
nearly perfect braille text. ■ 

Write to Mike Rigsby at 5164 Sun- 
burst Drive, Norcross, GA 30092. 



Program Listing. Braille printer. 

5 CLEAR 500 

6 S = 80 

7 255=" " 
10 CLS 

13 INPUT"IF YOU WIS" TO PRINT BRAILLE FROM A TAPE, TYPE 'Y'";NS 

14 IF n$="Y" THEN 1100 

Livring vanlinued 



The Key Box 

Model I and m 

16K RAM Cassette Basic 

32K RAM Disic Basic 

Printer 



94 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



an advanced personal computer 




Basic S599 kit (not shown) includes: 

• Software compatibility with TRS-80 Model III and Model 

IV. plus CP/M 

• 128k RAM card (64k normal plus 64k bank-selectable), 
less RAM 

• 80 X 24 and 64 x 16 U/L case alphanumeric displays 
(software selectable) 

• Z-80 CPU. with bootstrap ROM and hardware/software 
selectable 2 MHz and 5 MHz clock 

• High resolution 512 x 256 graphics circuitry, with 
alphagraphics (less 16k high resolution RAM) 

• Disk controller for any mix of up to four disk drives 
(5-'/i'78". single/double sided, single/double density. 
built-in/external) 

• Parallel printer and light pen interfaces. 

• Built in audio 

• Provisions for readily available system ROM 

• Tan polyurethane enameled metal enclosure, with 
power supply 

• Standard typewriter keyboard, plus numeric keypad 

• CPU board, with six expansion slots 

• Parts kit. including ICs. sockets, fasteners and 
mounting hardware 

• Assembly manual 



Complete S1699 kit shown includes: 

• High-resolution 12" green screen monitor 

• Two SSDD slimline 5-Vi" floppy drives and power 
supplies 

• Hand rubbed, solid walnut end panels 

• RS232 Interface board 

• System ROM 

• 128K system and user RAM 

• 16k high resolution graphics RAM 



Additional Options 

• Single or dual built in slimline 5%" SSDD or DSDD 
floppy drives and power supply 

• Single or dual external slimline 8" SSDD or DSDD 
floppy drives, enclosure, power supply 

• 128k bank selectable RAM board (for 256K total) 

• 4164 RAMs 

• Monitor 

• Color Graphics (available 12/83) 

• Light Pen (available 10/83) 

• Hard disk host adapter (available 10/83) 

• Factory assembled units (available soon) 



P?(XRILSSIVIi l:l.l!Ci«)NIC5 

537 East Main Street • Lancaster, Ohio 43130 • Tel: (614) 687-1019 ^m 

THS'80 IS a Tandy irademark CP/M is a Oigiial Reseatch [raflemnik DG.iler Inquiries Invired 

80 Micro, January 1984 



^ See Usi ol AOiKfllsefs on Page 227 



95 



LOCK CUrER I.E. 
Cr YCLR SCFEEr! 

Bfop unauthorized use. 

I NTRDDUCI HG 



SCREEN EXAMPLE 



I 



fpriil « ; I03C'54 

Jolin f. Hoi 

DL« M!1843Ii 

1'1I5 tw Sir, it 

flnxlwjn. ii 11433 

'5I3> l!:'-^)? 

■ fnttr Vouf flf!s;5 Cfrit • 



.? 



The Compu-locK is an electronic circuit- board 
that virtually guarantees that no one can 
access your files on damage important, data. 
With the Compu-locK installed, your computer, 
on power up, requires the entry of a 
password before it can be used Without 
correct password entry, your computer will 
only disolay owner [dentification i 

The Compu-locK can be a very strong theft 
delenent, and if your computer should be 
stolen, the Compu-loch could be the 

sinyle-most reason that your computer would 
be returned to you Easy internal 
installation requires, no soldering or trace 
cutting. Bold mylar decal, included, warns 
would be thieves or oieddlers 

It has been estimated that the odds of a'^ 

unauthorised person gaining access to a 
computer protecl-ed by a Compu-locK, with a 6 
letter password, is one in 3Z6 billion Those 
are e^celienl odds in your favor i 

Tell us B-actly how you wish your display to 
be formatted and choose your own password. 
The screen display allcws you up to five lines 
of 35 characters each. Vou may use these 
lines in any manner you wish to display your 
ownei'ship identification lines may be sKippeO 
or not used as you desire See above screen 
exaffiple The lines should contain owner 
and/or company name, address, phone number 
and, optionally, a drivers license number or 
other identifiers of your choice The 
password may be up to 20 characters lony 
and any Keyboard character may be used 
(including lower case) with the exception of 
the arr'ows We do suggest, for your 
convenience, that the password you send to 
us be from S to 8 characters long and 
something that you'll easily remember 

Don't wait until it's too late. Your computer 
and files are worth the protection that the 
Compu-locK affords. Hail your order today 
Include a checK or money order for J39. 95, 
the password of your choice and a clearly 
printed or typed copy of how you wish your 5 
lines of information to read. Add $2. 5D for 
postage and handling, California residents 
add L S'/- Be sure you give the model number 
of your computer 

The Compu-locK is available for the TRS-80 
models 1, 3. i 4 and soon for other popular 
computers Dealer inquiries invited 

The Eonpu+er Cnuncil 

IBEEB Psr+hEnia 5+rEE+ 

Northridge, Cfl 913S5 

CE13] BG5-1411 

^323 



Listing continued 

15 INPUT"IF YOU WISH TO OUTPUT TO TAPE RATHER THAN PRINTER, TYPE ' 

Y'";M$ 

20 A=0:B=0:C=0:D5 = "''!E$="":F$="":GS="" 

30 A$="":BS = "":CS = ''" 

40 A$=INKEY$ 

50 IF AS=""THEN40 

55 GOTO 40 

70 B=ASCCA?) 

80 B=B-64 

90 ON B GOTO 100, 100r200, 200, 100, 200, 200, 100, 300, 300, 100, 100, 200, 2 

00,10 0,20 0,200,10 0,30 0,300,100,10 0,300,200,200,100 

100 C$=" 

110 GOTO 500 

200 C$=" . ." 

210 GOTO 500 

300 C$ = '' . " 



310 GOTO 500 



400 
405 



IF A$='' 
IF A$=", 
70 



'THEN 420 
'THEN 450 

':DS=" 



":PS=" 



410 GOTO 

420 C$=" 

430 GOTO 500 

450 C$=" '':DS = " . .'':F$=" . " 

460 GOTO 500 

500 B$=C$+B$ 

550 IF A$='' "GOTO 900 

555 IF AS="." GOTO 900 

600 ON B GOTO 650 ,700 , 650 ,.800 ,800 ,700 ,750 ,750 , 700 ,750 , 650 ,700 , 650 , 

800,800,700,750,750,700,750,650,700,750,650,800,800 

650 0$=" 

660 GOTO 900 

700 D$=" 

710 GOTO 900 

750 DS=" . ." 

760 GOTO 900 

80H D$=" . " 

810 GOTO 900 

900 E$=D$+ES 

920 IF A5=" "GOTO 1000 

930 IF A$="."GQTO 1000 

950 ON B GOTO 960,960,960,960,960,960,960,960,960,960,970,970,970, 

970,970,970,970,970,970,970,980,980,990,980,980,980 



960 F$=" 


GOTO1000 


970 F9=- 


GOTO 1000 


980 FS=" . ." 


GOTO10 00 


990 F$=" . " 


GOTO1000 


1000 GS=F$+G$ 


1010 A=A+1:IFA>15 THEN 1040 


1015 PRINTA$ 


1020 GOTO 40 


1040 IF A9=" 'THEN 1060 


1045 PRINTA$ 


1050 GOTO 40 


1055 IF MS="Y"THEN 1095 


1060 IF H$="Y 


THEN 1095 



1061 R=LEN(B$) :R1=LEN(E$) !R2=LEN(GS) 

1062 IF R<S THEN GO-'lUB 1200 

1063 IP RKS THEN GOSUB 1300 

1064 IF R2<S THEN GOSUB 1400 

1065 LPRINTB$ 
1070 LPRINT ES 
10 80 LPRINT GS 
1090 LPRINT 
1092 GOTO 20 

1095 PRINT#-1,BS,E$,G$ 

10 97 GOTO 20 

1100 INPUT#-1,BS.E5,G$ 

1102 R=LEN(B$) :R1=LEN(E$) :R2=LEN(G5} 

1107 IF R<S THEN GOSUB 1200 

1108 IF RKS THEN GOSUB 1300 

1109 IF R2<S THEN GOSUB 1400 

1110 LPRINTB$ 
1120 LPRINTR$ 
1130 LPR1NTG$ 
1140 LPRINT 
1150 GOTO 1100 
1200 B$=Z5S+B$ 
1210 R=LEN(B$) 

1220 IF R<S THEN GOTO 1200 

123 RETURN 

1300 ES=Z5$+E$ 

1310 R1=LEN(ES) 

1320 IF RKS THEN GOTO 1300 

133 RETURN 

1400 G$=Z5S+G$ 

1410 R2=LEN(G$) 

1420 IF R2<S THEN GOTO 1400 

1430 RETURN 



96 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



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^190 



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1236 E. Colonial Drive 
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Deparlmenl BO 
(305) 894-0789 (Florida) 



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If you've been playing 

the l-know-l-have-it- 

but-l-can't-find-it 

Hidden Disk game, here's 

a Push Button Solution 




The ARRANGERii . It makes your computer do all 

the work tn organizing and maintaining your disk 

program library. It's the only system with an 

1 1 ,000 program. 255 program name per disk capacity. 

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you're never left with a blank screen. 

ARRANGERii marks your disks by recording 

a name on each disk directory track. It stores-' 

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for highest speed: automatically recognizes 

35. 40. or 80 track Single''Double sided, S/D 

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Box 642, Layton. Utah 84041 (801) 546-2833 

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C -Compiler for LDOS 5.1 

* Integer subset with float via functions 

* Standard I/O redirection 
•Unix-compatable stondord library 

* Sequential files with read, write, append 

* Extensive installation library 

* Generates Z-80 source as output 
•Dynamic memory nxinagement 
"Includes EDAS4.1 macroassembler 

* Over 250 pope reference marxKil 



MISOSYS 

RO. BOX 4848 
ALEXANDRIA, VA. 22303 
tH 703-960-2998 



=- T>a. 



^ Sse Ust of ActvertlSBrs an Page 227 



80 Micro, January 1984 • 97 




Guaranteed to make your TRS-80 Color Computer* siz- 
zle with color, HOT CoCo magazine is informative, inter- 
esting, and best oj all just for the Color Computer. You'll 
look forward to HOT CoCo month after month because it 
has something for everyone, from the novice right on up to 
the expert. HOT CoCo gives you: 

•PROGRAMMING TECHNIQUES & TUTORIALS— 
that promise to make you a superior programmer. 

•UTILITIES — to save you time and effort on all your 
routine tasks. 

•EXPERTLY WRITTEN COLUMNS— including 
BASIC, GRAPHICS, FLEX and GAMES, 

•HARDWARE & CONSTRUCTION— ideas on inter- 
facing and enhancing to make building projects a 

•EDUCATIONAL APPLICATIONS— will stimulate 
and encourage imaginative thinking in your child. 

PLUS 

•BUSINESS PROGRAMS— sure to make you a star at 

the office. 
•FEATURES ON COLOR APPLICATIONS— make 

your computer reach its full potential and get your 

monev's worth from vour machine. 
•BUYER'S GUIDES & PRODUCT REVIEWS— now 

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341 F8 



98 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



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341 B8R 



;- See List of Advertisers or) Page 227 



80 Micro, January 1984 • 99 



HOME/HOBBY 




(^mS) 



LOAD 80 



The Taxman Cometh 



by Robert Athanasiou 



The chance of being audited by the 
Internal Revenue Service is about the 
same as that of being hit by a bus. The 
odds of surviving are also about the 
same if you can't prove that your de- 
ductions are legitimate. 

You need good records to protect 
your cash from the tax collector. 



SO you think you'll 
never be audited? Why 
not be on the safe side 
with Taxman, just in case? 



ENTER ITEMS USING THESE CATEGORIES: W = Wages, 


S = State w/held 


F = Fed w 


/held, E = FICA(Soc.Sec) , B = Bus/Pro+ 


, I = Interest, 


D = Dvdnd 


, C = Contrib, T = Taxes, M = Medical , 


= Other 


CODE /CAT 


DATE & SOURCE OF INC DP DED 


AMOUNT 


DC 


ARRL DEVELOPMENT FUND 


S 100.00 


ID 


EMPLOYEES CREDIT UNION #12345 


* 56.21 


II 


2ND NATIONAL BANK ACCT # 456789 


* 98.78 


DF 


FEDERAL TAX 


♦12345.67 


DS 


STATE TAX 


» 1234.56 


DE 


FICA 


t 2019.95 


IW 




* . 




ENTER THE 


SOURCE OF INCOME OR DEDUCTION 




** press <up— arrow> to go BACK one column 






Figure 1. Daia-entry screen. 





ENTER ITEMS USING THESE CATEGORIES: W = Wages, S - 


State w/held 


F = Fed w 


/held, E = FICA(SDC.Sec) , B = Bus/Prof, I 


= Interest, 


D = Dvdnd 


, C = Contrib, T = Taxes, M = Medical, O 


= Other 


CODE /CAT 


DATE & SOURCE OF INC OR DED AMOUNT 


DI 


MORTGAGE: 1ST NAT'L BANK * 


123O.0O 


DI 


CREDIT CARD REVOLVING CREDIT ACCT » 


1.23 


DC 


THE CHARITY OF MY CHOICE » 


123.45 


DT 


CITY AND COUNTY REAL ESTATE TAXES * 


456. 12 


DT 


SALES TAX ON 1982 MERCEDES-BENZ » 


1234.56 


DM 


DR. CUTTER: CHOLECYSTECTOMY % 


456 . 1 2 


> DO 


SUBSCRIPTION TO 80-MICR0C0MPUTING I 


19.23 


<P>PRINT 


FILE <L>LOAD FROM DISK <R>RESUME 


<Q>QUIT 


<D>DELETE 


<I>INSERT <S>SAVE ON DISK <Y>YTD SUMMARY 




Figure 2. Command-mode screen. 





Taxman can help. The Model I/III 
program lets you record income and de- 
ductions as they come along, and han- 
dles the computations. At the end of the 
year, all you do is push the Y key, and 
you have a full summary of your form 
1040 information. 

Even if you don't get audited, Tax- 
man will make your life easier at tax 
time. 

How It Works 

Figure 1 shows the screen when you 
enter data. The program is self-prompt- 
ing. It records up to 200 entries and lets 
you scroll them for review. Each data 
entry column is prompted by a set of 
underline characters [CHR${95)] and 
directions at the bottom of the screen. 

You can backspace to correct wrong 
entries at any time, as well as delete or 
insert lines. You enter the amount of 
your deduction as you would on a cal- 
culator, with the decimal point and dol- 
lar sign already in place. 

When you're in the command mode 
(see Fig. 2), the arrow keys control 
screen scroll. You can scroll continu- 
ously by holding the up-arrow key; if 
you press both the shift and up-arrow 
keys simultaneously, you'll scroll until 
you press another key. The down-arrow 
key works the same. 



The Key Box 

Models I and m 
32KRAM 
Disk Bai^c 
Printer 



100 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



I inserts a line, and D deletes the line 
indicated by the cursor. L loads data 
previously saved and S saves the data 
under the file name TAXFILE/DAT. P 
prints the file, without categorizing or 
summing, for archival or review pur- 
poses. Q returns you to Basic while R 
resumes the program where you left off. 
Y prints the summary and can be used 
at any time to let you see how you're 
doing. 

The summarized data for the year to 
date appears in Fig. 3. {The example is 
entirely fictitious.) 

Inside Taxman 

I wrote this program with the help of 
subroutines from Lewis Rosenfelder's 
book Basic Faster and Better. They cut 
my programming and debugging time 
considerably. The book has line-by-line 
descriptions of the subroutines and ma- 
chine-language programs used here. 

In the Program Listing line 10 speeds 
up the program by assigning memory 
locations to the variables in order of fre- 
quency of use. Line 10 also specifies 
that each data line is 63 bytes long, that 
there is a limit of 200 lines, and that 
memory above — 12600 is saved for 
storing the data. If you wanted to use a 
limit of 300 lines, LM should equal 300 
and MB should equal -18900. The 
start of the search routine in line 180 
would then change from CEC8 hexa- 
decimal (hex) to B634 hex. 

The program uses two machine-lan- 
guage routines. The first is Move Data, 
which is loaded in line 40 and called in 
line 7020. In line 7020 the From address 
is placed in array position US(1), the To 
address in US(3), the number of bytes 
to move in US(5), and the method — 
LDIR— in US(6). A move using the Z80 
code LDDR would be represented by 
- 18195 in US(6). The Move Data rou- 
tine is also called in lines 8130, 8180, 
8200, 8220, 8390, and 8410. In each case 
you need only specify the From and To 
addresses, the number of bytes, and the 
method used to move them. Like all of 
Rosenfelder's routines, it is fast. 

The second machine-language pro- 
gram is a Search routine that loads into 
array SS in line 140. Taxman uses the 
array C to pass information to the 
Search routine; that is, the starting posi- 
tion of the search (CEC8 hex), the num- 
ber of bytes per string (63), and the off- 
set position in the string (3), as shown in 
line 180. The Search routine finds the 
search key string, SK$, specified in lines 
1000-1170. 

The Search subroutine called in 2010 
uses the information in line 2000 to 



INCOME FROn HAGE5I 

ANYWHERE GENERAL HOSPITAL 19B2 YTD C65432. 10 

SUBTOTAL - «65,432,ie 


BUSINESS OR PROFESSIONAL INCOMEi 

SOFTWARE SOLD TO Sa-MICROCOHPUTINB «12345.60 
CONBULTINBi UNIV OF FLORIDA * 500. M» 

SUBTOTAL = 


«12,845. 


60 


DIVIDEND INCOME FROM INVESTMENTSi 

TANDY CORP STOCK CKV1224S • 
EMPLOYEES CREDIT UNION •12343 • 


876.00 
56.21 

SUBTOTAL - 


♦932 


21 


INTEREST INCOME <FROIi SAVINBS) i 

FIRST NATIONAL BANK OF ANYWHERE « 
2ND NATIONAL BANK ACCT * 456789 • 


1234.50 
9B.7B 

SUBTOTAL - 


♦1,333 


2B 


OTHER AND M I SCELLANEFH IFi INCOME) 


SUBTOTAL - 


»0 


00 


«** TAX UlTHELD SUTtlARY S*> 

FEDERffl. rax MITHELDi 

FEDERAL TAX •12345.67 

SUBTOTAL - 


♦12,345 


70 


STATE TAX WITHELDi 

STATE TAX « 


1234.56 

SUBTOTAL - 


♦1,234 


56 


PICA (SOCIAL SECURITY) WITHELO: 

FICA * 


2019.95 

SUBTOTAL = 


♦2,019 


95 


<*« SUrVIARY OF DEDUCTIONS >>> 

BUSINESS OR PROFESSIONAL DEDUCTIONS: 

TRS-a9 MOD 3 TAX CALCULATING DEVICE ♦ 2295.00 

SUBTOTAL = 


♦2,295 


00 


INTEREST (e.g. loan or iKir-tgage} DEDUCTIONS: 
MORTGAOEi 1ST NAT'L BWJK « 
CREDIT CARD REVOLVING CREDIT ACCT • 


1230.00 
1.23 

SUBTOTAL = 


♦1,231 


23 


CHARITABLE CONTRIBUTIONS: 

THE CHARITY OF MY CHOICE « 
SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON, INC * 
ARRL DEVELOPMENT FUND * 


123.45 
100.00 
100.00 

SUBTOTffl, = 


♦323 


45 


DEDUCTABLE TAXES (real estata, sales, etc.}i 
CITY AND COUNTY REAL ESTATE TAXES • 
SALES TAX ON 1962 MERCEDES-BENZ » 


456.12 
1234.56 

SUBTOTAL >■ 


♦1,690 


68 


MEDICAL EXPENSES: 

DR, CUTTER: CHOLECYSTECTOMY « 


456. 12 

SUBTOTAL " 


♦456 


12 


OTHER MISCELLANEOUS DEDUCTIONSi 

SUBSCRIPTION TO B0-MICROCOMPUTINB » 
OIL LEASING/DRILLING DEFHJETIITN AL. * 


19.23 
789.45 

SUBTOTAL " 


♦B08 


68 


Figure 3. Fictitious summarized data for year to dale 







search for the first occurrence of SKS, 
place the string in which it is found in 
temporary reserve in RE$, and keep 
track of how many strings it is to search 
(LN). This useful Search routine rapidly 
accumulates the items and subtotals by 
category. 

Lines 500-570 control the data input 
for each segment of the data line. This 
input technique is virtually foolproof 
since you can only enter an I or a D for 



the first data item and a member of the 
set defined by AX$ for other columns. 
You can enter only numeric data in the 
amount column. 

Just about the only way you can bug 
this program is to start entering data 
without first loading the data already 
saved on disk. If you trust yourself to 
remember to load data each time you 

Continued on p. 104 

80 Micro, January 1984 • 101 



Tax 
Preparers 

TAXSTAft 



For Modal 1/3/4 with 4SK and 2 ditk drlvai 

• Will do schedules 1040, A, B, C, D, 
SE, G, W, 6251 

• Tax calculations - tables, rates, in- 
come averaging 

• Uses !RS prescribed computer 
generated printouts or overlays 

• User friendly 

• Automatically calculates excess 
PICA, earned income credit, alter- 
nate minimum tax 

• Change one figure, program re- 
calculates entire tax return in 12 
seconds 

*219.95 with user manual 
Professional Tax Software, Inc. 
368 Chappaqua Road 
BriarcHff, N.Y. 10510 
<914) 941-6638 



1,^308 



FANTASTIC FOUR 
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FANTASTIC FOUR is a Plan that any 
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In a 12 month Plan, you'll get 4 different 

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Program Listing. TAXMAN.BAS. 

10 CLEAR20 00:DEFINTA-Z:DIMAS,AfPO,AN$,LZ,PL,Al,LV,LT,LI,AXSfLE,LN 

,J,X,HB,TT!,RES,SKS,S,HS,LM,CN$,SGS,DS,ADS,AH$,US(7) ,SS(84) ,C(9) :L 

E=63:LM=200:MB=-12600:J=0;LI=3 84:LV=7;LZ=0:LN=0 

40 SG$=STRING$(63,131) : DEFFNCN$ ( AS ,A) =STRING$ ( A/2-LEN { A$) /2- . 5 , " " 

)-l-AS:M$="S$###,###.##":US(0)=8448:US(2)=4352;US(4)=256:US(7)=201: 

DATA327,17, -6 90 2, -771 5, 201 89, -89 4 8, 94, 22237, 6 913, 3 3, -13 56 8, 123 45, 6 4 

01,1320,10731,6 37 9,-513 2 

120 DATA283 81, -8 956, 13 82, -893 5, 47 25, 2 9917 ,-8 9 41, 4206, 26 3 3 3, 17 937, 9 

03 2, 90 54, -1 9 22, -87 6 3, 9 4, 22237 :DATA-895 9, 215 8, 26 333, -1867 9, 21 229, 2 

1560,2 83 81,-8 942,4 966,24285,5 6 46,640 0,-11839,-148 91,-16 87 0,156 8 

140 DRTA8979, -2032, 8472, 28381,-8960, 358,-8925, 117, 29917,-8959, 4718 

, 26 333, -8 941, 3166, 22, -8935 :DATA47 25, 29 917, 6 16 3, -87 80, 267 0,26 3 3 3, 17 

931,24285,-8942, 4950,29475, 29219, 28381,-8960, 358, 1048 :DATA46, 3 8,-1 

5935,-25917, 10 :FORX=0TO84:READSS(X) :NEXT 

180 C{2) =&HCEC8:C{6)=63:C{7)^3 

200 CLS:POKE16420,1:PRINTFNCNS{ "TAXMAN", 64) : PRINTFNCNS ( CHRS ( 23 9) +" 

1982 by Robert Athanasiou, PhB, MD" ,64) iPRINTsPRINT 
210 PRINT"This program was built with the help of subroutines and 
data handlers developed by Lewis Rcsenfelder in his fascinating 
book BASIC FASTER AND BETTER & OTHER MYSTERIES."; 

220 PRINT" published by IJG Inc. 1981, Upland CA. " :PRINT:PRINTFNCN 
$("PRESS ANY KEY TO CONTINUE" ,64) :GOSUB6200 

230 CLS:PRINT"To use the program follow the directions at the top 
of the 

screen and the prompts at the bottom. The <up-arrow> will send yo 
u back a column to correct an error or move you to the commandmode 

235 PRINT" In the COMMAND MODE, the <arrow>"; 

240 PRINT" keys will scroll the 

data up or down the screen. Other commands are listed at the 

bottom of the screen. When entering data, use the 2 letter codest 

arting with an I for an INCOME item Or a D for a "; 

250 PRINT" Deduction. Witholding and FICA are considered deductlo 

ns. 

Press the <ENTER> key after Bach of the two letter codes then 
you'll be ready to enter the source then the amount for the item" 
260 PRINT:PRINT"A MAXIMUM OF 200 ITEMS MAY BE SAVED IN THE MEMORY 
ALLOTTED":PRINT:PRINTFNCNS( "PRESS ANY KEY TO CONTINUE. .." ,64) :GOSU 
B6200:CLS:PRINTFNCNS("In the COMMAND mode :", 64) : PRINT 
290 PRINT" <UP-ARROW> scrolls data up; <SHIFT><UP-ARROW> scrolls un 
til 

another key is pressed. <DOWN-ARROW> is similar ." :PRINT 
300 PRINT"<D> deletes a line, <I> inserts a line" :PRINT:PRINT 
"<L> and <S> load and save data to disk.":PRINT 

310 PRINT"<R> resumes program, <Q> ends program and returns to BAS 
IC":PRIHT:PRINT"<P> prints the data for hard copy storage or check 
ing. ":PRINT 

320 PRINT" <Y> invokes the subroutine that sums the tax categories 
and 

prints a copy for your accountant or form 1040." : PRINTFNCNS ( " 
PRESS ANY KEY TO BEGIN PROGRAM" , 64) ;: GOSUB6200 

400 CLS:PRINT"ENTER ITEMS USING THESE CATEGORIES: W = Wages, S = S 
tate w/held":PRINT"F = Fed w/held, E = FICA(Soc.Sec) , B ^ Bus/Prof 
, I = Interest, ":PRINT"D = Dvdnd, C = Contrib, T = Taxes, M = Medi 
cal, = Other":PRINTSG$:PRINT@832,SG$ 

410 PRINT@256 , "CODE/CAT"; TAB (16) "DATE & SOURCE OF INC OR DED";TAB( 
4 8) "AMOUNT" :PRINT@320,SG$:GOSUB8000:GOTO20 

500 PRINT@896,CHRS{31) ;"<ENTER> CODE then <ENTER> CATEGORY... I = 
INCOME, D = DEDUCTION ** press <up-arrow> to go to COMMAND mode, 
.."; :IFDS=0GOTO8240 
510 LT=3:A1=1 :GOSUB7000 : AX$="ID" : PRINTCHR$ ( 30) ; : GOSUB6000 :LT-4 : Al= 

1:GOSUB7000:AXS="WSEFBIDCTHO":PRINTCHRS(30) ; : GOSUB6000 : IFAS=CHRS ( 9 

1) THENRETURN 

520 PRINTia896,CHRS(31) ; "ENTER THE SOURCE OF INCOME OR DEDUCTION 

** press <up-arrow> to go BACK one column" ; :LT=10 :A1=36 :GOSUB700 
0:AX$=" !#$%&' *-(-=-,. /,-:@<>?ABCDEFGHIJKLHNOPQRSTUVWXYZ 123 45 67 890" 
:GOSUB6 00 0:IFA$=CHRS(91)THEN500 
540 PRINTia896,CHRS(31) ;"ENTER AMOUNT without using the dollar sign 

** press <up-arrow> to go BACK one column" ; :LT=48:A1=8:GOSUB7000 
:GOSUB610 0:IFA$=CHR${91)THEN520 
560 IFVAL(AN$) >99999THEN540 
570 RETURN 

1000 CLS:LINEINPUT"ENTER DATE OF THIS SUMMARY " ; AD$: LINEINPUT"ENT 
ER HEADING FOR THIS SUMMARY " ; AH$ ; LPRINTFNCNS { AH$ , 80) :LPRINTFNCN$ 
(AD$,80) :LPRINT:LPRrNTSTRrNGS(79,"*") :LPRINT"INCOME FROM WAGES:":S 
KS="IW":GOSUB2000 

1040 LPRINT"BUSINESS OR PROFESSIONAL INCOME :": SK$="IB" : GOSUB2000 : L 
PRINT"DIVIDEND INCOME FROM INVESTMENTS :": SK$=" ID" : GOSUB2000 : LPRINT 
"INTEREST INCOME (FROM SAVINGS) :": SKS=" II ": GOSUB2000 

1070 LPRINT"OTHER AND MISCELLANEOUS INCOME: ": SKS="IO" ; GOSUB2000 : LP 
RINTFNCN?^*** TAX WITHELD SUMMARY *** " , 80) :LPRINT: LPRINT"FE 
DERAL TAX WITHELD :" i SK$="DF" :GOSUB2000 : LPRINT"STATE TAX WITHELD:": 
SKS="DS":GOSUB20 

1110 LPRINT"FICA (SOCIAL SECURITY) WITHELD :": SK$="DE" :GOSUB2000 : LP 
RINTFNCN$( "*** SUMMARY OF DEDUCTIONS ***" ,80) : LPRINT: LPRINT" 

Listing continued 



102 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



Listing continued 

BUSINESS OR PROFESSIONAL DEDUCTIONS: " i SK$="DB" :GOSUB2000 

1140 LPRINT" INTEREST (e.g. loan or mortgage) DEDUCTIONS: " :SKS="DI" 

!GOSUB2000:LPRINT"CHARITABLE CONTRIBUTIONS :": SK$= "DC" iGOSUB20 00 : LP 

RINT''DEDUCTABLE TAXES (real estate, sales, etc. ) : " :SKS="DT" ;G0SUB2 

000 

1170 LPRINT-HEDICAL EXPENSES :": SKS="DH'' : GOSUB2000 : LPRINT"OTHER MIS 

CELLANEOUS DEDUCTIONS :": SKS="DO" : GOSUD2000 :GOTO400 

2000 C(0)=liTT!=0:RES=STRINGS(63," " ) :C ( 4) =LN:C ( 5) =VARPTR( RES) :C{8 

)=VARPTR(SK$) 

2010 DEFUSR1=VARPTR(SS(0) ) : J=USR1 ( VARPTR (C ( 0) ) ) : IFJ=0GOTO2 50 

2030 LPRINTTAB(5)RIGHT$(RE$,53) : TT 1 =TTI+VAL (RIGHTS (RES , 14) ) :IFC(0) 

<LNTHENC (0) =C (0) +1 :GOTO2010 

2050 LPRINTTAB(50) "SUBTOTAL = " ; : LPRINTUSINGHS; TT! : LPRINTSTRINGS ( 7 

9,"-") iLPRINTiRETURN 

3000 IFDS=0THENEND 

3010 CLS:PRINTia64,FNCN$( " = > YOU HAVE DATA IN RAH I <=", 64) : PRINT 

"ENTER <S> TO SAVE THE DATA 

ENTER <R> TO RETURN TO THE PROGRAM 

ENTER <QUIT> TO END WITHOUT SAVING THE DATA" : PRINT: INPUTAQS 

3040 AQ5=LEFTS(AQ$,1) :ONINSTR( "SRQ" ,AQ$) GOTO8320 , 400 ,3050 !GOTO3010 

3050 CLS:PRINT@384,FNCNS("OK 1",64):END 

4000 LZ=0:PRINTLI,CHR$(30) ; STRINGS ( LV-1 , 13) ; :LT=1 :GOSUB7010 ;G0SUB8 

380:Al=6 3:GOSUB5000:LPRINTANS!lFLZ=LNTHEN80 40ELSELZ=LZ+l:GOTO20 30 

5000 AN$=" ":POKEVARPTR(AN$) , Al : POKEVARPTR( AN$) +2 , INT [PO/256 ) +60 :P 

0KEVARPTR(ANS)+l,P0-INT(P0/256) *256: RETURN 

6000 A=0:PRINT@PO,STRING$(A1,95) ; 

6010 IFA=A1THEN6040ELSEPRINT@PO+A,CHR$(95) ; 

6020 AS=INKEYS:IFA$=""'THEN6020ELSEIFINSTR(AX$,AS) tHENPRINT@PO+A,AS 

; :A=A+i:GOTO6010 

6030 ONINSTR(CHR$(8)+CHRS(31)+CHRS(13)+CHRS(91) , AS) GOTO6050 ,6000 ,6 

080,6070:GOTO6010 

60 40 AS=INKEYS:IFA$=""THEN6 040ELSE603 

6050 IFA<AlTHENPRINTgPO+A,CHR$(95) ; 

6060 A=A-1:IFA<0THENA=0:GOTO6010ELSE6010 

6070 A=0 

6080 IFAS=CHR$(91)THENPRINT@PO,STRINGS{Al,95) ; ELSEPRINT@PO+A,STRIN 

GS(A1-A," ") ; 

6090 GOSUB5000:RETURN 

6100 S=1:AN$="" :PRINT@PO,"S";STRING$(Al,95) ;" "; :PRINT@P0+Al-2 , ". " 

6110 AS=INKEYS:IFAS=""THEN6110ELSEIFINSTR{" 0123 4567 89" ,AS)THEN6130 
ELSEONINSTR("-"+CHRS(8)+CHRS{31)+CHRS(13)+CHR5{91) ,A$) GOTO6150 , 610 
0,6100,6170,6160 
6120 GOTO6110 

613 AN$=ANS+AS: IFLEN(AN$) =1THENAN$=CHRS ( 95) +AN$ELSEIFLEN ( AN$) >A1- 
1THENAN$=LEFTS(ANS,A1-1)ELSEIFLEN(AN$)=3ANDLEFTS(AN$,1)=CHRS(95)TH 
ENANS=RIGHT${ANS,2) 

6140 PRINT@P0+A1-LEN(ANS) ,LEFTS ( ANS ,LEN ( ANS) -2) ; " . " jRIGHTS (ANS , 2) ; 
:GOTO6110 

6150 S=-S!PRINTgPO+Al+l,""; : IFS=-1THENPRINT"-'' ; : GOTO6110ELSEPRINT" 
"; :GOTO6110 

616 IFAS=CHR$ ( 91 )THENPRINT@P0+1, STRINGS (Al, 95) ;" "; : PRINT@P0+Al-2 
,". "; :G0T061 90 ELSEPRINT@PO, STRING S(Al+2," ") ; :GOTO6190 

617 IFLEN(ANS) =0THENPRINTiapO, STRINGS (Al + 2 , " ") ; :GOTO6190ELSEPRINT 
@P0+1, STRINGS (A1-1-LEN( ANS) ," ") ; : IFLEFTS ( ANS , D =CHRS ( 95) THENPRINT 
§PO+A1-1,"0''; :MIDS{ANS,1,1) ="0" 

6180 ANS=HIDS(AN$,l,LEN(ANS)-2)+"."+RIGHT$(ANSf2) : IFS=-1THENANS="- 

"+ANS 

6190 RETURN 

6200 AS=INKEYS:IFAS=""THEN6200ELSERETURN 

7000 IFLZ>LV-1THENPL=LI+(LV-1) *64 : PO=PL+LT: PRINTgPO, "" ; :RETURNELSE 

PL=LI+LZ*64:PO=PL+LT:PRINT@PO,"";:RETURN 

7010 IFLZ<LVTHENGOSUB70 00:RETURNELSEJ=0 

7 020 US(l)=i5424+LI:US{3)=15360+LI:US(5)=(LV-l) *64 :US(6) =-20 2 43 :DE 

FUSR0=VARPTR(US(0)) :J=USR0(0) :GOSUB7000 : PRINT@PL,CHRS< 30) ; : RETURN 

8000 GOSUB500 

8010 IFAS="["THENPRINT@PL,CHR$(30) ; ;GOSUB8370 :GOSUB8040 : IFAS="E"TH 

ENRETURNELSE8030 

8020 GOSUB8370!LZ=LZ+l!LN=LZ:GOSUB7010 

8030 IFLN<LHTHEN8000ELSEPRINT@896,CHR$(31) ;"LIMIT OF";LM;'' ENTRIES 

HAS BEEN REACHED. 
PRESS <ENTER>..."; :GOSUB6200 : AS=" [ " :GOTO8010 

8040 PRINT@896,CHRS(31) ;"<P>PRINT FILE <L>LOAD FROM DISK <R> 
RESUME <Q>QUIT 
<D>DELETE <I>INSERT <S>SAVE ON DISK <Y>YTD SUMMARY"; 

805 GOSUB8490:GOSUB6200:GOSUB8500 

806 A=INSTR(CHRS(91)+CHR$(10)+CHRS(27)+CHR$(26)+"RPIDLSYQ",A$) :0N 
AGOTO8080, 8090, 8100, 8110, 8120, 4000, 8130, 6200,8240,8320,1000,3000:0 
OTO8050:RETURN 

8080 GOSUB8400:IFPEEK(14591) >0THEN8080ELSE8050 

80 90 GOSUB8500:GOSUB8460;GOSUB84 90!lFPEEK{145 91) >0THEH8090ELSE805 

810 GOSUB8500:GOSUB840 0:GOSUB84 90:AS-INKEY$:IFA$=""THEN8100ELSE80 

60 

8110 GOSUB8500:GOSUB8460:GOSUB8490:A$=INKEY$!lPA$=""THEN8110ELSE80 

60 

6120 IFLZ=LNTHENGOSUB85 00:RETURNELSEGOSUB8460:GOTO8120 

Listing continued 



"Any other 
Pascal is 
too much 
hassle!" 



Picture this: you want to make a 
change in a 1000 line Pascal 
program. You read the source 
code from disk into a full screen 
editor and make your changes. 
You type control Q to quit the 
editor and R (for run). In 15 
seconds, without further disk 
access, your program has 
compiled and is executing. 

Pascal 80 is so interactive and 
easy to use that many people 
have given up Basic completely, 
even for hasty ten line programs! 
We do trade some power for inter- 
activity, but at this price you can 
use Pascal 80 as a "front" end for 
another system to have both ease 
of use and power. Many of our 
users develop and test their 
software with Pascal 80, then 
recompile our source code on 
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Thousands of satisfied users 
worldwide! (We have a liberal 
return policy and have had only 2 
returns per thousand copies 
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Pascal 80 to teach Pascal. 
(Names on request) 

Features — Standard Pascal, 
writes ASCII source, p-code and 
com files. Full screen editor, 
compilation from memory or 
disk, include function. Pointer 
variables are addressable (like C), 
Limitations — Variant records, 
with, and page not implemented. 
Mark and release instead of 
Dispose. 

PASCAL 80CPM — 

Special introductory price — $79. 

Requires CP/M 80. 8 inch SSSD, 
Apple CP/M, Xerox, IBM, 
Osborne SD formats available. 
Call for information on other 
formats. Free brochure. 



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^ S«e List of AOvertisers on Page 227 



80 Micro, January 1984 • 103 



I^eP'^ 




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Box 651 35026-A Turtle Trail • Willoughby. Ohio 44094 

104 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



Listing continued 

813 IFLN>=LMTHEN8120ELSEGOSUB8500:IFPL<>LI+LV*64-54THENUS(1) --1536 

0+LI+LV*64-65:US{3)=US(l)+6 4:US{5)=(LI+LV*64-64)-PL:US(6)=-18195:J 

=USR(0) 

8140 PBINT@PL,CHR$(30) ; : GOSUB500 : IFASO" [ "THEN8180ELSEIFPLOLI+LV* 

64-64THENUS(l)=PL-(-15360+6 4:USC3)=US(l)-64:US(6)=-20243:J=USR{0) 

816 J-LZ:Al=PL:LZ=LZ+[ { LI+LV*64-64) -PL) /6 4 :PL=LI-t-LV*6 4-5 4 : IFLZ >LN 

THENPRINT@PL,CHRS(30) ; ELSEGOSUB8380 

8170 LZ=J:PL=A1:GOTO8040 

8180 US(1) =LN*LE+LE+MB:US(3) =US(1) -l-LE:US[5) =(LN-LZ) *LE-l-LE:US ( 6) =-1 

aig'^: J-USR[0) :LN-LN-H;GOSUB837 0:GOSUB846 0:GOTO8040 

820 IFLZ=LNTHEN805 0ELSEIFPL<>LI+LV*64-64THENUS(1) =PL+15424 : US ( 3) = 

US(l)-6 4:US(5}=(LI+LV*64-6 4)-PL:USC6)^-20243:DEFUSR0=VARPTR(US(0) ) 

:J=USR0(0) 

8210 J=LZ:Al=PL:LZ=LZ-f( [LI-fLV*64) -PL) /64 : PL=LI + LV*6 4-6 4 : IFLZ>LNTHE 

NPRINTePL,CHRS(3 0) ; ELSEGOSUB8380 

8220 LZ=J:PL=A1:US(1)=MB+1+LZ*LE+LE:US(3) =US [ 1) -LE : US ( 5) =[LN-LZ) *L 

E:DEFUSR0=VARPTR(US(0) ) :J=USR0(0) : LN=LN-1 : GOTO80 5 

82 40 IFDS=lTHENGOTO3010ELSELZ = 0:LN=0:DS=l:PRINTiaLI,CHRS(30) ; STRING 

S(LV-1, 13) ;:PRINT@896,CHRS(31) , -"LOADING FROM DISK..."; 

8250 ONERRORGOTO830 :OPEN" I " , 1 , "TAXFILE/DAT" : ONERRORGOTO0 

8260 IFEOF(1)THEN8290ELSELINEINPUT#1,ANS 

8270 LT=1:GOSUB7000:PRINTAK$; :GOSUB837a : LZ=LZ+1 :GOTO8260 

82 90 CLOSE1:LZ=LZ-1:LN=LZ:GOTO8040 
8300 LZ=0:LN=0:RESUME8040 

832 LZ=0:DS=B:PRINT@LI,CHR$(30) ; STRINGS ( LV-1 , 13) ; : PRINTia896 ,CHRS ( 

31);"SAVING ON DISK. .."; ;OPEN"0" ,1 , "TAXFILE/DAT" 

8340 LT-1:GOSUB7 010:GOSUB83 80:A1=LE;GOSUBS0 00:PRINT#1,AN$: IFLZ=LNT 

HENCLOSE1:GOTO80 40ELSELZ=LZ+1:GOTO83 40 

837 US(1)=PL+15361:US(3)=LZ*LE+HB+1:US(5)=LE:US(6) =-20 2 43 :GOT083 9 



83 80 US(1)=LZ*LE+MB+1:US(3) =PL+15361 :US ( 5) =LE :US ( 6) — 20 2 43 :GOT083 9 


8390 A=0:DEFUSR0=VARPTR(US[0) ) :A--USR0(0) : RETURN 

8400 GOSUB8500:LZ=(LZ-1) *-( (LZ-l) >0) : IFLZ <LV-1THEN8450 

8410 US(1)=15360+LI+LV*64-65:US(3)=US(1)+64:US(5)=(LV-1) *64:US(6)= 

-18195 :DEFUSR0=VARPTR {US (0) ) : J=USR0{0) : J=LZ :LZ^LZ+1-LV! PL-LI :GOSUB 

8380:LZ=J 

8450 GOSUB8490:RETURN 

84 60 LZ--LZ+1: IFLZ >LNTHENLZ=LN:RETURNELSE IFLZ <LVTHEN84 80 ELSEGOSUB7 
20:PL=LI-t-LV*64-64 

8470 GOSUB8380 

8480 RETURN 

84 90 GOSUB7 000:PRINTiaPL,CHRS(52) ; : RETURN 

8500 GOEUB7000:PRINT@PL," ";: RETURN: END 



Continued from p. 101 

use the program, delete this from line 500: 

:IFDS = GOTO 8240 

After you load the data, press R and 
begin adding new data. Lines 3000- 
3050 try to keep you from exiting the 
program before saving your data. 

After you have the program running, 
you can save space and speed up the 
program by removing the blanks and 
REMs and combining lines. 



Rosenfelder's subroutines are avail- 
able on disk and are a great buy for the 
serious programmer. His book and the 
disks are available from IJG Inc., 1260 
West Foothill Blvd., Upland, CA 91786 
and several mail-order houses. Radio 
Shack offers the book but not the 
disks. ■ 

Contact Robert Athanasiou at 13 
Lawnridge Ave., Albany, NY 12208. 



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See List of Advertisers on Page 227 



SOMicro, January 1984 • 105 



Aerocomp's 
Proven 

Best-By Test! 
The 



'^^.O. 



II 



i i 




Double Density Controller 

• Technical Superiority 



At last! A double density controller for Model I with higher probability of jata recovery than with any other 
DOUBLE density CONTROLLER ON THE MARKET TODAY! The "DDC" from Aerocomp. iMo need to worry about the pro- 
blems that keep cropping up on existing products. AEROCOMP'S new analog design phase lock loop data separator 
has a wider capture window than the digital types currently on the market. This allows high resolution data center- 
ing. The finest resolution available with digital circuitry is 125 ns (nano seconds). The "DDC" analog circuit allows in- 
finately variable tuning. Attack and settling times are optimum for 5-1 /4 inch diskettes. 
The units presently on the market use a write precompensation circuit that is very "sloppy". Board to board 
tolerance is extremely wide - in the order of + 100 ns. The "DDC" is accurate to withint 20 ns. 
The bottom line is state of the art reliability! 

• Test Proven 

Tests were conducted on aerocOMP'S "DDC", Percom's "Doubler A"* and "Doubler il" and lnw/'s "LNDoubler"* using 
a Radio Shack trsso* ' * Model 1, Level 2, 48 k with TRS80 Expansion Interface and a Percom TFDIOO * disk drive 
(Siemens Model 82). Diskette was Memorex 5401. The test diskette chosen was a well used piece of media to deter- 
mine performance under adverse conditions. The various double density adapters were installed sequentially in the 
expansion interface. 

The test consisted of formatting 40 tracks on the diskette and writing a 6DB6 data pattern on all tracks. The 6DB6 
pattern was chosen because it is recommended as a worst case" test by manufacturers of drives and diskettes. An 
attempt was then made to read each sector on the disk once - no retrys. Operating system was Newdos/80, version 
1.0, with Double zap, version 2.0. Unreadable sectors were totalled and recorded. The test was run ten times with 
each double density controller and the data averaged. Test results are shown in the table. 



* Features 

TRS80 Model I owners who are ready for reliable double 
density operation will get (1) 80% more storage per 
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• TEST RESULTS • 



SUMMER SPECIAL $99.00 

for the Best DD Controller on the market. 



MFR & PRODUCT 


SECTORS LOCKED OUTiavgi 


AEROCOMP "DDC" 





PERCOM "DOUBLER II" 


18 


PERCOM "DOUBLER A" 


250 


LNW "LNDOUBLER" 


202 



"DDC" and LDOS 
"DDC" and NewdosSO 



$169.95 
$179.95 



Note; test results available upon written request. All tests conducted prior to 8-25-81 

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Specials will be prorated. Shipping S2.00 In Cent. U.S. Seeopposlte page for details. 

Add S4.00 shipping & handling for DDC & DOS. 



Data Separators 

The advances that make the "DDC" great are incorporated in the new aerocomp Single Density Data Separator ("SDS") 
and Double Density Data Separator ("DDS"). 



• Has your original manufac- 
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If you already own a Percom "Doubler A", "Doubler 11" or LNW 
"LNDoubler" or Superbrain, the AEROCOMP "DDS" will make It right. 
Look at the test results: 



MFR. & PRODUCT 


SECTORS LOCKED OUT 


WITHOUT "DDS" 


WITH "DDS" 


PERCOM "DOUBLER 1!" 


18 


1 


PERCOM "DOUBLER A" 


250 





LNW "LWDOUBLER" 


202 






Note: Same test procedures as "DDC". 

* Trademark of Percom Data Co. 

* • Trademark of LNW 

• ' * Trademark of Tandy corporation 



• "DDS" $49.95 

(Use 1791 chip from your DD Con- 
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"K" L/L/d with disk controller 

chip Included ^ /y.y 5 

• Disl< controller 

chip $34.95 

(Shipping $2.00 Cont US - see opposite 
page for ctetalts) 



Plugs directly Into your existing 
Double Density controller. 



DO you need a 
single Density Data 
Separator? 

The internal data separator in the 
WD1771 chip (R/S Expansion interface) 
is NOT recommendeO by WD for 
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of these problems: Lost data, tracks 
locked out, CRC errors, disk retry? vou 

NEED ONE! 

• "SDS" $29.95 

(For Mod. I; Shipping $2.00) 



See opposite 
pageiMlM 



106 • 80 Micro, January 1984 




DISK DRIVES 

40 & 80 TRACK 

SINGLE & DOUBLE SIDED 

$169 



SS-'l:'/.-- 



PACESETTERS 

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• Fast 5 ms. track-track access 

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• Disk ejector (MPI) 

• External drive cable connection 

(no need to remove the cover to hook up 
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NEW! 



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and 

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Convert cassette Model III or 4 to disk. Complete 
internal drive kits with 40 track SS drives 
(Tandon), Aerocomp disk controller board (will 
take up to 4 drives), power supply, mounting 
towers, all hardware & cables, 

• DRIVE KIT (no drives) $199 

• ONE DRIVE SYSTEM $369 

• TWO DRIVE SYSTEM $539 

Sliipping & handling $800 per system 

• AEROCOMP DISK CONTROLLER .,,$119 

Shipping & handling $3.00 06' conltollet 

• MOUNTING KlTw/oDrives& Controller.. $99 

Shipping S handling $4.00 per kil 



as low as 



COMPLETE DRIVES 

TRS80 Mod. I & III, IBM PC & Tl 99/4A Power 
supply & enclosure. Specify silver or almond. 
5 25 inch, 

• 40 track single side (Tandon) $199 

• 40 track SS "Flippy" (MPI) $239 

• 40 track Dual Head (either) $279 

• 80 track SS (MPI) $299 

• 80 track SS "Flippy" (MPI) $329 

• 80 track Dual Head (Tandon) S379 

Shippmy & Hiinflling $5 00 \)si dnve. 



BARE DRIVES 

Internal drives for TRS80 Mod. Ill, IBM PC, Tl 
99/4A, 5.25 in, (controller required) 

• 40 track Single Side (Tandon) $169 

• 40 track Dual Head (either) $249 

• 80 track SS (MPI) $269 

• 80 track Dual Head (Tandon) $339 

Shipping & Handling S4.00 Pev Dnve 



8 INCH DRIVES 

Drive expansion box complete with power supply 
and Ian. Tandon Slimline. 

• Two (2) 8" Single Side $699 

• Two (2) 8" Double Side $849 

• 8" Bare Slimline, SS $260 

• 8" Bare Slimline, DS $375 

Stlipoing S. Handling S5 00 Per Dnve 



MODEL I STARTER PACKAGE 

One 40 track SS drive, 2-drive cable, 
TRSDOS 2.3 disk & manual, freight & 
insurance (Tandon). 



$249 



MISCELLANEOUS GOODIES 

* TRSDOS 2.3 disk & manual $20 

* LDOS(Mod. I or III) $119 

* NEWDOS/80, 2.0 (Mod I or III) $129 

* Diskettes {10 in library box) $23 

* 5.25" Drive Power Supply & case $59 

* 2-Drive Cable $24 

* 4-Drive Cable $34 

* Extender Cable $13 

Shipping & Handling $200 



PERSONAL CHECKS 
WELCOME 

We'll be happy to accept your personal check with 
any mail order without any shipping delay. 



FREE TRIAL OFFER 

Use your AEROCOMP drive for up to 1 4 days. If you 
are not satisfied for ANY REASON (except misuse 
or improper handling), return in the original shipping 
container for a full purchase price refund. Applies to 
hardware only. Sorry, we cannot refund on software. 
We have confidence in our products and we know 
you will be satisfied. 

WARRANTY 

We offer a six months warranty on parts and labor 
against defects in materials and workmanship. In 
the event service becomes necessary for any 
reason, our service department is fast friendly and 
cooperative. Our goal is 48 hour turnaround on all 
warranty or repair drivesi 

lOOtfifa TESTED 

AEROCOMP disk drives are 100% subjected to 
burn-in and bench test We even enclose a copy of 
the test check list, signed by the test technician. 
with each drive AEROCOMP means reliability! 

ORDER NOW! 

Order by mail or call TOLL FREE TO THE NUMBERS 
BELOW, Please note toll free lines will accept orders 
only. We accept VISA or MASTERCARD. Be sure to 
include card number and expiration date. We will not 
charge your card until the day we ship Order by mail 
with credit card or send check or money order. 
Personal checks welcome No delay. Order COD, No 
deposit required but all COD's will arrive cash, 
certified check or money order only. We'll send a 
card showing the exact COD amount before your 
shipment arrives. Shipping is not included in the 
prices shown, Texas residents add 5% sales tax 



CALL TOLL FREE FOR FAST SERVICE 
(800) 824-7888, OPERATOR 24 

FOR VISA/MA$TERCHARGE/C.O.D. ORDERS 

Colifornia dial (800) 852-7777, Operotor 34. Aloska 
ond Hawaii diol (800) 824-7919. Operator 24. 
TOLL FREE LINES WILL ACCEPT ORDERS ONLYl 

For information only call (214) 339-8324. 
For TECHt^lCAL ASSISTANCE call (214) 337-4346. 



Dealer inquiries invited 



Redbird Airport, Bidg. 8 
P.O. Box 24829 
Dallas, TX 75224 "'' 



>-■ See L;s( ot Advertisers on Page 227 



80 Micro, January 1984 • 107 



REVIEW 



A New Constellation 



by Charles R. Perelman 



Y 



ou want to invest in a comprehensive word 
processing package for your CP/M system, so 
take a look at MicroPro's all-star line-up. 



• ••*■ 

WordStar Professional 

MicroPro Intemationai Corp. 

33 San Pablo Ave. 

San Rafael, CA 94903 

CP/M 

$895 

MicroPro Intemationai has bundled 
some of its most popular and valuable 
word processing programs into a multi- 
faceted package. WordStar Professional 
consists of WordStar 3.30, MailMerge 
3.30, SpeilStar 3.30, and Starlndex 
1.01. It's a reasonably well-integrated 
package and, despite its high cost, I 
think it's worthwhile for both the stu- 
dent and the professional writer. 

Installation is menu driven and the 
programs support most printers. You 
can select WordStar, MailMerge, and 
SpeilStar from the main menu by press- 
ing a single key. Starlndex is an entirely 
separate program. 

WordStar 3.30 

The star of this package is still Word- 
Star, one of the top micro word pro- 
cessors. You get a full panoply of fea- 
tures that give you an almost exact 
screen preview of the way your text 
prints out. 

Cursor movement and scrolling oc- 
cur in all directions and include single 
row or column changes, jumps to the 
beginning or end of a document, and 
automatic horizontal scrolling of up to 
240 characters. Insert, delete, fmd, re- 
108 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



place, and a good range of block func- 
tions perform traditional roles. 

You can repeat many commands 
continuously, and you have sophisticat- 
ed wildcard and global search and re- 
place options. This latest WordStar is 
noticeably faster than prior releases. 

Extensive formatting choices control 
top, bottom, right, and left margins, 
tabs, justification, hyphenation, line 
spacing, single line headers and footers, 
and page length. If your printer sup- 
ports bidirectional printing, boldface, 
double strike, underline, strikeout, 
strikeover, subscript, superscript, var- 
ied character pitch, and line height, 
WordStar provides these functions 
through commands you enter in the 
margins or embed in your document. 

Column manipulations and decimal 
tabs aid your preparation of tables or 
newsletter-style text. 

File commands let you write portions 
of a file to a new file or insert an entire 
external file into your current work. 
Without terminating your edit, you can 
access the WordStar directory, copy a 
different file even to another disk, re- 
name, or delete another file. 

Theoretically you can print out one 
file while editing another, but the spool- 
ing is partial. Rapidly entering new text 
interrupts the printer. 

Directory displays don't show files 
with extensions of COM, HEX, SYS, 
OVR, REL, and $$$; this eases scan- 
ning the directory to locate a text file. 
Since Starlndex doesn't appear in the 
main menu and all but one of its files 



have nondisplay extensions, it's discon- 
certing not to find an indication of its 
existence in the WordStar directory. 

A document file's length is limited 
only by disk size with virtual memory 
techniques. Working file requirements, 
retention of your original file with a 
BAK extension, and space for program 
software on the same disk reduce avail- 
able space but it's more than sufficient 
under ordinary circumstances. 

One major failing of WordStar is its 
limited recovery procedures for disk full 
errors. Saving text at regular intervals is 
good insurance. MicroPro has numer- 
ous reminders throughout the docu- 
mentation about checking disk space. 

WordStar contains good Help 
screens and brief lists of major com- 
mands. You can speed program opera- 
tion by changing help levels and elimi- 
nating some displays as you become 
more proficient. 

The technical manual is free to direct 
dealers or $50 to end users. It includes 
answers to commonly asked questions 
about WordStar and other MicroPro 
products, patches for specialized printer 
needs and unusual installation configu- 
rations, and an explanation of the label 
patcher. 

If you have problems applying the 
technical manual data, telephone the 
technical hot line. Try to solve your 
enigma with the manual first, since 
MicroPro has a large user base and the 
hot line is frequently busy. 

WordStar 3.30's documentation is 
awesome. The command card for 
WordStar is logically organized and 
easy to use. A similar card for Mail- 
Merge, SpeilStar, and Starlndex gives 
pertinent data at a quick glance. The 
documentation includes adhesive labels 
imprinted with control characters. 

The new WordStar manual is attrac- 



lively printed on 6- by 9-inch sheets, and 
comes in a three-ring binder with a 
jointed cover. Tabs divide major sec- 
tions. The text is well illustrated, and ex- 
amples of screen prompts and docu- 
ment output are clear. 

The manual breaks involved proce- 
dures into numbered steps and describes 
each in detail. Cross-referencing for 
related information, an index, a table of 
contents, and a flowchart guide further 
enhance the documentation. 

A training guide contains 20 lessons 
divided into three word processing 
courses at different levels of proficien- 
cy. The lessons are readable, logically 
ordered and grouped, and easy to 
follow. 

WordStar isn't perfect. If you have 
heavy continuous word processing 
demands, consider a hardware spooler; 
concurrent editing and printing operate 
at a snail's pace. You cannot move to a 
particular page by number, but you can 
place up to 10 markers in a document 
for quick movement during editing. 

If you're not using the defaults, you 
must reset margins, line spacing, justifi- 
cation, and so on each time you edit. 
Also, WordStar does not support true 
proportional printing, although micro- 
j ustification produces good j ustified 
printing. 

WordStar doesn't implement glossa- 
ry features. You can save a single head- 
ing or text selection in a separate file 
and read in as many of these files as you 
want, but this isn't as effective as a true 
glossary. 

You don't have split screen capability 
for working on multiple files. Multiple 
line headers and footers aren't provid- 
ed. You can't print the file you're edit- 
ing or any part of it interactively; you 
must close it first. 

In fairness, i don't know of a micro 
word processor that has all these fea- 
tures as well as those WordStar offers. 
WordStar remains a premier accom- 
plishment, and I thoroughly enjoy 
using it. 

MailMerge 3.30 

MailMerge is a versatile WordStar 
adjunct. The new ability to match spe- 
cific sections of a master document to 
data from a list meeting selected crite- 
ria, described as conditional printing, is 
a very powerful feature. 

You prepare your master (e.g., a 
form letter) with WordStar. Com- 
mands preceding the text identify the 
data file and variables you want 
merged. In the body of the form, the 
program delineates generic variable 
names with ampersands. At run time. 



actual list data replaces the variables 
and MailMerge reforms paragraphs to 
fit the inserts. 

Other MailMerge techniques permit 
individual determination of variables 
for insertion. For example, you can 
prompt the operator for variables on 
each printout (different addresses for a 
form letter), or, at the beginning of a 
file, you can quickly set variables that 
appear repeatedly throughout a docu- 
ment (the names of parties in a contract, 
for example). 

An alternate method uses a com- 
mand file like those used in editing 
macros, but this one is easier. You build 
up each task with commands, directing 
access to various text and data files as 
needed. When run, the program ex- 
tracts text and data from the different 
files as required. 

You design on-screen prompts for 
entering variables, inserting paper or 
envelopes, or changing disks. You can 
chain or nest files to use boilerplate pro- 
visions or to join related text for contin- 
uous page numbering. 



"WordStar remains a 

premier accomplishment, 

and I thoroughly 

enjoy using it. " 



Run-time print options on the Mail- 
Merge menu are similar to those on 
WordStar, letting you start or stop 
printing at any page of the document, 
print continuous or single-sheet docu- 
ments, and print multiple copies. If you 
start MailMerge after the first page of a 
data file, be prepared to wait as it cycles 
through each data item prior to your 
starting page. 

I've saved the best for last. Condi- 
tional printing gives you some facilities 
of a data-base management system. 
You can choose different text para- 
graphs to match to particular elements 
of your data file. 

You can compare any variable from 
your data file to alphabetic or numeric 
expressions based on ASCII values by 
using equal, greater than, less than, 
And, and Or delimiters. You can use up 
to 100 characters in a conditional com- 
mand. 

The result of the comparison then 
branches the program using If. . .Then 
or Except ... Then construction. The 
possibihties are practically limitless, 



especially when you add special vari- 
ables to your data file as sorting or iden- 
tifier keys. 

Since MailMerge uses dot commands 
of the same type as WordStar and you 
use WordStar to edit files you want 
merged, you need prior exposure to 
WordStar to feel comfortable with 
MailMerge. The WordStar nondocu- 
ment mode used for this purpose might 
be alien to many users. 

The documentation is well-done and 
packaged similarly to WordStar's. It's 
nicely printed with plenty of graphics, a 
table of contents, an index, fiowcharts, 
and an excellent discussion of errors 
and warning messages. 

As a bonus. Appendix C contains de- 
tails on some worthwhile applications. 
With the four tutorial lessons on Mail- 
Merge procedures contained in the 
WordStar manual, you get excellent 
samples of MailMerge's capabilities. 

SpellStar 3.30 

You call SpellStar from WordStar's 
main menu. Sufficient disk space can be 
a problem, since you need work file 
space equal to your origmal file. The 
main 20,800-word SpellStar dictionary 
takes approximately %K and the over- 
lay (COM) file takes 18K. 

Starting your spelling check is cum- 
bersome. After answering a prompt for 
file name, you must go through two 
submenus, choose proofing as opposed 
to dictionary maintenance, set up a 
main dictionary, and possibly set up an 
optional dictionary containing special- 
ized terms. 

While processing your text, the pro- 
gram updates various statistics such as 
number of words in the document, 
words in dictionaries used, and words 
not recognized. The original SpellStar 
dictionary does not recognize some 
common words, such as tabs, cursor, 
and nicely. The ly suffix seems to 
generate misspelling indicators. 

The next step processes the file by 
marking all unrecognized words. Final- 
ly, you move through the file electing 
whether to edit a marked word, ignore 
it, pass it for later review, or add it to 
one of the dictionaries. 

SpellStar retains ignore and add-to- 
dictionary instructions for about the 
last 15 words, and handles subsequent 
appearances of any of these words m 
the same way. In a long document you 
might rework the same word many 
times. You make revisions in context as 
you skim through the document. 

Dictionary maintenance lets you 
create a main or supplemental dictio- 
nary, add or delete words, or format a 
80 Micro, January 1984 • 109 



purchased dictionary. It's possible to 
list a dictionary's contents on the 
screen, but you can't print them. The 
use of customized supplemental dic- 
tionaries is valuable and reduces unrec- 
ognized words, particularly in specialty 
areas. 

The SpellStar manual is consistent in 
format with the other programs and 
contains an index, table of contents, and 
flowcharts. Presentation of material is 
not as cogent, perhaps because this is 
not as mature a product. 

Enumerated steps for functions such 
as creating a dictionary would be help- 
ful. The last two chapters of the Word- 
Star training guide lead you through 
SpellStar procedures to give you a 
working knowledge of the system. 

Overall SpellStar is unwieldy and 
slow. It also requires an inordinate 
amount of disk space for a main dic- 
tionary that doesn't recognize many 
common words. SpellStar has an abun- 
dance of handy features, but it takes too 
many steps to accomplish normal func- 
tions. 

Starlndex 1.01 

Starlndex is an orphan. Unless you 
know that Format. FMT is a Starlndex 
file, no sign of it appears in the Word- 
Star directory display. The training 
guide doesn't offer any lessons in its 
use. 

To access Starlndex with the Run 
command from WordStar's main 
menu, you must remember the COM 
file name (STARINDX) and the syntax. 
In spite of its neglect, the software is 
tremendously useful. 

Starlndex produces alphabetical in- 
dexes, tables of contents, lists of figures 
and tables, and outlines, with a mini- 
mum of hassle. 

Creating an index is an extension of 
the basic WordStar philosophy usmg 
embedded print controls and dot com- 
mands. You must prepare the file with 
WordStar before creating the index. 

Using WordStar's Find command, 
you locate and mark any word in your 
text that you want to appear in your in- 
dex. If you use the global Find and Re- 
place command with the word sur- 
rounded by print control markers, the 
program rapidly indexes every repeti- 
tion. Starlndex recognizes the Mail- 
Merge command for calling an external 
file, letting you create a single index for 
material in multiple files. 

With dot corrmiands you can insert a 
descriptive index item, such as a 
synonym or classification that doesn't 
appear in the text, for any page. You 
designate references as master (main 
110 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



headings printed in boldface) or 
general. 

You can list subentries or detailed 
classifications beneath each reference. 
After running Starlndex, you can edit 
the output files. 

Starlndex has only one print format, 
a single-column index without any title. 
Judicious editing with WordStar aligns 
two index columns to a page, and you 



''MailMerge's conditional 

branching opens up new 

applications and Starlndex 

adds a helpful dimension. ** 



can insert titles, such as INDEX, as 
headers. 

STARINDX.COM and its related 
files occupy about 56K of RAM. Check 
disk space before running Starlndex 
since the program produces three out- 
put files: another text file implementing 
the Starlndex commands, the table of 
contents, and the index files. All three 
combined take up somewhat more space 
than your unprocessed text file. 

You use dot commands to produce a 
table of contents with a main level, up 
to three subsidiary levels, and separate 
lists of figures and tables. The program 
uses the same numbering system in the 
body of your document as in the table 
of contents. 

Ignoring the table of contents, you 
can use this system to create outlines or 
contracts with sequential subdivision 
numbering. Headings or captions for 
figures or tables are limited to one line, 
but you can edit the resulting text and 
table of contents files to lengthen the 
captions. 

The real versatility of Starlndex is in 
the options available for making your 
own default file and altering formats 
with dot commands. Style, a menu- 
driven utility, lets you create new pat- 
terns to replace Format.FMT. A format 
file gives consistency to your docu- 
ments, but doesn't place directives in 
the text file. 

Inserted dot commands override de- 
fault settings from format files. If you 
turn off format file print controls and 
enter all parameters in the text file, you 
get a picture of the formatting in the 
text file, but you increase editing time. 

Boldface, double strike, elongation, 
underlining, and insertion of spaces are 
print control options. 



Nimibering choices include combina- 
tions of upper- and lowercase Roman 
numbers, Arabic numbers, upper- and 
lowercase letters, and no numbering for 
main headings. You can't use Roman 
numerals for subsections. 

Many other options are available for 
formatting your index, numbering 
pages, inserting blank pages, and so on. 

Clarity and completeness of the man- 
uals need improvement. The form is the 
same as that of the other programs in 
this package. 

Appendix B (error messages) is rather 
terse for a beginner. Other appendixes 
contain a command list, an explanation 
of Starlndex work files, and a set of 
documents for the sample file included 
on your distribution disk. 

Prior experience with WordStar is a 
must for thoroughly understanding the 
manual and program. Take MicroPro's 
advice and experiment with the sample 
file. 

The documentation is good, but not 
as all-inclusive as that for WordStar. A 
discussion of the structure of Starlndex 
output files with TOC (Table of Con- 
tents), SI (text with print controls), and 
IDX (Index) extensions and of editing 
those files is conspicuously absent. 

Starlndex integrates nicely with the 
balance of the WordStar Professional 
package. It would be more convenient if 
it were selectable from the main menu 
and prompted for input and output 
files. 

Other enhancements I'd appreciate 
include the ability to enter cross refer- 
ences in an index without page num- 
bers, to eliminate the periods and page 
numbers in a table of contents, to 
change the periods to other characters, 
to put parentheses around second and 
subsequent subdivision characters, to 
put descriptive headers preceding num- 
bers, and to have more subdivision 
levels. 

Summary 

WordStar Professional offers a 
broad range of valuable word process- 
ing features. Overall, it's a quality 
package, with SpellStar its weakest link. 
On the plus side, MailMerge's condi- 
tional branching opens up new applica- 
tions and Starlndex adds a helpful 
dimension. All in all, I recommend it 
for anyone who has to do a lot of 
writing. ■ 



Write Charles Perelman at 1800 Cen- 
tury Park East 1150, Los Angeles, CA 
90067. 



Tired of swapping Disks from Inventory to Accounts Receivable 
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Introducing 

The M.B.S. 
Business Management System 

At last a completely Integrated, Menu driven System for: 



• INVOICING 

Opens Customer Files 
Opens A/R Accounts 
Updates Inventory 
Stores Moil List Files 
Stores Sales Records 
Computes Soles Tax 

• CUSTOMER FILES 

Mointoins Order Status 
Prints Labels 

Prints Customer Balances 
Stores Order Amounts 
Stores Order Payments 
Prints Statements 

Yes, now there is o complete business syster 
Complete your Schedule C in os little as 15 rr 

This easy to use system comes complete with i 
programs are in Bosic, and require two disk d 
users love our system and you will too. 



• MAIL LABELS 

Stores by Variobie File Names 
Sorts by Zip Code 
Sorts by Nome 

• INVENTORY 

Sets Upper and Lower Limits 
Generates Purcbose Orders 
Lists Inventory by Vendor 

• ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 

Open A/R Accounts 
Generates Monthly Statements 
Interest end Non-Interest Accounts 
Listing of Accounts Bolonces 
Monually Enter Charges and Payments 



ACCOUNTS PAYABLE 

Enter Charges to Accounts 
Enter Payments to Accounts 
List Payable Bolances 

' CHECK WRITING 

Print or Record Checks 
Maintains Bank Balance 
Credit Accounts Payable 
Stores Expense Totals 

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 

Prints Soles Reports 

Prints Operating Statements 

Prints Receipts Reports 

Modifies Expense and Sales Totals 



lor the smoll business man. With our Business Mo nagement System, you can increase sales with our mail label function, 
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GAMEMASTER 

Do you get complaints from your spouse, family and friends that you isolate yourself from them while "playing" with your computer? Do you wish there was a gome 
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This progrom lets you easily develop and play your own adventure games. It does not create a game which you play against the computer, but creates a game which 
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Price S39.95 



Specify Model \, Model III, Model IV, or LNW 
Dealer Inquiries Invited 



PRINTERS 

Prowrlter $ 379 

Prowriter2 $ 699 

StarwriterFtO $1299 

Okidata82A $ 409 

Okldata83A $ 649 

Okidala92 $ 509 

Okidata93 $ 899 

Silver Reed $ 499 

Mannesmann Tally Call 

NEC Gall 

Transtar Gall 



PERIPHERALS 

Hayes Smartmodem $ 219 

Hayes300/1200 $ 539 

Holmes VID 80 $ 259 

HolmesCPM2.2 S 109 

64KRam $ 114 

Holmes DX3DC S 157 

Holmes DX4DC $ 157 

Holmes Sprinter I $ 89 

HolmesSprinterlll $ 89 

Holmes Sprinter KX $ 129 

Disk Drives Gal) 

Diskettes Call 



LN.W. 

LNW80I1 $1495 

LNDoublerw/DOS $ 199 

System Expansion $ 399 

MONITORS 

AmdekSOOG $ 149 

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Amdek Color I $ 339 

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TaxanAmber J 149 

Taxan Green $ 139 

TaxanRGBI $ 319 

Taxan RGB III $ 599 



SOFTWARE 

DOSPLUS 3.5 $119 

DOSPLUSIV $119 

MTERM $ 69 

TRSDOS 6.0 Plus Enhance $ 45 

Super Utility Plus $ 69 

Newscrip17.1 $ 99 

Newscrlpt w/labels $ 109 

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•^ See Lisi of Advertisers on Page 227 



Microcomputer Business Systems 

14030 South Springfield Road 
Brandywine, Maryland 20613 
1-800-638-1857 

in Maryland 1 (301) 372-8555 — Washington, D.C. Local Call 




SOMicro, January 1984 "HI 



UTILITY 



LOAD 80 



Tape It Easy 



by David J. Trapasso 



T 



his utility lets you alter machine-language 
tapes as easily as Basic tapes. Now you 
can edit, list, and back up system tapes. 



When I bought my Model III, it 
had no disk drives. I felt comfortable 
with Basic tapes because I could load, 
list, change, or develop programs. But I 
was helpless when it came to machine- 
language tapes; I couldn't alter transfer 
speeds, list program code, or create. 



change, or back up machine-language 
tapes. 

To solve this problem, I bought an 
assembler and wrote a Model I/III utili- 
ty called Tapetility that not only backs 
up machine-language tapes, but pro- 
vides many other features. Tapetility 



'PROGRAM LOADS AT HEX 7C00-7FEF (31744-32751 DECIMAL) 
'CAUTION: MAKE SURE YOU SAVE THE BASIC PROGRAM BEFORE RUN 



Program Listing L Tape!6. 

10 CLS 

20 PRINT "TAPE16 MACHINE LANGUAGE POKE ROUTINE- BY DAVE TRAPASSO" 

30 POKE 16561, 255:POKE 16562 , 123 :CLEAR 10 

40 PRINT "MEMORY SIZE IS NOW SET TO PROTECT THE MACHINE LANGUAGE R 

OUTINE" 

50 PRINT 

60 PRINT 

NING" 

70 PRINT "WAIT ABOUT 15 SECONDS FOR THE POKE ROUTINE" :S-0 

80 FOR 1-31744 TO 32751 

90 READ A:POKE I , A: S=S+A:NEXT I 

95 PRINT "THE SUM OF YOUR DATA STATEMENTS IS: " ; S ; " , IT SHOULD BE 

108701" 

96 IF SO 108701 THEN STOP 

100 REM- SET UP THE BREAK KEY VECTOR TO JUMP TO THE START OF THE P 

ROGRAM 

110 POKE 16396,195: POKE 16397,0: POKE 16398,124 

120 INPUT "HIT .THE BRFAK KEY TO TO RUN";A$ 

130 PRINT "YOU HIT A KEY OTHER THAN BREAK" :STOP 

10 000 DAT'A4 9, 12 5, 6 4, 2 5, 24 8, 1,20 5, 2 01, 1,3 3 

10010 DRTA5 9, 127, 20 5, 10 5, 12 5, 6 2, 195, 50, 12, 6 4 

10020 DATA33, 0,1 2 4, 3 4, 13, 6 4, 33, 3, 6 6, 5 4 

10 030 DATAl 95, 3 5, 5 4, 12, 3 5, 5 4, 6 4, 6, 6 4, 6 2 

10 040 DATA95, 2 05, 53, 127, 16, 2 4 9, 33, 9 8, 127, 20 5 

10050 DATA10 5, 125, 6, 1,33, 252, 127, 229, 2 05, 6 4 

10 060 DAT'A0, 2 25, 126, 25 4, 87, 2 02, 122, 12 5, 25 4, 7 4 

1007 DATA202, 46, 127, 254, 69, 202, 166, 126, 254, 84 

10080 DATA40, 8, 25 4, 86, 40, 4, 2 54, 7 6, 3 2, 2 03 

100 90 DATA35, 5 4, 17 0,20 5, 12 8, 126, 2 5, 147, 2, 20 5 

1010 DATA53, 2, 25 4, 85, 3 2, 24 9, 3 3, 2 49, 63, 17 

Lisling 1 continued 



loads machine-language tapes into 
memory, tests them, writes new ones to 
tape, verifies the new tape with the code 
in memory, executes loaded programs, 
edits tapes, and searches through a tape 
for a specified program. 

Using combinations of these fea- 
tures, you can change tape speed, name, 
and/or contents, identify program 
names and their load execution ad- 
dresses, and generate machine-language 
tapes of programs you write. 

Running the Program 

Since many people are unfamiliar 
with assemblers, I converted Tapetility's 
machine code to Basic data statements. 
This lets anyone who can type a simple 
Basic program use Tapetility. The Basic 
listing reads the data and then POKEs it 
back into memory (see Program Listings 
1, 2, and 3). This takes about 15 seconds, 
after which you're prompted to execute 
the program by pushing the break key. 

After you type in the utility but be- 
fore you run it, make sure you save it in 
case you make a mistake. If you do 
make an error, you'll have to start all 
over again since there's no way to get 
back the Basic listing. 

Once you boot up the utility, you can 
discard the Basic listing after you use 
the utility to make a copy of itself. The 

Conlinued on p- 116 



The Key Box 

Model 1 and m 

16K, 32K, or 48K RAM 

Cassette Basic 

Disk Basic 

Printer Optional 



112 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



Introducing 

SoftPac. 

A tool for 

modern man. 



Meet SoftPac — the remartcable new soft- 
ware package that puts more raw power at 
your fingertips tfian anything yet created for 
the Radio Shack computer. 

Integration is the key. SoftPac actually 
combines word processing, information 
management, spreadsheet calculations, 
and communications into one fully in- 
tegrated system. So now you can experi- 
ment, recalculate and manipulate data, just 
ty pressing a few keys, in an endless variety 
of ways. In faa the only limit to SoftPac is 
your imagination. 

SoftCalc .... the flexible spreadsheetl 

SoftCalc . . .faster, better, smarter. Be- 
cause it takes the guess work out of working 
with financial numbers, SoftCalc is a 

powerful electronic spreadsheet that speeds 
planning and budgeting. 

SoftCalc's capabilities are numerous. 37 

function commands nine operators 

repetitive task formulating .... and automatic 
graphs of your data at the touch of a key. 

Whether it's investments, cash flow, 
inventory, cost estimates, or budgets, 
SoftCalc will helpyou analyze the impact of 
decisions before you make them. 

SoftBase .... 5 x 7 file cards 
electronically] 

SoftBase .... basically, a paper filing 
system without the paper. With SoftBase 
you can file, retrieve and review information 
in a fraction of the rime it takes to use a 



conventional filing system. In fact, almost 
50 times faster than popular disk-based 
filing systems! 

With SoftBase, your allowed the free- 
dom to customize your files to your specific 
needs using our exclusive full-screen cursor 
control. This gives you the ability to create 
client addresses, payment records and cus- 
tom receipts, just to name a few. Manipu- 
lation of text is as easy as I -2-3, using some 
30 function commands. 

And when you need to find and retrieve 
records, SoftBase sorts through your re- 
cords electronically, using fast data access 
through special indexing. SoftBase allows 
you to be as selective as you like, with a 
variety of text retrieving methods. 

SoftWriter .... Productivity at your 
fingertlpsi 

SoftWrtter .... the powerful full-screen 
editor with automatic formatting features. 
Even an inexperienced typist can sit down 
with SoftWriter, learn a few basic com- 
mands, and then quickly turn out perfect 
professional memos and letters. 

With SoftWriter, you can correct 
misspellings or substitute one portion of text 
for another, even search for words using 
global or find commands, with Just a 
few keystrokes! 

Want to illustrate your SoftWriter docu- 
ment with a financial table or graph that's 
stored in a SoftCalc spreadsheet? You 
ask... SoftPac performsl In fact, merging 



and transferring portions of SoftBase to 
your text document is just as convenient! 
And when you're through revising, 
SoftWriter shows you "on-screen" just 
how your document will look when it's 
printed. What you see is what you get. 

SoftTerm .... Ease and speed I 

SoftTerm .... the flexible communi- 
cations program that thinks for you. With 
SoftTerm and your direct-connect modem, 
you can access data bases, bulletin boards, 
and other popular information services. 
SoftTerm saves and sends data from either 
disk or buffer and even transfers data from 
SoftCalc, SoftBase and SoftWriter, to any 
other source. 

Other SoftTerm features such as flexible 
changing of protocols and auto dial tech- 
nology are part of the Softronics tradition of 
high-features and high-performance. 

So, there you have it. SoftPac. That's 
Softronics fully integrated package at work 
for only S299.00. 

For the name and address ofyour nearest 
SoftPac dealer, call 1-918-749-621 1. 

SOFTRONICS 
COMPUTER SYSTEMS 

2300 East 14th Street 
Suite 201 
Tulsa, OK. 74104 ^ne 



f' See List of Advertisers on Page 227 



80 Micro, January 1984 • 113 





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Each cassette 
includes two YORK 10 
labels only Boxes are 
sold sepaiately We 
pretet to sbip by UPS 
as being ttie tastest and 
safest Ifyoii need ship- 
ment by Parcel Post. 
ctieck here D- 

NOTE AdOitional 
charges outside 48 
Continental Slates 
Stiipments to AK. Hi. 
and USA possessions 
go by Priority Mail. 
CanaOa S Meiico— 
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Disk? (y/n) 



Lisling I continued 

10110 DATA2 4 6, 127, 6, 6, 20 5, 53, 2, 11 9, 18, 19 
10120 DATA3 5, 16, 2 47, 205, 53, 2, 25 4, 6 0,3 2, 2 49 
10130 DATA20 5, 53, 2, 7 1,20 5, 2 0,3, 3 4, 24 4, 127 
10140 DAT'A24, 21, 20 5, 157, 126, 20 5, 53, 2, 2 5 4, 120 
10150 DATA40, 116, 2 5 4, 6 0,3 2, 242, 2 5, 53, 2, 71 
10160 DATA205, 20, 3,77,124, 129,79 ,205,148,126 
1017 DATA2 5, 53, 2, 9 5, 58, 252, 127, 2 5 4, 84, 40 
10180 DATA3 9, 254, 86, 40, 6 2, 213, 2 2 9, 23 5, 3 3,0 ■ 
10190 DATA124,237,82,56,4,225,20 9,24,17,63 
10 200 DATA23 5, 43, 17, 2 5 5, 127, 237, 82, 4 8, 242, 62 
10 210 DATA0, 5 0,253, 127, 2 4, 23 5, 5 6, 2, 123, 11 9 
10 220 DA^Al 23, 129, 7 9, 3 5, 16, 197, 20 5, 53, 2, 185 
1023 DA1-A40, 166, 205, 248, 1,33, 216, 127, 205, 105 
10240 DAT'Al 2 5, 20 5, 11 8, 125, 195, 37, 12 4, 126, 187, 40 
10250 DAT'A225, 34, 244, 127, 205, 248, 1,33, 225, 127 
10 260 DAT'A17, 2 45, 127, 2 05, 115, 12 5, 24, 22 9, 43, 3 4 
10270 DATA242, 127, 205, 20, 3, 34, 240, 127, 205, 248 
10280 DATAl, 33, 15 5, 127, 17, 245, 127, 20 5, 115, 125 
10290 DAT'ASS, 170, 127, 17, 243, 127, 205, 115, 125, 33 
10300 DATAl 83, 127, 17, 2 41, 127, 20 5, 115, 125, 58, 253 
10310 DATAl 27, 25 4, 17 0,40, 185, 33, 23 2, 127, 20 5, 10 5 
10320 DATA125, 24, 174, 213, 205, 105, 125, 225, 205, 80 
1033 DATAl 2 5, 43, 2 5, 80, 125, 201, 126, 15, 15, 15 
10340 DATA15, 20 5, 89, 12 5, 126, 23 0,15, 198, 4 8, 254 
10350 DATA5 8, 56, 2,1 9 fl, 7, 195, 53, 127, 33, 14 3 
1036 DATA127, 126, 2 54, 0,20 0,20 5, 53, 127, 3 5, 24 
10 37 DATA246, 2 5, 67, 12 5, 6 2, 13, 2 4, 23 3, 20 5, 102 
10380 DATA125, 33, 198, 127, 205, 105, 125, 6, 6, 33 
10390 DATA246, 127, 229, 229, 126, 8, 205, 64, 0,225 
10 40 DATAl 26, 2 5 4, 13, 3 2, 4, 8, 11 9, 2 4, 9, 20 5 
10410 DATA35, 126, 205, 27, 126, 205, 43, 126, 205, 128 
10420 DATA126,205,132,2,62,a5,205,ia0,2,6 
1043 DATA6, 225, 126, 205, 100, 2, 35, 16, 249, 42 
10440 DATA2 42, 127, 23 7, 91, 244, 127, 23 7, 82, 35, 36 
10450 DATA20 5, 157, 126, 37, 40, 12, 6 2, 6 0,2 5, 100 
10 46 DATA2, 6 2, 0,2 5, 1,126, 2 4, 23 8, 17 5, 189 
10 470 DATA40, 9, 62, 6 0,2 5, 10 0,2, 125, 20 5,1 
10 4 80 DATAl 26, 6 2, 120, 2 5, 10 0,2, 33, 2 40, 127, 126 
10490 DATA205, 100, 2,35, 126, 20 5, 100, 2, 20 5, 248 
10 500 DATA1,195, 37, 124, 20 5,100, 2, 245, 205,148 
10 510 DATAl 26, 2 41, 201, 2 5, 2 4 8, 12 5, 71, 123, 2 5, 248 
10 520 DATA125, 122, 205,248,125, 131,79, 26,205, 248 
10530 DATA125, 129, 7 9, 19, 16, 247, 121, 24, 221, 33 
10540 DATA17 0,1 27, 17, 2 43, 127, 24, 14, 33, 155, 127 
10550 DATA17, 245, 127, 2 4, 6, 3 3, 183, 127, 17, 241 
1056 DATA127, 213, 229, 2 5, 10 2, 125, 225, 2 05, 10 5, 125 
10 570 DATA3 3, 2 5 2, 127, 22 9, 6, 4, 2 5, 6 4, 0,2 25 
10 580 DATA20 9, 2 5, 7 6, 126, 205, 76, 126, 201, 20 5, 93 
10590 DATA126, 56, 41, 205, 116, 126, 205, 93, 126, 56 
106 DATA3 3, 129, 18, 27, 201, 126, 3 5, 254, 71, 4 8 
10610 DATA15, 2 5 4, 4 8, 216, 2 54, 58, 5 6, 5, 2 5 4, 6 5 
10620 DATA216,19 8,9,23 0,15,55,63,201,7,7 
106 3 DATA7, 7, 7 9, 201, 225, 22 5, 43, 43, 43, 233 
10 6 40 DATA5 8, 147, 2, 23 8, 20 5, 40, 3, 20 5, 6 6, 4 8 
106 5 DATA2 43, 33, 13 3, 127, 2 5, 10 5, 125, 195, 7 3,0 
106 6 DATA5 8,64,56,230,4,194,12,64,201,58 
10670 DATA6 2, 6 0,23 8, 10, 5 0,6 2, 6 0,201, 2 5, 35 

106 80 DATAl 26, 20 5, 11 8, 12 5, 2 05, 4, 127, 2 5, 23 6, 126 
10690 DATA3 3, 2 52, 127, 2 29, 6, 2, 20 5, 6 4, 0,2 25 

107 00 DATAl 26 ,254, 10, 40, 49, 254, 91, 40, 30, 254 
10710 DATA13, 40, 21, 5, 40, 14, 20 5, 93, 126, 56 

107 20 DATA216, 205,116,126,205, 93, 126, 56, 208,129 

107 3 DATA42, 2 44, 127, 11 9, 20 5, 3 8, 127, 2 4, 2 01, 42 

107 40 DATA2 4 4, 127, 4 3, 3 4, 244, 127, 2 4, 192, 33, 14^ 

107 50 DATA127, 195, 10 5, 12 5, 20 5, 4, 127, 20 5, 43,0 

107 6 DATA254, 0,32, 17 3, 20 5, 3 8, 127, 2 5, 11 8, 125 

107 7 DATA24, 23 8, 33, 2 45, 127, 20 5, 7 2, 125, 2 5, 23 6 

107 80 DATAl 26, 4 2, 2 4 4, 127, 2 29, 126, 2 5 4, 3 2, 56, 4 

107 90 DATA25 4, 128, 56, 2, 6 2, 46, 20 5, 53, 127, 20 5 

10 80 DATA23 6, 126, 22 5, 19 ^,80, 125, 4 2, 244, 127, 3 5 

10 810 DATA3 4, 2 44, 127, 2 01, 20 5, 4 3, 126, 4 2, 2 40, 127 

10 82 DATA23 3, 2 5, 51, 0,2 01, 5 9, 0,84, 6 5, 80 

1083 DATA6 9, 4 9, 5 4, 32, 4 5, 67, 7 9, 80, 8 9, 82 

10 84 DATA7 3, 7 1,7 2, 84, 3 2, 4 9, 57, 56, 5 0,4 5 

10 85 DATA3 2, 6 8, 6 5, 86, 6 9, 3 2, 8 4, 62, 6 5, 80 

10 86 DATA65, 83, 83,7 9,13, 0,76, 111, 97, 100 

1087 DATA13, 84, 10 1,11 5, 11 6, 13, 86, 101, 11 4, 10 5 

10 880 DATA102, 121, 13, 87, 114, 105, 116, 101, 13, 6 9 

10 890 DATAl 0, 10 5, 11 6, 13, 7 4, 117, 10 9, 11 2, 13, 6 2 

10 90 DATA0, 82, 6 9, 6 5, 6 8, 81^,32, 67 ,6 5,83 

10910 DATA83,13,0,61,3 2,0 ,73,78,80,85 

10920 DATA84, 32, 0,83, 84, 6 5, 82, 84, 32, 6 5 

10930 DATA6 8, 6 8, 82, 6 9, 83, 83, 6 1,0, 6 9, 7 8 

10940 DATA6 8, 3 2, 6 5, 6 8, 6 8, 82, 6 9, 83, 83, 61 

10 9 5 DATA0 ,88,45,70,69,82,32,65,63,68 

10960 DATA82, 6 9, 83, 83, 6 1,0, 5 4, 32, 67, 7 2 

10 970 DATA6 5, 82, 6 5, 67, 8 4, 6 9, 82, 32, 7 8, 6 5 

10 9 80 DATA77, 6 9, 6 1,0, 67, 7 2, 6 9, 67, 7 5, 83 

10 9 90 DATA85, 77, 3 2, 6 9, 82, 82, 7 9, 32, 3 2,0 

11000 DATA79,86,69,82,76,65,89,0 



114 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



RUN BASIC PROGRAMS AT 




WITH ZBASIC 2.2. 



THE WORLDS FASTEST TRS-80 BASIC COMPILER from 



BELIEVE IT OR NOT WEVE ADDED MORE 
NEW FEATURES to the ONLY INTERACTIVE 
BASIC COMPILER for the TRS-801 

7. Speed rncrea^es oi 10-TOO times are typical after compilation 

I. Compiled code can he RELOCATED to run anywhere in memory. Code is even 

ROMable' 
1 ZBASIC 2.2 NOW SUPPORTS BOTH RANDOM and StQUENTiAL DISK I/O. 

4. ZBASIC 2.2 is now a super tool for business programmers: RANDOM ACCESS 
EtLES, and PIflNI USING statements are supported as well as a HIGH PRECI- 
SION MAThI package (with no rounding problems). 

5. Special BUILT-IN MACHINE LANGUACt COMMANDS to increase program 
operation by as much as 1000 timesi Special commands are implemented for 
last memory searching (CPDR, CPIRj. block memory moves (LDIR, LDDRj, in- 
putting and printing HEX numbers, inserting MACHINE LANGUAGE into 
COMPILED CODE, disabling and enabling interrupts, inverting memory, lb hit 
PEEKs and POKEs, and stack control, debug and much more. 

6. ZBASIC 2.2 compiles the ENTIRE PROGRAM into Z-80 machine language 
(Not 8080 code or a combination of BASIC and machine language like some 
other compilers.) Clumsy LINKING LOADERS, and RUNTIME MODULES are not 
needed; ZBASIC 2.2 creates a ready to run MACHINE LANGUAGE program. 

7 NO ROYALTIES imposed on registered ZBASIC owners. 

8. typical COMPILATION TIME is TWO SECOf--!DS for a 4K program. 
9 Use TRS-80 Basic to write ZBASIC program',' 

TO. Compile some existing programs with only minor changes. (BASIC program- 
ming experience is required.) 

n fully compatible with both the Model I and the Model III. Mod I compiled 
programs work on a MODEL III, and vice-versa. ZBASIC works with 
NLWDOSSO, NEWDOS-}-. DOSPLUS. LDOS, MULTIDOS, ULTRADOS, 
TRSDOS etc. (Not TRSDOS Mod I double density) 

12. BUILT-IN and much improved MUSIC and SOLA'D EFFECTS commanrA 

l.i. Improved CHAINING for disk users. 

14 flMEi now available on DISK version. (Mod I only) 

15 ZBASIC 2.2 now has an INPUT @ command (similar to PRINT @j. 

lb. The TAB function vtill now tab 2S.5 columns on a printer. [BASIC cannot tab 
past column 64.) 

17. NEWDOS 80 2.0 USERS can use the CMD "dos command" function! 
(DOSPLUS may use name "dos command") 

18. NEW and EASIER to use USR COMMANDS. 

19. New math functions !o calculate XOR and IN ItCtR REMAINDERS oi a 
DIVISION. 

20. Logical STRING COMPARISONS are now supported. 

21 I he disk commands INSTR, MIDi ASSIGNMENT are now supported on both 
DISK AND TAPEZBA'tlC. 

22 DEFSTR is now supported 

2 i. Eight disk hies may be opened simultaneously; random, sequential or mixed. 

24 LINE INPUTS, is now supported. 

25. Invoke the compiler by simply hitting the^e two keys: ": — " 

26. NEW 60+ PAGE MANUAL WITH DESCRIPTIONS AND EXAMPLE. 

27 ZBASIC 2.2 Comes with GMDFILE.CMD program from MISOSYS, to allow ap- 
pending or mergirig compiled programs and machine language prcjgram', from 
tape or disk. 



ZBASIC 2.2 DOES NOT SUPPORT THESE 
BASIC COMMANDS: 

1 ATN, EXP, COS, SJN, LOG, TAN, and exponentiation. (However, 
suDroutines are included in the manual for these functions.) 

2 ERROR, ON ERROR GOTO, ERL, ERR RESUME. 

3 No direct commands like AUTO, EDIT LIST LLIST ETC, although 
these commands may be used when writing programs. 

4. Others NOT supported: CDBL, CINT CSNG, DEFFN, FIX, FRE. 

5. Normal CASSETTE I/O, (ZBASIC supports it's own SPECIAL 
CASSETTE //O statements.) 

6. SOME BASIC COMMANDS MAY DIFFER IN ZBASIC. For 
instance, END jumps to DOS READY, STOPjumps to BASIC 
READY etc. 

7. MEMORY REQUIREMENTS: to approximate the largest BASIC 
program that can t)e compiled in your machine (at one time), enter 
BASIC and type: PRINT [MEM-6500)/2. Remember, you can merge 
compiled programs together to till memory. 

ZBASIC 2.2 SPEED COMPARISON DEMO 

To help give you an idea how fast compiled programs are, we have 
included this demo program: 

ZBASIC 2.2 DEMO PROGRAM 

Time to compile and run complete program : MIN. 2 SEC. 

BASIC Execution speed IMOD 1 , LEVEL II : 7 MIN. 34 SEC. 

ZBASIC Execution speed MOD 1, LEVEL If :0 MIN. 18 SEC. 

BASIC Program size (WITHOUT VARIABLES] : 89S BYTES 

ZBASIC Program size (WITHOUT VARIABLES] : 2733 BYTES 

(Remember that the ZBASIC program includes an 1 879 byte sub- 
routine package.) Program shown exactly as compiled and run in 
BASIC and ZBASIC. 

10 '========= ZBflSIC 2,2 EXOMPLE PROGRfiM fiND TIME TEST==-===== 

20 CLS:CLEnRia0:DEFINT Q-X:DEFSTR Z:DIM flO (fe*, 24) , Z (50) : RANDOM 
3B flfl=ia0:BB=-1000:[:G=3:DD=-3:EE=-9999iST»="5TORT TIME "-t-TIME* 
40 FOR I = 1TD1£7STEP2 :FDR J^'.yTDlSTEP-S : X)( = POINT ( I , J) :SET ( I, J) 
50 XX=tI-J)/CC»(7*H-J) iXX=RBS(INT(RND(Ii>J)-fln)+7) :RESET(I,J) 
60 XX = PeEK(ItJ) :PDKE15360-M*J, J sOUTaSS, J RND (3» Jl : XX = INP ( 1 1 
70 nB«=STR«(I+J) :BR«=LEFT«(RB«.2) :Ofl (1/2, J/2) =VRL (BR«) »QCHi3 
60 Bfl*=BP« + RISHT«(Bfi*, RND (3) ) : XX^INSTR ( 1 , Bfi*. "5") !XX=SHR!I»J) 
9? Efl«=MID*(PO«, 2,2) :MID«(Bfi», 1, n=Z : IF XX THEN 100 ELSE CLS 
100 IF LENlBn»l)3 OR SGN(XX)=1 OND nSC(Ba»)=32 THEN PRINT".**"; 
110 IFPOS(0))62 THEM TRON: TRDFF : PRINT ELSE XX=NDT IRND (99) ) +100 
120 fi»=INKEY«;IF fi*="Y" OR fl«='V' fiND I>120 THEN PRINT"TRUE. . " 
130 RESTORE : REODO, C, Z ( J) , D: GDSUB170 :GDSUB170:GOSUB170: GOTO210 
140 NEXT ;PR1NT"»"; :NEXTI;CLS:PRlNTi?512,ST», "STOP TIME "jTIME* 
150 STOP' ============== END OF MAIN TEST LOOP ================= 

160 DOTfi 123'.5, -1, ''TEST", -9999 

170 ON RND(&] GOTO 180,190,200,180,190,200 

130 RETURN 

190 RETURN 

£00 RETURN 

210 ON RNDIS) GOSUB 180,190,200,180,190,200,180,190,200 

220 GOTD1A0 

NOTICt ZBASIC 2 UOWMiKS >ou can upgrade voui ;^I3ASIC 2 for fio charge Kist 
send usvour original diskette/cassette and il 5 00 with youi legislered serial numhei 
and copvof your invoice. We will send vour ZBASIC 2 2 and updates to vour manual 

VISA, MASTFRCARD, AMLRICAN EXPRF.SS, COD ORDtKS CALL 

800 52S-1 149 order line 

ZBASIC 2 2 DISK VERSION AND MANUAL 89.95 

ZBASIC 2.2 TAPE VERSION AND MANUAL 79,95 

ZBASIC 2.2 DISK & TAPE VERSION AND MANUAL 99 99 

MANUAL ONLY. (APPLIES TO PURCHASE) 25.00 

SIMUTEK COMPUTER PRODUCTS INC. 

TECHNICAL QUESTIONS PLEASE CALL (602) 323-9391 
4897 E. SPEEDWAY, TUCSON, ARIZONA 85712 ^ 12 

TRS-80 IS tm ot Radio Shack, a Tandy Corp 



^ See List of Advertisers on Page 227 



80 Micro, January 1984 • 115 



Conlinued from p. 112 

Utility only takes about 1 Vi seconds to 
load under the System command at 
Model III high speed. 

Tapetility's utilities use the hexadec- 
imal (hex) number system to be more 
compatible with machine language. 
Don't panic if you don't know hex; 
you'll still be able to use the utilities. 

Tapetility runs without modification 
on any Level II Model I/III with at least 
16K of memory. I've provided three 
versions for different size memories. 
The program checks to see which ma- 
chine you're using and takes the proper 
action. 

Memory Requirements 

All versions use IK of memory. To 
create a system tape after you POKE it 
in from the Basic program, first read 
the section titled Operator Messages, 
then use the Write command by enter- 
ing a W. Use the addresses listed in 
Table 1 when the program prompts you 
for them. 

You can use any version of the utility 
that has the same or less memory as 
your computer. For example, TAPE16 



and TAPE32 (Program Listings 1 and 
2, respectively) run on a 32K machine, 
but TAPE32 or TAPE48 (Program 
Listings 2 and 3) won't run on a 16K 
machine. The program sets the memory 
stack area at 407D hex, the same area 
the ROM boostrap routine uses. 

Special Features 

You can use the break key to return 
to Tapetility's main menu, even during 
cassette input/output. This is handy for 
correcting while using the utility, or for 
interrupting cassette operations. You 
can also load and execute a program 
from the utility, provided the program 
you're running doesn't use the break 
key. 

Model I users should note that their 
ROM won't support the break key 
during cassette iriput. However, the 
utility looks for the break key after it 
reads each byte. This means you can use 
the break key during input, provided 
the asterisk is flashing. If the asterisk 
isn't flashing, rewind your tape slightly, 
and press the play button to get it flash- 
ing again. Cassette output (record) will 





Start 


End 


Transfer 


Version 


Address 


Address 


Address 


Tape 16 


7C00 (31744) 


7FEF (32751) 


7C00 (31744) 


Tape32 


BCOO (48128) 


BFEF (49135) 


BCOO (4S! 28) 


Tape48 


FCOO (64512) 


Fhbl- (65519) 


FCOO (64512) 


Table 1. 


Hex load addresses: Decimal 


n (XXXXX). 



'PROGRAM LOADS AT HEX BC00-BFEF (48128-49135 DECIMAL) 
'CAUTION: MAKE SURE YOU SAVE THE BASIC PROGRAM BEFORE RUN 



Program Lisiing 2. Tape32. 

10 CLS 

20 PRINT ''TAPE32 MACHINE LANGUAGE POKE ROUTINE- BY DAVE TRAPAS.'^O" 

30 POKE 16561,255 ;POKE 16562,187 iCLE^R 10 

40 PRINT "MEMORY SIZE IS NOW SET TO PROTECT THE MACHINE LANGUAGE R 

OUTINE" 

50 PRINT 

60 PRINT 

NING" 

70 PRINT "WAIT ABOUT 15 SECONDS FOR THE POKE ROUTINE" :S=0 

80 FOR 1= -17408 TO -16401 

90 READ A: POKE I , A: S=S+A: NEXTI 

95 PRINT "THE SUM OF YOUR DATA STATEMENTS IS: ";S;", IT SHOULD BE 

115931" 

96 IF S0115931 THEN STOP 

100 REM- SET UP THE BREAK KEY VECTOR TO JUMP TO THE START OF THE P 

ROGRAM 

110 POKE 16396,195: POKE 16397,0: POKE 16398,188 

120 INPUT "HIT THE BREAK KEY TO RUN";A$ 

130 PRINT "YOU HIT' A KEY OTHER THAN BREAK" :STnp 

10000 DA^A4 9, 12 5, 6 4, 2 5, 2 4 8, 1,2 5, 201, 1,33 

10010 DATA59,191,20 5,10 5,18<?,6 2,195,5 0,12,6 4 

10020 DATA33,0,18R,34,13,6 4,33,3,6 6,5 4 

10 03 DA^Al 95,35,5 4, 12, 3 5, 5 4, 6 4, 6, 6 4, 6 2 

10 40 DATA95, 205, 53, 191, 16, 249,33, 98, 191,205 

10050 DATA105, 189, 6, 1,33, 252, 191, 229, 205, 64 

10 06 DATA0, 225, 126, 25 4, 87, 20 2, 122, 189, 25 4, 7 4 

10 07 DATA20 2, 46, 191, 25 4, 6 9, 202, 16 6, 190, 25 4, 8 4 

10 80 DATA40, 8, 2 5 4, 86, 40, 4, 254, 7 6, 32, 20 3 

10 90 DA'T'A3 5, 54, 17 0,20 5, 12 8, 190, 20 5, 147, 2, 20 5 

10100 DATA53, 2, 254, 85, 32, 249, 33, 249, 63, 17 

10110 DATA246,191,6,6,20 5,53,2,119,18,19 

Listing 2 continued 



116 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



break at any time. 

If you have a printer turned on while 
using the utility, all commands and ad- 
dresses will be logged onto it. Since the 
program POKEs tape names and com- 
mands into video RAM, they don't ap- 
pear on a printout when the program 
reads them off the tape. 

Tapetility comes with the printer 
disabled, and you shouldn't enable the 
printer unless one is connected to your 
computer. If you do, the screen locks up 
while the computer waits for you to pre- 
pare the printer, and you'll have to re- 
load the tape. 

If you want to enable the printer 
function, use the Edit command to 
change the data at the addresses listed in 
Table 2. After making the changes, you 
can use the utility to make a new version 
of itself. 

Command Descriptions 

The Load command reads a tape and 
stores it in RAM, while Test will read a 
tape but not store the program in RAM. 

The Verify command compares tape 
contents against memory content byte 
for byte for the addresses specified on 
the tape. This ensures that the tape code 
is exactly the same as that in memory. 
To generate a machine-language tape 
from the contents of a specified mem- 
ory block, use the Write command. 

The Edit command performs a variety 
of functions. You can use it to make 
changes in RAM contents, and for 
changing, examining, listing, or enter- 
ing new programs. 

The Jump command transfers con- 
trol of the computer to the program you 
specified by the transfer address you 
stipulate. You can also use it to execute 
a program you load or to exit the utility 
by specifying a transfer address of 0000. 

Operator Messages 

All three commands — Load, Test, 
and Verify — identify the tape the pro- 
gram reads in the lower right-hand cor- 
ner of your screen. These same three 
commands, used after the tape is read, 
print the following: 

START ADDRESS = XXXX 
END ADDRESS = XXXX 

X-FER ADDRESS = XXXX 

where XXXX is a four-digit number in- 
dicating the address at which the tape 
loads and runs in memory. You can then 
use these addresses to make a back-up 
tape using the Write command. 

Checksum Error indicates a read er- 
ror. Error XXXX differs from Check- 
sum Error in that it is only generated 

Continued on p. 120 



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Austin, TX 78750 



Listing 2 continued 

10120 DATA3 5, 16, 2 47, 20 5, 53, 2, 254, 6 0,3 2, 2 49 
10130 DA^A20 5, 53, 2, 71, 20 5, 20, 3, 3 4, 244, 191 
10140 DATA24, 21, 20 5, 157, 190, 20 5, 53, 2, 25 4, 120 
10150 DATA40 ,116,254,60,32,242,205,53,2,?! 

1016 DATA20 5, 20, 3, 77, 12 4, 129, 7 9, 20 5, 14 8, 190 

1017 DATA2 5, 53, 2, 9 5, 5 8, 2 52, 191, 2 5 4, 84, 40 
10180 DATA3 9, 25 4, 86, 40, 6 2, 21 3, 22 9, 23 5, 3 3, a 
10190 DAi'A18«,237,82,56,4,225,209,2 4,17,63 
102 DATA23 5, 43, 17, 2 55, 191, 237, 82, 4 8, 2 4 2, 6 2 
10 210 DATA0, 5 0,2 53, 191, 2 4, 23 5, 56, 2, 123, 11 9 
102 20 DATAl 23, 129, 7 9, 3 5, 16, 197, 20 5, 5 3, 2, 185 
1023 DAT^A40, 166, 20 5, 24 8, 1,3 3, 216, 191, 20 5, 10 5 

102 40 DATAl 89, 2 5, 11 8, 18'*, 195, 37, 188, 126, 187, 40 
10250 DATA225, 3 4, 2 44, 191, 20 5, 2 4 8, 1,33, 2 25, 191 
10260 DAT-Al?, 245, 191, 205, 115, 189, 24, 229, 43, 34 
10 270 DATA242,191,20 5, 20, 3,34,240, 191, 205, 248 
10 280 DATAl, 33, 15 5, 191, 17, 2 45, 191, 20 5, 115, 189 
10290 DATA3 3,17 0,191,17,243,191,205,115,18'1,3 3 
10300 DATA183, 191, 17, 241, 191, 205, 115, 189, 58, 253 
10310 DATAl 91, 2 5 4, 17 0,40, 185, 3 3, 23 2, 191, 2 05, 10 5 
10320 DATAl 89, 2 4, 17 4, 213, 2 05, 10 5, 189, 22 5, 20 5, 80 
10330 DATAl 89, 43, 20 5, 80, 189, 20 1,1 26, 15, 15, 15 

103 40 DATAl 5, 20 5, 89, 189, 126, 23 0,1 5, 19 8, 4 a, 254 
103 5 DATA58, 56, 2, 198,7,195, 53,191, 33, 14 8 

1036 DATAl 91, 126, 25 4, 0,2 0, 20 5, 53, 191, 3 5, 2 4 

1037 DATA246, 2 05, 67, 189, 6 2, 13, 24, 23 3, 20 5, 10 2 
103 80 DATAl e^i, 33, 198, 191, 20 5, 10 5, 189, 6, 6, 33 
10390 DATA246, 191, 2 2 9, 22 9, 126, 8, 20 5, 6 4, 0,22 5 
10 40 DATA126,254,13,32,4,8,119,24,9,205 
10410 DATA35, 190, 205, 27, 190, 205, 43, 190, 205, 128 
10420 DATAl 90, 20 5, 13 2, 2, 6 2, 85, 20 5, 10 0,2, 6 
10430 DATA6, 2 25, 126, 20 5, 10 0,2, 3 5, 16, 2 49, 42 

10 440 DA'^A242,191,237,91,24 4,191,237,82,35,36 

10 450 DATA205, 157,1 90,37, 40, 12, 62, 60, 205, 100 

10 46 DATA2, 6 2, 0,20 5, 1,1 90, 2 4, 23 8, 17 5, 189 

10 47 DATA40, 9, 6 2, 6 0,20 5, 10 0,2, 12 5, 2 5,1 

10 4 80 DATAl 90, 6 2, 120, 20 5, 10 0,2, 3 3, 2 40, 191, 126 

10 490 DATA20 5,100, 2,35, 126,205, 100, 2, 205, 248 

10 50 DATA1,195, 37, 188,205,100, 2, 245, 205,148 

10 510 DATA190, 241, 201,205, 248, 18<J,71,123, 205, 248 

10 520 DATA18q, 122, 205,248,189, 131,7 9,26, 205, 248 

1053 DATA189, 129, 7 9, 19, 16, 247, 121, 24, 221, 33 

10 5 40 DATA17 0,1 91, 17, 243, 191, 24, 14, 33, 165, 191 

10 550 DATA17, 2 45, 191, 24, 6, 33, 183, 191, 17, 241 

10 56 DATAl 91, 213, 22 9, 20 5, 10 2, 189, 225, 2 05, 10 5, 189 

10570 DATA33, 252, 191, 229, 6, 4, 205, 64, 0,225 

10 5 80 DATA209, 2 5, 76, 190, 20 5, 76, 190, 20 1,20 5, 93 

10 590 DATAl 90, 5 6, 41, 2 5, 116, 190, 20 5, 93, 190, 56 

10600 DATA33, 129, 18, 27, 201, 126, 35, 254, 71, 4 8 

10610 DATA15, 254, 48, 216, 254, 58, 56, 5, 254, 65 

106 20 DATA216,198,9,230,15,5 5,63,201,7,7 

106 3 DATA7, 7, 7 9, 201, 225, 2 25, 43, 43, 43, 23 3 

106 40 DATA5 8, 147, 2, 23 8, 20 5, 40, 3, 20 5, 6 6, 4 8 

106 50 DATA243, 33, 133, 191, 205, 105, 189, 195, 73,0 

10660 DATA58, 64, 56, 230, 4, 194, 12, 64, 201, 58 

1067 DATA6 2, 6 0,23 8, 10, 5 0,62, 6 0,2 01, 20 5, 3 5 

106 80 DATAl 90, 205, 11 8, 18 1,2 5, 4, 191, 20 5, 23 6, 190 

106 90 DATA33, 252, 191, 229, 6, 2, 20 5, 6 4, 0,2 25 

107 00 DATA126, 254, 10, 40, 49, 254, 91, 40,30, 254 
10710 DATA13, 40, 21, 5, 40, 14, 205, 93, 190, 56 

107 20 DATA216, 205, 116, 190, 205, 93, 190, 56, 208,129 

1073 DATA4 2, 2 4 4, 191, 11 9, 2 5, 3 8, 191, 2 4, 20 1,4 2 

107 40 DATA244, 191, 43, 3 4, 244,191, 24, 192, 33, 145 

107 5H DATA191,195,105,18<*,205,4,191,205,43,0 

1076 DATA254, 0,3 2, 17 3, 2 5, 3 8, 191, 20 5, 11 8, 189 

1077 DATA24, 23 8, 33, 2 4 5, 191, 2 5, 7 2, 189, 20 5, 23 6 
10780 DATAl 90, 4 2, 2 44, 191, 22 9, 126, 25 4, 3 2, 56, 4 
107 90 DATA254,128,56, 2,62, 46,205, 53,191, 205 

10 800 DATA23 6, 190, 2 25, 195, 80, 189, 4 2, 2 44, 191, 3 5 

10 810 DATA3 4, 2 44, 191, 201, 205, 43, 190, 4 2, 2 4 0,1 91 

10 820 DATA23 3, 2 5, 51, 0,2 01, 5 9, 0,84, 6 5, 80 

10 830 DATA6 9, 51, 5 0,3 2, 4 5, 67, 7 9, 80, 8 9, 82 

10 840 DATA73, 7 1,7 2,6'!, 3 2, 4 9, 57, 56, 5 0,45 

10 850 DATA32, 6 8, 6 5, 86, 6 9, 3 2, 8 4, 82, 6 5, 80 

10 86 DATA65, 83, 83, 7 9, 13, 0,76, 111, 97, 100 

10 87 DATA13, 84, 101, 115, 116, 13, 86, 101, 114, 105 

10 880 DATAl 2, 121, 13, 87, 11 4, 10 5, 11 6, 101, 13, 6 9 

10 89 DATAl 0, 10 5, 116, 13, 7 4, 117, 10 9, 11 2, 13, 6 2 

10 90 DATA0, 82, 6 9, 6 5, 6 8, 8 9, 3 2, 67, 6 5, 83 

10 910 DATA83, 13, 0,6 1,3 2, 0,7 3, 7 8, 80, 85 

10 92 DATAa4, 3 2, 0,83, 8 4, 6 5, 82, 84, 32, 6 5 

10930 DATA68, 68, 82, 69, 83, 83, 61, 0,69, 78 

10 940 DATA6 8, 3 2, 6 5, 6 8, 6 8, 82, 6 9, 83, 8 3 ,61 

10 950 DATA0, 8 8, 4 5, 7 0,6 9, 82, 3 2, 6 5, 6 8, 6 8 

10 960 DATA82, 6 9, 83, 83, 6 1,0, 5 4, 3 2, 67 ,72 

10 970 DATA6 5, 82, 6 5, 67, 84, 6 9, 82, 3 2, 7 8, 6 5 

10 980 DATA77, 6 9, 6 1,0, 67, 7 2, 6 9, 67, 7 5, 8 3 

10 990 DATA85 ,77,32,69,82,82,79,82,32,0 

11000 DATA79,86,69,82,76,65,89,0 



118 • aOMicro, January 1984 



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CODE 1S113 



^ See i./sf of AOverttsers on Page 227 



', Massachusetts 01469 
A division of New England Business Service, Inc. 

80 Micro, January 1984 • 119 



Conlinued from p. 116 

from the Verify command. Here, XXXX 
represents the hex address where the 
mis-compare was found. The program 
then returns to the main menu. 

A return to the menu with no error 
message and a listing of addresses as 
stated above means the tape code is 
identical to that in memory. 

When the READY CASS prompt ap- 
pears, prepare your recorder to play or 
record a tape and hit any key to start. 

Tapetility only generates an overlay 
error message from the Load command 



and means that the program just loaded 
requires an area of memory occupied by 
the utility. This normally wipes out the 
utility since you'd be altering its in- 
structions. Tapetility checks for this 
condition and loads all memory loca- 
tions specified by the addresses on the 
tape except those used by the utility. 
When this occurs, the overlay message 
appears after the computer finishes 
reading the tape. The Test command 
won't generate the message, and the 
Verify command gives you an Error 
XXXX message. Use a different version 
of the utility to solve the problem. 







Enable 


Disable 


Version 


Address 


Printer 


Printer 


Tape 16 


7F38 


C3 


C9 


Tape32 


BF38 


C3 


C9 


Tape48 


FF38 


C3 


C9 


Table 2 


Dulii addresses for printer function. 



The CASS? prompt is the same as the 
Model III Basic prompt, and Tapetility 
requests it before every cassette input or 
output command. The utility deter- 
mines which machine you're using and 
bypasses the prompt on the Model I. 
Respond by typing an L for low speed 
or an H for high speed. By reading a 
tape at low speed and recording at high 
speed, you can change the speed of your 
existing tapes for a faster load. 

The first prompt for the Write com- 
mand. Input 6 Character Name ^ , rep- 
resents the name you want recorded. 
Always use a six-character name. For 
example, if the name of your program is 
Yours, hit the space bar once after typ- 
ing the five letters. If you press the enter 
key before entering any name, the utili- 
ty uses the name and address read from 
the previous tape, and bypasses all the 
following input address prompts: 

INPUT START ADDRESS = 
INPUT END ADDRESS = 
INPUT X-FER ADDRESS = 



Calling All Machine-Language Programs 



by David J. Trapasso 

Until now, calling machine-lan- 
guage programs from a Basic pro- 
gram was difficult. You either had to 
load the machine- language program, 
protect the memory size, then load 
the Basic program every time you 
wanted to use it, or convert the bi- 
nary code of the machine-language 
program into decimal numbers so 
they could be POKEd into memory 
from Basic. 

The second method was easier 
since it involved loading only one 
tape, but both methods were prone 
to mistakes. 

I decided to write a utility in ma- 
chine language to solve this problem 
(see Program Listing 4). This pro- 
gram runs on Level II Models I and 
III, with at least 16K of memory. \X 
takes the data in any block of mem- 
ory entered by the user and generates 
a tape of data statements that Basic 
can read. 

Once you load the Basic data tape, 
you can write a short POKE routine 
in the body of the program to read 
the data, and POKE the machine 
code back in. 

The utility makes a Basic data tape 
starting with line 10000. Each line 
holds 10 pieces of data, and lines are 
numbered in increments of 10. You 



can see in Listing 4 that 1 used the 
utility on its own machine code to 
make a Basic program out of itself. 

The utility loads at about 4K from 
the top of the first 16K block of 
memory. This is useful for those with 
only 16K of memory available. Any 
machine-language program larger 
than 4K won't leave enough room in 
a Basic program for the data state- 
ments needed to represent the ma- 
chine-language program. 

Once you make the data tape, the 
utility doesn't have to be resident in 
memory with the Basic program. 

Notice line 30 in Listing 4. It 
shows one way to reserve memory 
without having to set the memory 
size every time you run the program. 

When you run the Basic listing, it 
takes a few seconds to POKE in the 
machine code. After you POKE the 
program in, it prompts you to exe- 
cute it by pressing the break key. 
You could also use the USR function 
in your program to execute it. 

To use the utility, protect the 
memory so the machine-language 
program you want to copy is pro- 
tected. If your code resides below the 
utility (7000 hex), you'll have to 
change line 30 of Listing 4 to protect 
it. You can then load the utility in the 



form of the Basic listing and run it. 

When you run the utility, it 
prompts you for the starting address 
in hex. Enter the four-digit address, 
using leading zeroes is necessary. If 
you make a mistake, use the left ar- 
row to correct it or the break key to 
reenter the entire number. 

The utility then prompts you for 
the end address. After entering it, the 
READY CASSETTE prompt ap- 
pears. Set your tape recorder to re- 
cord and press any key. When the re- 
corder stops, the utility will start 
again. It's best to make more than 
one copy to increase the chances that 
at least one copy vkill be good. 

Make sure you load the data tape 
in Basic before vvriting the body of 
your program. If you don't, you'll 
have to find some way to merge the 
two sections of your program. Mod- 
el III users should make sure they set 
the cassette speed before they run the 
utility to know the correct speed at 
which to run the data. 

A good way to practice using the 
utility is to make a data tape of your 
first ROM locations. Load the gener- 
ated tape in Basic, then PEEK the 
same locations. It's all easier than 
you think ! ■ 



120 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



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179-014 



80 Micro, January 1984 • 121 



FOR TRS-80 MODELS 1, 3 & 4 
IBM PC, XT, AND COMPAO 

WHICH ONE? 

Which microcomputer word 
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edit without typing, but won't 
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typesetting at your command, 
even with proportional charac- 
ters, right justification and 
tabbed columns? Lets you use 
the same (extra-capacity) data 
disks on IBM PCanrfTRS-80? 
And eases your learning with 
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Help menus, good examples 
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Hint: it can integrate to com- 
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and will interface with a data- 
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tables, and more! 

It's the professional's word 
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Compaq, orTRS-80 Model 1, 3 
or 4: 



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The program then prompts for these 
addresses with the Write command. 
Enter the addresses for the block of 
memory you want to copy to tape and 
the address where program execution 
begins. If you're making a copy of an- 
other tape, simply hit the enter key 
when prompted to enter the six-char- 
acter name. If you're creating a tape, 
such as a copy of this utility after you 
POKE it in from Basic, you have to 
enter the name and all the addresses. 

To change only the tape name, type 
in the new name and, when prompted 
for the addresses, enter the addresses 
shown on the display after the Load or 
Verify command. 

You must enter all addresses as four 
digits, and you need to include leading 
zeroes. Note that the program requests 
the transfer address during the Jump 
command and the start address during 
the Edit command. 

To enter a command, enter its first 
letter. For example, enter a V to use the 
Verify command or an L to use the 
Load command. The > symbol that 
appears after the program displays the 
menu is the request for command entry. 
Terminate all user entries by hitting the 
enter key. 

Editing 

In the Edit mode, the program first 
prompts you for the start address of the 
area of RAM you want to edit. After 
you enter the four-character number. 



the utility displays the following: XXXX 
= A= BB = CC, where XXXX is the 
address at which you're currently edit- 
ing and A is the ASCII representation 
of the data in that address. The pro- 
gram displays nonprintable data as a 
period. (Tapetility displays only ASCII 
characters in the range of hex 20 to 7F 
hex.) 

BE is the actual data in the hex ad- 
dress, and CC is your input, up to two 
characters long. You have one of the 
following six options: 

• Pressing only the enter key bumps 
you up to the next RAM address and 
displays it without changing the con- 
tents of the prior address. 

• Typing one character then hitting the 
enter key enters the ASCII character for 
the key pushed into memory location. 
You have to enter control ASCII char- 
acters such as enter (OD hex) as hex 
data. The program automatically dis- 
plays the next location of memory after 
the enter key is pushed. 

• Typing two characters then pressing 
the enter key changes the contents of the 
location to the hex number typed in. 
Again, the program automatically dis- 
plays the next address. If you type a 
non-hex character, however, the con- 
tents of the location won't change, and 
Tapetility will print out the same ad- 
dress again. Make sure you look at the 
address as you edit to see if it increases 
by one to the next location. If you 
don't, you could start putting your en- 



Program Listing 3. Tape48. 



10 CLS 

2 

3 



PRINT "TAPE48 MACHINE LANGUAGE POKE ROUTINE- BY DAVE TRAPASSO" 

POKE 16561,255: POKE 16562,251 :CLEAR10 
40 PRINT "HEM SIZE IS NOW SET TO PROTECT THE MACHINE LANGUAGE ROUT 
INE" 

50 PRINT "PRnCEiAM LOADS AT HEX FC00-FFEF ( 6 4512"65'^1 9 DECIMAL) 
60 PRINT "CAUTION: MAKE SURE YOU SAVE THE BASIC PROGRAM BEFORE RUN 
NING" 

70 PRINT "WAIT ABOUT 15 SECONDS FOR THE POKE ROUTINE":S=0 
80 FOR I=-1024 TO -17 
90 READ A: POKE I,A:S=S+A: NEXT I 

95 PRINT "THE SUM OF YOUR DATA STATEMENTS IS: " ; S ; " , IT SHOULD BE 

123170" 

96 IF SO123170 THEN STOP 

100 REM- SET UP THE BREAK KEY VECTOR TO JUMP TO THE START OF THE P 

ROGRAM 

110 POKE 16396,195: POKE 16397,0 :POKE 16398,252 

120 INPUT "HIT THE BREAK KEY TO RUN";A$ 

130 PRINT "YOU HIT A KEY OTHER THAN BREAK": STOP 

10000 DA'^A4 9, 12 5, 6 4, 2 5, 2 4 8, 1,20 5, 2 01, 1,33 

10 010 DATA59, 2 5 5, 20 5, 10 5, 2 53, 6 2, 19 5, 50, 12, 6 4 

10020 DATA33, 0,252, 34, 13, 64, 33, 3, 66, 54 

10 03 DATAl 9-^, 35, 54, 12, 35, 54, 64, 6, 64, 62 

10 40 DATA95, 205, 53, 255, 16, 249, 33, 98,255, 205 

100 50 DAT'A10 5, 253, 6, 1,33, 252, 2 55, 22 9, 2 5, 6 4 

10060 DAi'A0, 225, 126, 254, 87, 202, 122, 253, 254, 74 

10 07 DATA202, 46, 2 55, 2 5 4, 6 9, 2 2, 166, 2 5 4, 2 5 4, 84 

10 80 DATA40, 8,254, 86, 40, 4, 254, 76, 32, 203 

10 90 DAT'A3 5, 54, 17 0,2 5, 12 8, 25 4, 20 5, 147 ,2,20 5 

1010 DATA53, 2, 254, 85, 3 2, 2 49, 33, 24 9, 6 3, 17 

10110 DATA246,25 5,6,6,205,53,2,119,18,19 

Lisiing i conUniied 



122 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



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80 Micro, January 1984 • 123 



The Johnson Law Office 
Depends on Lazy Writer 




When I opened my law office I needed word 
processing, but my resources were limited. A 
local computer store recommended Lazy Writer 
I purchased a Radio Shack Model III and Lazy 
Writer, took them home, and within a day felt 
very comfortable with them. Lazy Writer was 
easier to use than the dedicated word proc- 
essors at my old law firm. Now my law practice 
has grown and we have four Model Ill's and a 
Model IV. We recently bought the new Model IV 
upgrade for Lazy Writer so we can have the 
80 X 24 screen display. Every attorney in the 
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secretaries are capable of using Lazy Writer We 
spend 95 percent of our computer time using 
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about 50 pages. With the text blocks I've devel- 
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three hours for a secretary to complete the 
forms for a client. At my old law firm, it took six 
hours on a mag card word processor and five 
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Robert T. Johnson 
Attorney at Law 

Lazy Writer for TRS-80 Model l/lll/IV $175.00 

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] 



Listing 3 continued 

10120 DATA35, 16,247,205, 53,2, 254, 60, 32, 249 
1013 DA'T'A20 5,53,2,71,20 5,2 0,3,3 4,244,25 5 
10140 DATA2 4, 21, 20 5, 157, 25 4, 205, 53, 2, 25 4, 120 
10150 DA'T'A40,116,25 4,6 0,3 2,242,20 5,53,2,71 
10160 DAi'A205,20,3,77,124,129,79,205,148,254 
1017 DATA2 5, 5 3, 2, 9 5, 5 8, 252, 25 5, 254, 8 4, 4 
10180 DA'T'A3 9, 2 54, 86, 40, 6 2, 213, 2 29, 23 5, 33,0 
10190 DA'T'A252,23 7,82,56,4,22 5,2 9,2 4,17,63 
1020 DATA23 5, 43, 17, 2 5 5, 255, 237, 82, 4 8, 242, 6 2 
10 210 DATA0, 50,253, 255, 24,235,56,2, 123, 119 
10 22 DATAl 23, 129, 7 9, 3 5, 16, 197, 20 5, 53, 2, 185 
10230 DATA40, 166, 20 5, 2 4 8, 1,33, 216, 255, 2 5, 105 
102 40 DATA253, 2 5, 11 8, 253, 19'^, 37, 252, 126, 187, 40 
102 5 DA'rA225, 3 4, 2 4 4, 2 55, 2 5, 24 8, 1,33, 2 25, 255 
10260 DATA17, 2 45, 25 5, 205, 11 5, 253, 2 4, 2 29, 43, 3 4 
10 27 DATA242, 255,205, 20,3, 34, 240,255, 205,248 
10 280 DATAl, 33, 15 5, 2 55, 17, 245, 25 5, 2 5, 115, 253 

102 90 DATA33, 17 0,25 5, 17, 243, 25 5, 2 05, 11 5, 2 53, 33 
10300 DAT'A183, 255, 17, 241, 255, 205, 115, 253, 58, 253 
10310 DATA255, 254,170, 40,185, 33, 232, 255,205, 105 
10320 DATA253, 24, 174, 213, 205, 105, 253, 225, 205, 80 

103 3 DATA253, 43, 2 5, 80, 2 53, 201, 126, 15, 15, 15 
10340 DA'T'A15,205, 89, 253,126, 23 0,15, 198,48,254 
103 50 DATA5 8, 56, 2, 19 0,7,195,53, 255, 33, 148 

1036 DATA2 5 5, 126, 25 4, 0,2 0, 2 5, 53, 255, 3 5, 24 

1037 DAT'A246, 205, 67, 253, 62, 13, 24, 233, 205,102 
10 3 80 DATA253, 33, 19 8,2 55, 20 5, 10 5, 253, 6, 6, 3 3 
10 3 90 DATA246, 2 55, 22 9, 22 9, 126, 8, 2 5, 6 4, 0,225 
10400 DATA126,254,13,3 2,4,8,119,2 4,9,205 

10 410 DATA3 5, 254, 2 5, 27, 2 5 4, 2 5, 43, 254, 2 5, 12 8 

10 420 DATA2 5 4, 20 5, 13 2, 2, 6 2, 85, 2 5, 10 0,2, 6 

10 43 DATA6, 2 25, 126, 20 5, 10 0,2, 3 5, 16, 2 4 9, 4 2 

10 440 DAT'A2 42, 25 5, 237, 91, 2 44, 2 5 5, 237, 82, 3 5, 3 6 

10450 DAT'A205,157,254,37,40,12,62,60,205,100 

10460 DATA2, 62, 0,205, 1,254, 24, 23 8, 17 5, 189 

10 470 DATA40, 9, 6 2, 6 0,20 5, 100, 2, 125, 20 5,1 

10480 DATA2 5 4, 6 2, 120, 20 5, 10 0,2, 33, 2 40, 25 5, 126 

10 4 90 DATA2 5, 10 0,2, 3 5, 126, 20 5, 10 0,2, 20 5, 2 48 

10 500 DATA1,1 95, 37, 252, 205, 100,2, 245, 205, 148 

10 510 DATA2 5 4, 2 41, 20 1,20 5, 24 8, 2 53, 7 1,123, 20 5, 24 8 

10 520 DAT'A253, 122, 205, 248,253,131,7 9,26, 205, 248 

10 530 DATA2 53, 129, 7 9, 19, 16, 2 47, 121, 2 4, 2 21, 3 3 

10 540 DATA17 0,25 5, 17, 2 43, 255, 2 4, 14, 33, 155, 255 

10 550 DATA17, 2 4 5, 2 55, 2 4, 6, 3 3, 183, 25 5, 17, 2 41 

10560 DAT'A255, 213, 229, 205, 102, 253, 225, 205, 105, 253 

10 570 DATA33, 252, 2 55, 229, 6, 4, 2 05, 6 4, 0,22 5 

10 580 DATA2 9,20 5,7 6 ,254,205,76,254,201,205,93 

10 590 DAi'A2 5 4, 56, 41, 20 5, 116, 25 4, 2 5, 93, 2 5 4, 5 6 

106 DAT'A33, 12 9, 18, 27, 201, 126, 3 5, 25 4, 71, 4 8 

10610 DATA15, 2 5 4, 4 8, 216, 25 4, 5 8, 56, 5, 25 4, 6 5 

106 20 DAT'A216,19a,9,23 0,15,55,6 3,2 01,7,7 

10630 DAi-A?, 7, 7 9, 201, 225, 225, 43, 43, 43, 233 

106 40 DATA5 8, 147, 2, 23 8, 205, 40, 3, 20 5, 66, 4 8 

106 50 DATA2 43, 3 3, 13 3, 2 5 5, 20 5, 10 5, 253, 195, 7 3,0 

1066 DAT'AS 8, 6 4, 56, 23 0,4, 19 4, 12, 6 4, 201, 5 8 

1067 DATA6 2, 6 0,23 8, 10, 5 0,62, 6 0,201, 2 5, 3 5 

106 80 DATA254, 2 5, 11 8, 2 5 3, 20 5, 4, 25 5, 2 5, 23 6, 254 
10690 DAi^A33, 252, 255, 229, 6, 2, 205, 64, 0,225 
10700 DATA126, 2 5 4, 10, 40, 49, 25 4, 91, 40, 3 0,25 4 
10710 DATA13, 40, 21, 5, 40, 14, 20 5, 93, 254, 56 

107 20 DA'T'A216,205,116,254, 205, 93, 254, 56,208, 129 
10 73 DA'^A42, 2 44, 25 5, 11 9, 20 5, 3 8, 2 55, 24, 201, 4 2 
107 40 DATA2 4 4, 2 5 5, 43, 3 4, 24 4, 25 5, 2 4, 192, 33, 145 
10750 DATA255, 195, 10 5, 2 53, 20 5, 4, 255, 205, 43,0 

1076 DAT'A25 4, 0,32, 17 3, 20 5, 3 8, 2 5 5, 20 5, 11 8, 253 

1077 DAT'A2 4, 23 8, 3 3, 2 4 5, 255, 2 5, 7 2, 253, 2 5, 23 6 
107 80 DATA2 5 4, 42, 24 4, 2 5 5, 22 9, 126, 25 4, 32, 56, 4 
107 90 DAi'A254, 128,56,2, 62, 46,205, 53, 255, 205 

10 80H DA'''A23 6, 25 4, 225, 195, 80, 253, 4 2, 24 4, 2 5 5, 3 5 

10 810 DATAS 4, 24 4, 255, 201, 205, 43, 254, 42, 2 4 0,255 

10 820 DATA23 3, 20 5, 51, 0,2 01, 5 9, 0,8 4, 6 5, 80 

10830 DATA6 9, 52, 56, 32, 45, 67, 79, 80, 89, 82 

10 840 DATA73, 71, 7 2, 84, 32, 4 9, 57, 56, 5 0,45 

1085 DATA32, 6 8, 6 5, 86, 6 9, 3 2, 84, 8 2, 6 5, 80 

1086 DAT'A6 5, 8 3, 83, 7 9, 13, 0,7 6, 111, 97, 100 
10870 DATAIS, 84, 101, 115, 116, 13, 86, 101, 114, 105 
10 880 DATA102, 121, 13, 87, 114, 105, 116, 101, 13, 69 
10 890 DATAl 0, 10 5, 116, 13, 7 4, 117, 10 9, 11 2, 13, 62 
10900 DATA0, 8 2, 6 9, 6 5, 6 8, 89, 32, 67, 65, 83 

10 910 DATA83, 13, 0,6 1,32, 0,7 3, 7 8, 80, 85 

10 920 DA'T'A8 4,32,0,83,8 4,6 5,82,84,32,65 

10 930 DATA6 8, 6 8, 82, 6 9, 83, 83, 61, 0,6 9, 7 8 

10 940 DATA6 8, 3 2, 6 5, 6 8, 6 8, 82, 6 9, 83, 83, 61 

10 950 DATA0, 88, 4 5, 7 0,6 9, 82, 3 2, 6 5, 6 8, 6 8 

10 960 DATA82, 6 9, 83, 83, 6 1,0, 5 4, 32, 67, 7 2 

10 97 DAT'A6 5, 82, 6 5, 67, 84, 6 9, 82, 3 2, 7 8, 6 5 

10980 DATA77, 6 9, 6 1,0, 67, 7 2, 6 9, 67, 7 5, 83 

10990 DATA85, 77, 32, 69, 82, 82, 79, 82, 32,0 

11000 DA'T'A79, 86 ,69,82,76 ,65,89,0 



124 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



tries in out of sequence at this point. 

• Pressing tlie down-arrow key then 
hitting the enter key lists and displays 
the addresses continuously until you hit 
any other key. You can continue editing 
at the point which you stop the listing 
without having to reenter the address. If 
you have a printer turned on, you can 
get a printout of the program. 

• Pressing the up-arrow key, then the 
enter key, takes you to the next lowest 
RAM address. This doesn't change 
memory contents. 

• Pressing the break key takes you out 
of the Edit mode and returns you to the 
menu. After making changes, or enter- 
ing a program of your own, you can use 
Tapetility to make a permanent copy. 

Making a Back-up Copy 

First, load the original copy of the 



tape and check for the overlay message. 
Use a different version of Tapetility if 
an overlay error occurs and try again. 

Then verify the original tape. While 
not mandatory, it is highly recommend- 
ed to ensure that the original code is 
identical to that in memory. If you get 
an Error XXXX message, load and ver- 
ify the original tape again. 

You can now invoke the Write com- 
mand to record the program on tape. At 
this point the back-up tape is complete, 
but you should verify the back-up to en- 
sure you made a good copy. 

You can also use the utilities to make 
back-up copies of themselves. After cre- 
ating a machine-language tape of the 
utility, see the Memory Requirements 
section on creating a tape after you 
POKE it in from Basic and Table 1. 
Read the tape as you would any back 



10 CLS 

20 PRINT"HACHINE LANGUAGE TO DATA TAPE ROUTINE- BY DAVE TRAPASSO" 

30 A=28671:POKE16561rA-INT(A/256) *256:POKE16562 ,INT(A/256) :CLEAR 1 



40 PRINT"HEHORY SIZE IS NOW SET TO PROTECT THE MACHINE LANGUAGE PR 

OGRAM":PRINT"PROGRAH LOADS AT HEX 7000-7189 (28672 TO 29065 DECIMA 

L)" 

50 FOR 1=28672 TO 29065 

60 READ A:POKE I,A:NEXT I 

70 REM- SET UP THE BREAK KEY VECTOR TO JUMP TO THE START OF THE PR 

OGRAH 

80 POKE 16396, 195:POKE16397,0:POKE16398, 112 

90 INPUT "HIT THE BREAK KEY TO RUN";A$ 

100 PRINT "YOU HIT A KEY OTHER THAN THE BREAK KEY" 

110 STOP 

10000 DATA49, 125, 6 4, 2 05, 24 8, 1,2 5, 2 01, 1,33 

10010 DATA26, 113, 205, 182, 112, 33, 98, 113, 17, 139 

10020 DATA113, 2 5, 2 23, 112, 56, 2 45, 3 3, 119, 113, 17 

10030 DATA141, 113, 205, 223, 112, 56, 245, 33, 69, 113 

10 040 DATA20 5, 182, 112, 20 5, 7 3, 0,243, 205, 13 2, 2 

1005 DATA6, 3, 6 2, 211, 20 5, 100, 2, 16 ,2 49, 62 

10 060 DATA6 8, 205, 10 0,2, 4 2, 140, 113, 237, 91, 138 

1007 DATA113, 23 7, 82, 3 5, 3 4, 146, 113, 3 3, 16, 3 9 

10 080 DATA6,10,6 2,5,205,10 0,2,62,6 8,205 

10090 DATA100, 2, 125, 205, 100, 2, 124, 205, 100, 2 

10100 DATA62, 13 6, 2 05, 100, 2, 35, 26, 19, 205, 197 

10110 DATA112, 245, 124, 254, 48, 40, 6, 124, 205, 100 

10120 DATA2, 24, 3, 189, 40, 4, 125, 205, 100, 2 

1013 DATA2 41, 205, 10 0,2, 221, 33, 146, 113, 2 21, 53 

10140 DATA0, 32, 6, 221, 53, 1,250, 17 0,112, 217 

10150 DATAi20,254,l,40,5,62,4 4,205,100,2 

10160 DATA16, 199, 62, 0,2 5, 10 0,2, 195, 80, 112 

10170 DATA6, 7, 62, 0,205, 100, 2, 16, 249, 195 

10180 DATA0, 112, 126, 2 54, 0,200, 205, 51, 0,3 5 

10190 DATA24, 246, 62, 13, 195, 51, 0,217, 14, 100 

10 200 DATA22,10,6,4 8,145,4,4 8,252,5,129 

10 210 DATA96, 6, 4 8, 14 6, 4, 4 8, 252, 5, 13 0,104 

10220 DATA198, 48, 201, 213, 205, 182, 112, 33, 142, 113 

10230 DATA229, 6, 4, 205, 6 4, 0,2 25, 209, 205, 242 

10240 DATA112,216,2 5,3,113,216,7,7,7,7 

10 250 DATA79, 20 5, 3, 113, 216, 129, 18, 27, 201, 126 

10260 DATA35, 25 4, 71, 4 8, 15, 254, 4 8, 216, 254, 5 8 

10 270 DATA56, 5, 254, 65, 216, 198, 9, 23 0,15, 55 

10 280 DATA6 3, 201, 6 6, 6 5, 83, 7 3, 67, 3 2, 6 8, 65 

10 290 DATA84, 65, 3 2, 8 4, 55, 80, 6 9, 3 2, 66, 85 

103 00 DATA7 3, 76, 6 8, 6 9, 82, 4 5, 3 2, 66, 89, 3 2 

10310 DATA68, 65, 86, 69, 32, 84, 82, 65, 80, 65 

10320 DATA83, 83, 7 9, 13, 0,82, 6 9, 65, 6 8, 89 

10 33 DATA3 2, 67, 6 5, 83, 83, 6 9, 84, 84, 69, 4 4 

10 340 DATA3 2, 72, 7 3, 8 4, 3 2, 65, 78, 89, 32, 7 5 

10350 DATA6 9, 89, 13, 0,7 3, 7 8, 80, 85, 84, 32 

10360 DATA83, 84, 6 5, 82, 84, 32, 65, 6 8, 68, 82 

10370 DATA69, 83, 83, 61, 0,73, 78, 80, 85, 84 

10380 DATA32, 69, 78, 68, 32, 65, 68, 68, 82, 69 

10390 DATA83,83,61,0 

Program Listing 4. Machine Language to Data Tape. 



Up, then hit the enter key when 
prompted for the name. 

DOS users should be aware that 
Tapetility will run directly from disk 
without alteration if transferred to disk 
using the Tape command. You can use 
this utility to find the start, end, and 
transfer addresses of CMD files by 
transferring the files to tape, then using 
the utility to load the tape. 

Problems 

The most common problem with 
Tapetility is that the tape won't stop. If 
you're returned to the menu, the prob- 
lem is a sticky relay. Turning the re- 
corder off solves this problem; if you're 
not returned to the menu and the aster- 
isks flash, you aren't done yet. 

If you are reading a tape and the as- 
terisks aren't flashing, check your vol- 
ume and/or tone control. Another pos- 
sibility is that you're reading the tape at 
the wrong speed. 

If you checked this and the asterisks 
stop flashing but the tape doesn't stop, 
you might have a bad tape. Apparently, 
the utility searched for the transfer ad- 
dress at the end of the file and never 
found it. Try loading the tape under the 
System command. If it doesn't load 
there, the utility won't load it. To avoid 
this problem, hit the break key to return 
to the menu. 

Checksum errors are also a common 
problem. They can be caused by dirty, 
magnetized, or misaligned tape heads, 
incorrect tone or volume setting, a bad 
copy of the tape, or an incorrect speed 
setting. 

If the tape won't stop after record- 
ing, check the asterisk; if it's still 
flashing, make sure you didn't type in 
addresses that would send a huge block 
of memory to tape. This could take a 
long time, especially at low speed. Use 
the break key to return to the menu. If 
you are returned to the menu, the relay 
is stuck again. 

If you suspect a problem with your 
ROM, use Tapetility to make a tape of 
the ROM. Use the Verify command to 
check it with a tape from another CPU. 

If you type an incorrect character, 
use the left-arrow key to correct it. If 
you already entered the information, 
use the break key, but you will have to 
reenter the information again. 

If you type a non-hex character, such 
as the letter O instead of a zero, the utili- 
ty prompts you for the same information 
again. ■ 

David J. Trapasso can be reached at 
29 Boulevard Parkway, Rochester, NY 
14612. 

80 Micro, January 1984 • 125 



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TUTORIAL 



Assembly Language Made 
Simple— Part II 

by Hardin Brothers 



Assembly language frightens a lot of 
people. I've seen writers apologize for 
using it in microcomputing magazines. 
But after last month's dose of program- 
ming ("Assembly Language Made Sim- 
ple — Part I," p. 74), 1 hope you're 
becoming comfortable with Assembly 
language. 

This month, I'll introduce some new 
opcodes and programming techniques, 
as well as an easy method of adding ma- 
chine-language routines to your Basic 
programs. 

Getting Started 

The first program draws a border 
around the screen (see Program Listing 
1). It starts by equating the label Video 
to 3C00H, the hexadecimal (hex) ad- 
dress of the first screen location (line 
170). Next, the EQU pseudo-op in line 



T 



he lesson continues. Increase your Assembly- 
language vocabulary while learning to produce 
sounds and create borders for your screen. 



180 defines the character that creates 
the border. I use CHR$(191), a fuU 
graphics block, for this demonstration, 
but you can easily change it to some 
other character by changing the EQU 
instruction. 

Line 200 establishes the ORG of the 
program at 1000 hex, just as in last 
month's programs. The program starts 
on line 220. 

The HL register pair points to (holds 



001H0 


...... 


....... 


............. 


.***** 


00110 


* 






* 


00120 


* Screen Border Program 


. 


00130 


* 






* 


00140 


****** 


....... 


.....**.*..** 


****** 


00150 










00160 










00170 ^ 


/IDEO 


EQU 


3C00H 


;TOP OF SCREEN 


00160 C 


HAK 


EQU 


191D 


;FULL GRAPHICS BLOCK 


00190 










00200 




ORG 


70009 




00210 










00:'20 




LD 


Hr.,VIDEO-l 


;HL==>TOP OF SCREEN 


00230 




LD 


B,65 


;TOP POSITIONS + 1 


00240 


COP 


INC 


HL 


;POINT TO NEXT SPACE 


00250 




LD 


(HL) ,CHAR 


;FILL SPACE 


00260 




DJNZ 


TOP 


;REPEAT FOR TOP LINE 


00270 










00280 




LD 


B,14 


;B = # OF LINES 


00290 




LD 


DE,63 


; SPACES IN EACH LINE 


00300 ^ 


IDDLE 


ADD 


Hr.jDE 


;SKIP MIDDLE OF SCREEN 


00310 




LD 


(HL) .CHAR 


;FILL A SPACE 


00320 




INC 


HL 


; POINT TO NEXT SPACE 


00330 




LD 


(HL) ,CHAR 


;PILL ANOTHER SPACE 


00340 




DJNZ 


MIDDLE 


;LOOP UNTIL SIDES DONE 


00350 










00*^60 




LD 


B,63 


; SPACES LEFT AT BOTTOM 


00370 I 


JOTTOM 


INC 


HL 


jPOINT TO NEXT SPACE 


00380 




LD 


(HL) ,CHAR 


;FILI. SPACE 


00390 




DJNZ 


BOTTOM 


;PILL BOTTOM ROW 


00400 










00410 


.onp 


JR 


LOnp 


; ENDLESS LOOP TO END 


00420 










00430 




END 


7000H 


• ; INCLUDE STARTING ADDR. 




Program Listing 1. Creates 


a screen border. 



the address of) the current screen print 
position. Line 220 loads HL with the 
value VIDEO- 1. Note that the assem- 
bler can perform simple arithmetic. 
Most assemblers support addition {-\-) 
and subtraction (-), as well as logical 
AND (&) and shift (<). 

Operands for assembler arithmetic 
include direct numbers and label values. 
Line 220 asks the assembler to look up 
the value for Video, subtract 1 from 
that value, and write the machine code 
to load the result into the HL register 
pair. 

Line 220 points HL to the first mem- 
ory location below the screen in order to 
allow a loop that first increments HL 
and then prints information on the 
screen. It may seem more natural to re- 
verse the order of events — print, then in- 
crement — but by incrementing HL first, 
HL always points to the current, instead 
of the next, print position at the end of 
the instruction loop. This makes the 
logic that prints the sides of the screen 
simpler. 

Line 230 loads the B re^ster with 



The Key Box 
Models I and m 
16KRAM 

Assembly Langu^e 
Editor/ Assembler 



128 • 80 Micro, January 1964 



65 — the number of print positions 
across the top of the screen plus the first 
position in the second row. The B regis- 
ter acts as a counter for the program's 
first loop, which starts in line 240, with 
the label Top. First, the program in- 
crements HL to point to the next posi- 
tion, then line 250 loads the value of 
CHAR to that position. 

Line 260 demonstrates the first new 
opcode for this month: DJNZ. Written 
m full, this instruction is "Decrement B 
then perform a relative Jump if B is not 
zero." This is a common and powerful 
opcode, but you must understand sever- 
al important implications to use it cor- 
rectly. 

You can use DJNZ only if the B reg- 
ister is set up as a loop counter. There is 
no equivalent instruction for any other 
register or register pair. The B register is 
8 bits wide. It can hold any value from 
zero to 255 {binary values from 
00000000 to llinill). When the Z80 
chip finds a DJNZ instruction, it first 
decrements the B register; if the value in 
B is zero before the decrement, it is 255 
afterwards. Therefore, DJNZ can oper- 
ate a loop one to 256 times. 

Relative Jumps 

After a DJNZ instruction decrements 
B the program tests the result to see if 
it's zero. If so, the loop ends and con- 
trol passes to the next instruction in 
memory. If not, the program performs 
a relative jump (usually backwards) to 
run a loop. 

In last month's programs, all jumps 
are to an immediate, specific address. A 
relative jump operates differently. In- 
stead of including a specific address, a 
relative jump includes a 1-byte offset 
from the current address. If the offset 
byte is less than 128 decimal (80 hex), 
the computer adds the value to the cur- 
rent address in the PC (program count- 
er) register and jumps forward in mem- 
ory. If the offset byte is 128 decimal or 
greater, the program subtracts the 
complement of the offset from the PC 
register and the value jumps backwards. 

In other words, the offset can be be- 
tween - 128 and + 127. However, be- 
cause the PC updates to point to the 
next instruction before the program 
performs the current mstruction, the ef- 
fective offset is - 126 to -I- 129. 

The last few paragraphs are difficult; 
make sure you understand them, then 
examine line 260 in Listing 1 . Because B 
was set to 65 decimal before the loop 
began, the loop from lines 240 to 260 
repeats 65 times. When the loop is com- 
pleted, it fills all of the top video row 



and the first position of the second 
video row. HL still points to the first 
position in the second row. 

The video screen shows 16 rows of 64 
characters each. Our program fills the 
top row and bottom row completely, 
but only the outside edges of the middle 
14 rows. Therefore, in each of the mid- 
dle 14 rows, we want to print the first 
and sixty-fourth positions. In line 280, 
B is set to 14 again as a loop counter. 
DE is set to 63, the offset from the first 
to last print position in each row. 

The loop for printing the middle of 
the screen begins on line 300 with the 
label Middle, and here you meet the sec- 
ond new opcode for this month, ADD. 
The Z80 chip supports an 8-bit and 
16-bit' addition instruction. If it adds 
two 8-bit values, it places one of the 
values in the A register and, after the 
addition, the result is set in the A 
register. If adding two 16-bit values, it 
places one in the HL register, which 
holds the result after the addition. 

Line 300 adds the present value in the 
DE register, 63 decimal, to the current 
value in the HL register. The HL 
register contains the sum after the addi- 
tion. The HL register then points to the 
last print position in the current row 
after the addition. Starting in line 310, 
the print character appears at the end of 
the row, HL increments to point to the 



first position of the next row, placing 
the print character there, and the loop 
repeats. By the end of the middle loop, 
the entire top row, the entire left side, 
and all of the right side except the last 
row are printed. 

The last section of the program, 
starting in line 360, is similar to the first. 
It loads the B register with 63 decimal, 
the number of print positions remaining 
in the last row (remember that the first 
position in that row is already printed). 
Then HL increments and the print char- 
acter appears 63 times. Finally, in line 
410, an endless loop keeps the program 
from wandering off unattended, and in 
line 430, the End pseudo-op signals 
both the program's end and its starting 
address. 

Possible Problems 

Assemble Listing 1 (keep the source 
code) and run it. You should see a white 
border around your screen. One warn- 
ing is necessary; If you try to run the 
progr^n while your computer is in the 
32-character mode, the result is unpre- 
dictable. On a Model I, the top, bot- 
tom, and left sides of the screen print, 
but not the right side. This is because 
the 32-character mode only displays 
characters in even-numbered print posi- 
tions. With a Model III, the results are 
even less clear. 



001^0 






' 00110 


. * 








* 


00120 


. * 


Screen Border Program 


* 


00130 


. • 


modified 


to be run 


* 


00140 


; * 


as a Basic subroutine 


* 


00150 


. • 








* 


B0160 


.•«»••«*«•************»*•*** 


***** 


001-J0 












00180 












00190 


VIDE 


"^ EQU 


3C00H 




;Top of Scteen 


00290 












00510 




ORG 


7FE1H 




;PUTS THE PROGRAM AT 


00220 










THE TOP OF 16K MEMORY 


00230 


; 






USE 


0BFE1H FOR 32K 


00240 


J 






USE 


0FFE1H FOR 48K 


00250 


; 






[see 


text) 


00260 












00270 




CALL 


0A7FH 




;GET PARAMETER IN HI. 


00230 




LD 


A,L 




;A HOLDS PRINT CHAR. 


00290 


J 










00300 




LD 


Hr.,VIDEO-l 


;HL=->TOP OF SCREEN-1 


00310 




LD 


B,65D 




;B=# OF TOP PO'^N.S + 1 


00320 


TOP 


INC 


HL 




; POINT TO NEXT SPACE 


00330 




LD 


(HL) ,A 




; PRINT CHARACTER 


00340 




DJNZ 


TOP 




; REPEAT FOR TOP LINE 


00350 












00360 




LD 


B,14D 




!B=# OF ROWS - 2 


00370 




LD 


DE,63D 




rDE= SPACES TO SKIP 


003S0 


MIDDLE ADD 


Hr,,DE 




rSKIP MIDDLE OF SCREEN 


00390 




LD 


(HL) ,A 




J PRINT AT END OF HOW 


00400 




INC 


HL 




;HL==> BEG. OF NEXT ROW 


00410 




LD 


(HL) ,A 




; PRINT AT BEG, OF ROW 


00420 




DJNZ 


MIDDLE 




;L0OP UNTIL SIDES DONE 


0043« 


; 










00440 




LD 


B,6 3D 




; SPACES LEFT Af BOTTOM 


00450 


BOTTOM INC 


HL 




;POINT TO NEXT SPACE 


00460 




LD 


(HL) ,A 




; PRINT CHARACTER 


00470 




DJNZ 


BOTTOM 




;FILL BOTTOM ROW 


004»0 












00490 




RPT 






;RETURN TO BASIC 


00500 












00510 




END 






;N0 START VALUE NEEDED. 


00520 














Program Listing 2. Screen border as Basic subroutine. 



80 Micro, January 1984 • 129 



The Model III contains a hardware 
defect that makes the 32-character 
mode occasionally malfunction. Any 
time a program accesses the screen di- 
rectly in 32-character mode, the results 
are unpredictable because of a timing 
problem within the computer. 

To avoid the problem, you must in- 
clude an NOP (no operation) instruc- 
tion immediately after all instructions 
that load to or from the screen. NOP 
forces the computer to do nothing for a 
short period of time. By putting this 
short delay into your programs, you can 
work around the Model III peculiari- 
ties. (The Model III timing fault doesn't 
seem to exist on the Model 4 running in 
either Model III or Model 4 mode.) 

The border around the screen looks 
nice, but you're probably thinking that 
the endless loop at the end of the pro- 
gram makes it useless. Yet you can use 
the program as a subroutine for a Basic 
program by changing it only slightly. 
You might want to have the Basic pro- 
gram print something on the screen, 
and then have the machine-language 
routine draw the frame to create, for in- 
stance, a title screen for a program. 

Program Listing 2 is the same as 
Listing 1 except that the program is now 
in a form that Basic can use. There are 
only a few changes. First, change the 
origin (ORG) value to place the routme 
as high as possible in 16K memory. If 
you have more memory available, use 
one of the alternate ORGs given in the 
program's comments. 

Second, the program starts with a call 
to 0A7F hex. When Basic invokes a ma- 
chine-language routine (I explain that 
process below), it can pass a single value 
or parameter to the machine-language 
program. If your machine-language 
program is expecting a value, it must 
start with CALL 0A7FH, which places 



that value in the HL register pair. 
Listing 2 aUows Basic to specify which 
print character to use. Line 280 of 
Listing 2 transfers the least-significant 
byte (LSB) of the parameter from regis- 
ter L to register A. 

Ignore the most-significant byte 
(MSB) here because a display value can 
be only 1 byte long. If Basic mistakenly 
sends a value larger than 255, the pro- 
gram uses only the LSB, and reports no 
error message. 

From line 300 to line 470, Listing 2 is 
the same as Listmg 1 except that the 
value in the A register prints on the 
screen instead of the value of the la- 
bel CHAR. However, line 490 has a re- 



*'You can use the program 

as a subroutine for a Basic 

program by changing it 

only slightly." 



turn (RET) instruction that needs ex- 
planation. 

Learning Returns 

Basic treats machine-language pro- 
grams as subroutines. All subroutines 
must end with some form of a return to 
pass control back to the original pro- 
gram. Therefore, whenever you write a 
machine-language program to use with 
Basic, you should include a RET com- 
mand at the end of the program. To 
send a single parameter back to Basic, 
load the parameter into the HL re^ster 
pair and return to Basic with the in- 
struction JP 0A9AH. If there is no RET 
command at the end of Listing 2, Basic 
can't resume control of your computer. 

After you enter and assemble Listing 



Tape 












Systems: 












System 


Program 2 


Memory Size 


Line 100, 


Listing 3 




Memory 


ORG 


Prompt 


POKE 16526 


POKE 16527 1 


16K 


7FE1H 


32736 


225 




127 


32K 


OBFEIH 


49120 


225 




191 


48K 


Obt-tlH 


65504 


225 




225 


Disk 












Systems: 












System 


Program 2 


Memory Size 


Line 100, Listing 3 






Memory 


ORG 


Prompt 


DEFUSR = 






16K 


7FE1H 


32736 


&H7FE1 






32K 


OBFEIH 


49120 


&HBFE1 






48K 


OFFHIH 


655M 


&HFFE1 








Table 1. 


Set-up values for 


Listing 2 and 3. 







2 (or modify Listing 1 to look like 
Listing 2), you need to link it into a 
Basic program. There are several tech- 
niques for doing this. I'll concentrate on 
the most direct one for now. 

Save the source code first, then as- 
semble the program to tape or disk. If 
you use a disk system, you may want to 
give the program's filespec an exten- 
sion other than /CMD since this pro- 
gram won't run from the DOS READY 
prompt. The most commonly used ex- 
tension for routines of this type is /CIM 
(core image file), which indicates that 
you should load the program into mem- 
ory but you can't run it directly. 

When you're ready to use the pro- 
gram, load it into memory without run- 
ning it. If the assembled program is on 
tape, use the System command to load 
the program, but hit the break key at 
the following SYSTEM prompt to 
return to Basic. If the assembled pro- 
gram is on disk, use the Load command 
from DOS READY before entering 
Basic. 

In either case, you also have to set 
memory size to protect the program. To 
calculate the correct answer to the 
Memory Size? prompt, subtract one 
from the ORG value in the machine- 
language program and convert the an- 
swer to decimal. You may want to re- 
cord that value in your program notes. 

Your next job is to tell the computer 
where the program resides in memory, 
so that Basic can call it with a USR com- 
mand. If you use Disk Basic, your pro- 
gram must contain the command 

DEFUSR = &Hnnnn 

where nnnn is the hexadecimal address 
of the first machme instruction you 
want to execute. 

Setting the address for tape Basic is 
more complicated, and is best il- 
lustrated with a concrete example. Your 
goal is to store the address of the routine 



20 •* * 

30 '* Marquee Demonstration * 

its ' * Progrram * 

50 '* * 

70 ■ 

80 ■ 

90 CLE 

100 DEFUSR = &H7F74 'See Table 2 

110 PRINT @ 281, "Press Any Key"; 

12C1 PRINT @ 410, "To Continue"; 

130 A = UER(e) 

140 CLS 

150 PRINT CHRS[23) ; 

160 PRINT @ 274, "THANK YOU!" 

170 PRINT : PRINT : PRINT : PRINT 

180 END 



Program Listing 3. Makes a running border. 



130 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



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in memory locations 16526 and 16527. 
Assuming you assembled the program 
to load starting at 7FE1 hex, take the 
second byte (last two digits) of that ad- 
dress, OEl hex, and translate that value 
into decimal 225. (There is a handy 
table at the back of your computer 
manual where you can look up the 
values.) Your program needs to POKE 
that value into memory location 16526. 
Then take the first byte, 7F hex, trans- 
late it into decimal 127, and POKE that 
value into 16527. 

Now include a statement in your 
Basic program similar to 

A = USR(X) 

X contains the value sent to the ma- 
chine-language program. After con- 
trol passes back to Basic, A contains the 
value passed back from your machine- 
language program. 

Program Listing 3 is a short Basic 
program that demonstrates how a Basic 
program can use the Listing 2 version of 
the border routine. Table 1 helps you 
find the correct memory size and POKE 



values to use with your particular 
system. 

I've introduced many new details this 
month; The rest of the article will be 
easier. Be sure you have a good grasp on 
the concepts to this point. Experiment 
with Listings 1 and 2 to see how you 
might modify them. For example, you 
might try printing the border around 



''A pattern looks as 

if it's moving if it is 

continually offset and 

reprinted on the screen. " 



only the top part of the screen, or add a 
second border inside the first. 

A Marquee Border 
Program Listing 4 contains this 



month's second program, which sets up 
a running marquee border around the 
screen, keeps it moving until you press 
any key, and then returns control to the 
Basic program that calls it. 

The underlying concept of this pro- 
gram is that a pattern looks as if it's 
moving if it is continually offset and re- 
printed on the screen. The program de- 
fines three patterns in lines 1010-1140. 
A graphics block and two spaces com- 
pose each, but the order changes in 
each. Printing the first pattern around 
the edge of the screen, then the second, 
then the third, and repeating this pro- 
cess indefmitely, creates the illusion of a 
moving series of blocks. 

Lines 100-250 should be familiar and 
need no further explanation. The main 
loop of the program is in lines 260-380, 
with a routine known as a driver. Sub- 
routines perform all of the real work in 
this program — the driver is responsible 
for calling the subroutines in the correct 
order with a pointer set correctly. The 
use of such a driver provides structure 
and clarity to a program, and simplifies 
debugging. 



00100 


............ 






00640 


DJNZ 


RIGHT 


.-FILL RIGHT SIDE 


00110 


' 




« 


00650 ; 








00120 


* Marquee 


Border Program 


* 


00660 


LD 


B,63D 


; SPACES LEFT ON BOTTOM 


00130 


* (to be called from Basic 


) ' 


00670 BOTTOM 


DEC 


HT. 


jMOVE LEFT ONE SPACE 


00140 


* 




t 










00150 


.t.-t-ttt.-k... 


**.**. *****■..*.. 


t.rt 


00630 


LD 


A, [IX) 


;GET CHARACTER 


00160 








00690 


LD 


(HL) ,A 


; PRINT IT 


00170 








00700 


CALL 


INCPTR 


; INCREMENT PATTERN 


00180 


/IDE" EQU 


3C00H 


;TOP OF SCREEN 


00710 


DJNZ 


BOTTOM 


;FILL BOTTOM ROW 


00190 








00720 ; 








00T00 








00730 ; Note 


— DE Is 


still equal to 64D | 


00:^10 


ORG 


7F74H 


;PUTS PROGRAM AT TOP 


00740 ; 








00220 






;0F 16K MEMORY 


00750 


LD 


B,14D 


;LINES UP SIDE 


00230 




;OSE 


0BF74H FOR 32K MEMORY 


00760 LEFT 


XOR 


A 


;RESET CARRY FLAG 


00240 




;USE 


0FF74Ii FOR 4BK MEMORY 


00770 


SBC 


HT.jDE 


;HOVE UP ONE LINE 


00250 








00780 


LD 


A, [IX) 


;GET CHARACTER 


00260 


jTAET LD 


IX,PATRNl 


;IX==>1ST PATTERN 


00790 


LD 


[HL) .A 


; PRINT IT 


00270 


CALL 


FRAME 


; PRINT IT 


00800 


CALL 


INCPTR 


; INCREMENT PATTERN 


00280 


CALL 


DELAY 


;DELAY A WHILE 


00810 


DJNZ 


LEFT 


jFILL LEFT SIDE 


00290 


CALL 


GETKEY 


;L0OK FOR KEYSTROKE 


00820 ; 








00300 


LD 


IX,PATRN2 


;IX==>2ND pattern 


00830 
00840 ; 


RET 




;END OF ROUTINE 


00310 


CALL 


FRAME 


; PRINT IT 








00320 


CALL 


DELAY 


;WAIT A WHILE 


00850 INCPTR 


INC 


IX 


fPOINT TO NEXT CHAR. 


00330 


CALL 


GETKEY 


;CHECK KEYSTROKE AGAIN 


00860 


LD 


A, (IX) 


;GET CHARACTER 


00340 


LD 


IX,PATRN3 


;IX=->3RD PATTERN 


00870 


OR 


A 


;SET STATUS FLAGS 


00350 


CALL 


FRAME 


; PRINT IT 


00880 


RFT 


NZ 


.-RETURN IF NOT ZERO 


00360 


CALL 


DELAY 


;WAIT A WHILE 


00890 


DEC 


IX 


;ELSE POINT BACK TO 


00370 


CALL 


GETKEY 


;CHECK KEYBOARD AGAIN 


00900 


DEC 


IX 


; BEG. OF PATTERN BY 


00380 


JR 


START 


;LO0P BACK FOREVER 


0091H 


DEC 


IX 


; DEC. 3 TIMES 


00390 








00920 


RET 




I RETURN TO CALLER 


00400 


5ETKEY EQO 


$ 


.•CHECK KEYBOARD — 


00 93« ; 








00410 




; RETURN TO PROGRAM IF NO KEY 


00940 DELAY 


LD 


BC,180flH 


[DELAY VALUE 


00420 




;ELSE 


CLEAR STACK AND Rt^TURN 


00950 D10 


DEC 


EC 


;BC = BC-1 


00430 




;T0 BASIC 


00960 


LD 


A,B 


jGET MSB OF VALUE 


00440 


LD 


A, {3BFFH] 


jCHECK IF ANY KEY 


00970 


0" 


C 


; MERGE WITH LSB 


00450 


OB 


A 


jSET FLAGS 


00980 


JR 


NZ.D10 


;G0 BACK UNTIL BC=0 


00460 


RET 


Z 


;IF BONE, RETURN 


00990 


RRT 




;THEN RETURN 


00470 


POP 


HL 


;ELSE CLEAR STACK 


01000 ; 








00480 


RPT 




;AND RFTDRN TO BASIC 


01010 PATRNl 


DEFB 


191D 


jlST PATTERN IS BLOCK 


00490 








01020 


DEFB 


3 2D 


! FOL'-OWED BY TWO 


00500 


"RAHE LD 


HI.,VIDEri-l 


;HL==>SCREEN TOP - 1 


01030 


DEFB 


32D 


; SPACES 


00510 


LD 


B,6 4D 


;B = SPACES TO PILL 


01040 


DEFB 





(MARK END OF PATTERN 


00520 


COP INC 


HT. 


;HL= = > NEXT PO.'^ITION 


01050 J 








00530 


LD 


A, (IX) 


;GET CHARACTER 


01060 PATRN2 


DEFB 


32D 


)2ND PATTERN IS SPACE 


00540 


LD 


(HL) ,A 


; PRINT IT 


01070 


DEFB 


191D 


; BLOCK AND 


00550 


CALL 


INCPTR 


;INCRFMENT PATTERN 


01080 


DEFB 


3 2D 


; SPACE 


00560 


DJNZ 


TOP 


; REPEAT FOR TOP LINE 


01090 


DEFB 





;MARK END OF PATTERN 


00570 








01100 ; 








00580 


LD 


DE,64D 


; SPACE BETWEEN LINES 


01110 PATRN3 


DEFB 


3 2D 


;3RD PATTERN IS TWO 


00590 


LD 


B,1SD 


; LINES TO PRINT 


01120 


DEFB 


3 2D 


; SPACES AND THEN 


00600 


?IGHT kD^ 


Hr.,DE 


;MOVE DOWN ONE LINE 


01130 


DEFB 


191D 


; A BLOCK 


00610 


LD 


A, (IX) 


jGET CHARACTER 


01140 


DEFB 





;MARK END OF PATTERN 


00620 


LD 


(HL) ,A 


; PRINT IT 


01150 ; 








00630 


CALL 


INCPTR 


! INCREMENT PATTERN 


01160 


END 




;END OF PRfXSRAM 








Program Listing 4. Runnin 


g border called from Basic. 







132 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



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In this program, the IX register 
points to the current print character, the 
HL register pair points to the current 
print position, DE holds line offset 



J_0 Hiiilililtltliiililiitlt***************** 

20 '* * 

30 '* Border Demonstcation * 

40 ' * Program * 

50 ■* * 

50 ■««****»*«******««•*******.*.« 

70 ■ 

B0 ■ 

90 CLS 

100 DEFUSR = SHTFEl 'See Table 1 

110 PRINT @ 2B0, "Border Character"; 

12a FOR r = TO 255 

130 PRIHT @ 35H,I; 

140 A = US^d) 

145 FOR J = 1 TO 150 : NEXT J 

150 NEXT I 

151 PRINT @ 35H," "; 
160 PRINT @ 350, "32"; 
170 A = USR(32) 

180 END 

Program Listing 5. Border demonstration. 



values, B counts loops, BC holds delay 
values, and the A register transfers 
values from the print patterns to the 
screen. 

Starting with line 260, IX points to 
the first print pattern. The Frame rou- 
tine then prints that pattern around the 
screen. The program calls the short 
Delay routine, and calls GETKEY to 
check for a keystroke. The computer 
returns control to Basic if you press a 
key. The program repeats the same se- 
quence of commands twice, with IX 
pointing to a new pattern each time. 

You see a new opcode m line 380. JR 
performs a relative (as opposed to an 
absolute) jump to another part of a pro- 
gram. Like DJNZ, JR can only jump a 
short distance forward or backward. It 
requires 1 less byte of memory than JP, 



00100 


. ************ 


*«««•***« 


********* 




00110 


■ * 










* 


00120 


;* 


Machine- 


Language 


Sound 


* 


00130 


; * 




Receives values 


for 


* 


00140 


. * 




Tone and Duration from 


* 


00150 


. * 




calling 


Basic program 


* 


00160 


. * 










* 


00170 


; * 


*********** 


********* 


********* 


** 


00180 














001 90 




Connect an 


amplifier to the 


cassette Aux plug 


00^00 


; 


before running this 


program. 




00210 














00220 


POPT 


EQU 


0FFH 




.-Cassette Port 


00'30 














00740 






ORG 


7Fe8H 




.■FOR TOP OF 16K MEMORY 


00241 










;USE 0BFE8H FOR 32K HEHOHY 


00242 










;USE 0FFE8H FOR 4eK MEMORY 


00250 






CALL 


0A7FH 




;GET VALUE FROM BASIC 


00260 










;L WILL 


HAVE THNE VALUE 


00270 










;H WILL 


HAVE DURATION 


00280 






DI 






; DISABLE INTERRUPTS 


00290 






LD 


C,H 




;PUT DURATION IN C 


00300 


L0"P1 


LD 


B,L 




;GET FREQ. VALUE 


00310 






LD 


A,l 




jOUTPUT VALUE 


00320 






OUT 


[ PORT) 


A 


;SEND IT OUT 


00330 


L0OP2 


DJNZ 


LOOP 2 




; DELAY FOR 1/2 CYCLE 


00340 






LD 


B,L 




;GET FREQ, VALUE AGAIN 


00350 






LD 


A, 2 




jOUTPUT VALINE 


00360 






OUT 


( PORT) 


A 


;SEND IT OUT 


00370 


L0nP3 


DJNZ 


LOOP 3 




;DELAY FOR 1/2 CYCLE 


00330 






DEC 


C 




;DEC. DURATION COUNT 


00390 






JR 


NZ.LOOPl 


; REPEAT UNTIL C=0 


00400 






EI 






; ENABLE INTRRRUPTS 


00410 






RFT 






;THEN RETURN TO BASIC 


00420 


; 












0043<1 






END 






;END OF PROGRAM 






Program Listing 6. Sound lone and duration values. 



Tape 












Systems: 












System 


Program 4 


Memory Size 


Line 100, 


Listing 5 




Memory 


ORG 


Prompt 


POKE 1652* 


POKE 16527 I 


16K 


7F74H 


32627 


116 




127 


32K 


0BF74H 


49011 


116 




191 


48K 


0FF74H 


65395 


116 




255 


Disk 












Systems: 












System 


Program 4 


Memory Size 


Line 100, Lbling 5 






Memoiy 


ORG 


Prompt 


DEKUSR = 






16K 


7F74H 


32627 


&H7F74 






32K 


0BF74H 


49011 


&HBF74 






48K 


0FF74H 


65395 


&HFF74 








Table 2 


Set-up values for Listings 4 and 5. 







and it allows relocatable, or position- 
independent, programs, but JR oper- 
ates slightly slower than an absolute 
jump. 

The first subroutine shown is GET- 
KEY. It is similar to the Key routine in 
last month's third program. Line 400 
shows a new pseudo-op, $, which 
means "at this location." The $ can in- 
dicate the value of a label, and the value 
of relative jumps (for example, JR $ - 4 
means jump back 4 bytes). 

In lines 440 and 450, GETKEY first 
checks to see if you pressed a key. If you 
haven't, the Z flag is set and the condi- 
tional return, RET Z, sends control 
back to the driver loop. If you have 
pressed a key, the program returns to 
Basic. 

A simple return instruction doesn't 
work because it only returns to the 
driver loop. Whenever the program exe- 
cutes a call, the Z80 saves the address of 
the next regular instruction onto the 
stack before transferring control to the 
subroutine. The stack is simply a first-in 
first-out data structure contained some- 
where in memory (Basic sets it immedi- 
ately below the cleared string space). 

The classic analogy that describes a 
stack is a cafeteria plate-holder. Push- 
ing a value (always a 2-byte value) onto 
the stack is like placing another plate on 
the pile. POPing a value off the stack is 
similar to removing the top plate. The 
SP register keeps track of the current 
address of the top value on the stack au- 
tomatically. 

Each call instruction pushes the re- 
turn address on the stack and jumps to 
the subroutine. If you press a key, 
GETKEY ignores the first return ad- 
dress — the one leading to the driv- 
er — and instead returns to the second 
address, leading back to Basic. There- 
fore, the first value is POPed off the 
stack into the HL register. A RET com- 
mand then transfers control back to the 
original Basic program. 

The second subroutine. Frame, be- 
gins on line 500. It is similar to Listing 1, 
except it fills the two sides of the screen 
separately. It first loads each print value 
into the A register with an LD A, (IX) 
command, then transfers the values to 
the screen with LD (HL),A. After each 
character prints, the program calls 
INCPTR (line 850) to increment and 
test the IX pointer. If IX reaches the 
end-of-pattem marker (a zero byte), IX 
decrements three times to point back to 
the beginning of the pattern. 

The last section of Frame is the Left 
routme, where you meet another new 
opcode, SBC (subtract with carry). The 



134 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



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Tape 










Systems: 










System 


Program 6 


Memory Size 


Line 100, 


Listing? 


Memory 


ORG 


Prompt 


POKE \6S26 


POKE 16527 


16K 


7FE8H 


32743 


232 


127 


32K 


0BFE8H 


49127 


232 


191 


48K 


Ol-i-HSH 


65511 


232 


255 


Disk 










Systems: 










System 


Program 6 


Memory Size 


Line 100, Listing 7 




Memory 


ORG 


Prompt 


DEFUSR = 




16K 


7FE8H 


32743 


&H7FE8 




32K 


0BFE8H 


49127 


&HBFE8 




48K 


Oi-l-HSH 


65511 


.feHl-FHS 






Table. 


. Set-up values for 


Listings 6 and 7. 





Z80 instruction set doesn't include a 
straight 16-bit Subtract command, so 
use SBC here. SBC HL.DE subtracts 
the value in DE from HL, loads the re- 
sult in HL, and decrements HL by one 
if the program sets the carry flag. To be 
sure that line 770 produces the correct 
result, you must be sure the program 
hasn't set the carry flag. 

The Z80 has two commands that di- 
rectly affect the carry flag: SCF (set car- 



ry flag) and CCF (complement carry 
flag, which changes it to the opposite of 
its current status). You can use the two 
together to reset the carry flag so it 
doesn't alter the results of the subtrac- 
tion. However, XOR A does the same 
thing faster. An exclusive OR (XOR) of 
the A register always sets the A register 
to zero, sets the zero flag, and resets the 
carry flag. This instruction is often a 
shorthand method of establishing 



known values for the A register and 
both flags. 

DELAY, the last subroutine of the 
program, begins in line 940. It slows 
down program execution to produce an 
attractive display. The Z80 operates so 
quickly that without a delay routine, 
you lose the marquee effect. Try remov- 
ing lines 280, 320, and 360 to see how 
fast the program can operate. 

Line 940 loads the BC register pair 
with a delay value of 1800 hex. If you 
want to change the delay time, change 
that value. Then, in a loop from line 950 
to line 980, BC decrements one step at a 
time until it equals zero, when the pro- 
gram returns control to the driver. 

The mechanics of checking BC for 
zero should be familiar from last 
month. By using the timing codes in 
your editor/assembler manual you can 
calculate how long each instruction 
takes. The Delay subroutine, as written, 
takes about .08 seconds on a Model III 
and slightly longer on a Model I. 

Since I wrote Listing 4 for use with a 
Basic program, you have to follow the 
same procedure you use with Listing 2. 
The correct values for memory size and 
setting the USR addresses are in Table 
2, and Listing 5 is a short program that 



Displays COREtECT SPELEJNGS: 

If you don't know the correct spelhng, 
EW will look it up for you, and display 

the dictionary. 

VERIFIES CORRECTIONS: If you 

think you know the correct spelling of 
a word, E W will check it for you before 
making the corrections. 

HYPHENATES AUTOMATICALLY: 

(Optional). Inserts discretionary hy- 
phens throughout text. 

GRAMMAR & STYLE CHECKER: 

(Optional). Identifies 22 types of com- 
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Runs within EW. 

50,000 WORD DICTIONARY: Uses 

only 2Vz bytes per word; add as many 
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136 • 80 Micro, January 1984 




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aOMicro, January 1984 * 137 



IB 




20 


* * 


30 


* Sound Deiiionstiration * 


<10 


* Program * 


50 


* • 


60 




70 




80 




90 CLS 1 


100 


DEFUSR =- SH7PEB 'See Table 3 


110 


PRINT e 17, "Connect Amplifier to AOX Plug" 


120 


PRINT e 151, "Then Press <ENTRR>" 


130 


IP INKEYS <^ CHR$(n) THEN 130 


140 


CLS 


150 


FOR I = 1 TO 8 


160 


READ A,B 


170 


K = A + B*256 


180 


IF K>32767 THEN K=K-65536 


190 


T = OSR{K) 


200 


NEXT I 


210 


END 


220 


' 


230 


DATA 255,114 


240 


DATA 192,227 


250 


DATA 192,76 


260 


DAf'A 192,151 


270 


DATA 152,191 


260 


DATA 171,255 


290 


DATA 192,76 


300 


DA-^A 171,170 




Program Listing 7. Sound demonstration. 



demonstrates the marquee effect. 

Making Noise 

The last Assembly-language program 
this month (Program Listing 6) is a 
short Sound routine that, like many 
games, produces tones when you con- 
nect the cassette AUX plug to a small 
amplifier. There are complex Sound 
routines that allow greater variations in 
duration, timbre, and pitch. However, 
this routine is one of the simplest and 
serves to demonstrate how the TRS-80 
produces sound. 

Line 220 sets the label Port equal to 
OFF hex. (To use the Model 4's internal 
sound speaker, change this to 90 hex.) 
On Models I and 111, you can use port 
OFF hex as a cassette interface. 

The computer normally writes data 
on cassette by toggling bits zero and 1 of 
the cassette port, producing both a high 
and low output. Sending a value of 1 to 
the port produces the top half of a 
square wave; sending a value of 2 pro- 
duces the bottom half. Sending a 1 then 
a 2 produces a single square wave tone. 
The length of time it takes to create the 
wave determines the pitch, with longer 
times producing lower notes. The num- 
ber of wave cycles determines the dura- 
tion of a note. 

Line 250 loads the HL register pair 
with a value sent from Basic. The L reg- 
ister contains the note's pitch, the H 
register its duration. Since the program 
stores tone and duration information 
separately in Basic, you must combine 
them before sending them to the sound 
program. Listing 7 is a short Basic dem- 
onstration program showing how you 
might perform the combination. 

Line 280 contains the command DI 

138 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



(Disable Interrupts). If you have a 16K 
Model I without an expansion interface, 
ignore this mstruction. Otherwise, you 
must include it to avoid generating a 
gravel-like sound. Any computer capa- 
ble of a constantly updated clock dis- 
play interrupts the program presently 
running several times a second to up- 
date the clock counters. The DI instruc- 
tion keeps those interrupts from occur- 
ring, but causes the clock to lose time. 

Line 290 loads the duration count 
(the number of times to repeat the 
tone's wave) into the C register. Then, 
in line 300, the program loads the fre- 
quency value into the B register. The 
program loads register A with a 1, 
which the program sends to the cassette 
port with the OUT (PORT),A com- 
mand in line 320. Then a short DJNZ 
loop, LOOP2, decrements the B regis- 
ter to zero. 

So far, the program has sent half of 
the wave to the port. Line 340 again 
loads B from the H register, loads A 
with 2, sends the new value to the port, 
and uses another DJNZ loop to form 
the second half of the wave. 

Line 380 decrements the C register 
once. If its value is not yet zero, it per- 
forms a relative jump to LOOPl, and 
forms a new wave to send to the port. 
When C reaches zero, it re-enables the 
interrupts with the EI command in line 
400, and control returns to Basic. Al- 
though you can make the Sound routine 
more complex, it is adequate for use in 
games and for alerting an operator. 

Table 3 shows the correct set-up val- 
ues for the Sound routine depending on 
your computer type and memory size. 
Program Listing 6 demonstrates how to 
read tone values from a data table and 



send them to the machine-language rou- 
tine. Each data line contains two values 
for the tone's pitch and duration. No- 
tice that the larger a pitch value, the 
lower the note sounds. Because the ma- 
chine-language program decrements 
both B and C before it tests them, a zero 
(equal to 256) represents the lowest 
pitch and the longest duration. Howev- 
er, to make the data values easier to ma- 
nipulate, the program uses only values 
between 1 and 255. 

To calculate relative pitches of notes, 
you need to know that two notes a half- 
step apart form a ratio of 1.05946. If 
you use 255 for the lowest note, the 
pitch one-fourth higher is 255/ 
(1.05946)^ Round any fractions to the 
closest integer. If you don't feel like 
calculating exact note values, experi- 
ment until you find acceptable tones. 

Note lengths are a function of the 
pitch value times the duration value. 
You can reproduce a piece of music by 
using a duration of 255 for the longest, 
highest note, and scaling other duration 
values from theie. 

Learning More 

So far, I have shown you: how to 
use approximately 20 opcodes and 
pseudo-ops, the general structure of As- 
sembly language, and one way to add 
machine-language routines to Basic 
programs. Most programmers use As- 
sembly language for one of three pur- 
poses; to add machine-language rou- 
tines to Basic, to write stand-alone game 
programs, or to write utility and appli- 
cation programs. 

It is beyond the scope of this series to 
explore utilities and applications, which 
are abnost always long and compli- 
cated. So next month Til show you 
some of the structures and program- 
ming considerations required to write a 
stand-alone game, as well as how to use 
more of the ZSO's instruction set. If you 
want more help writing subroutines for 
your Basic programs, try reading my 
column The Next Step in back issues of 
80 Micro. A major purpose of that col- 
unrn is to explore ways of mixing ma- 
chine language and Basic. 

If you subscribe to CompuServe and 
want to discuss any part of this series, 
leave me a message on the SASIG mes- 
sage board. Type GO PCS-U7 to arrive 
at SASIG; my PPN is 72165,735. Feel 
free to join in on discussions other read- 
ers start. ■ 



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Grammar 
& Style 

Checking 
for 

Superscripsit 



Checks for 22 categories of errors, including wordy 
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Also available for Newscript, Lazy Writer, Scripsit 
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80 Micro, January 1984 • 139 




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Order by phone or by mail. We accept Visa, MasterCard, cashier's checks, certified 
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HARDWARE 



LOAD 80 



Synthetically Speaking 

Part I 



by David L. Engelhardt 



T 



his board gives your Model I/ID speech ca- 
pability. Use it in applications for education 
and the handicapped. It's a real chatterbox. 



Talk isn't cheap, bul it's getting 
cheaper. Once an expensive undertak- 
ing, adding speecli capability to your 
16K Model I or 111 is now aflbrdable 
and fairly easy to accomplish. 

In this two-part series, I'll show you 
how to build and use a speech board for 
your Model I/III. In this part, I cover 
the theory, construction, and testing of 



the board's hardware circuits. Next 
month I'll go into applications for the 
handicapped and in education, with 
programs that convert keystrokes and 
ASCII string text into synthesized 
speech . 

Although I built this system on a 
Model III, it also works on a Model I 
since both computers use the same in- 




put/output communications signals (see 
Table 1). The only difference between 
the set-up of the two units is that the 
Model III uses a 50-pin connector and 
the Model I uses a 40-pin connector. 

Parts to Buy 

1 based the entire speech circuit on the 
Votrax SC-01 speech synthesizer chip, 
which costs about $50. I bought the chip 
from Micromint Inc. (the addresses of 
all the manufacturers cited appear at the 
end of this article). 

Since I have an S-100 expansion bus, 
I built the speech circuit on an S-100 
plug-in card. The Photo shows the com- 
plete circuit, consisting of the decoding 
circuit, 8255 controller, SC-01 speech 
chip, and the amplifier that operates an 
external 8 ohm speaker. Notice tliat 
there's still room left on the S-100 card 
for future additions to the speech cir- 
cuit. 

The Vector Electronic Co. manufac- 
tures the S-100 plug-in card (part number 
l-\). 1 like to use these cards because 
the two-connections-per-trace design 
allows easy point-to-point wiring. The 
cards plug into an S-100 motherboard 
manufactured by Wameco Inc. (part 



The Key Box 

Models I and 111 

32K Disk Basic 

16K Cassette Basic 

Assembly Language 

(If 16K— object code only) 

Hardware project 



Photo. Speech board. 



142 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



^ 



o. 



!3 





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DISK III 



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VR DATA — WEST 

\VA'r()XCjA,OK 
1-400-623-8664 

80 Micro, January 1984 • 143 



number QMB-12). 

The motherboard allows expansion 
to 12 extra cards, not including the 
speech board. As it stands, I have the 
computer interface/clock board in one 
slot, the port control board in another, 
and the speech board in a third slot. 1 
still have plenty of room for future ex- 
pansion. You must provide a 5- and 
12-volt power supply to operate the 
speech board. 

If you use a different plug-in card de- 
sign, chances arc it will be smaller. You 
can still buiid the speech board using 
smaller cards, but you may have to split 
up the total circuit. Using smaller cards 
shouldn't present any problems as you 
can easily link them together with rib- 
bon cables. Adapt the required comput- 
er signals to your bus configuration ac- 
cording to the circuit schematics. 

Port Decoding Circuit 

The port decoding section shown in 
Fig. 1 consists of Ul, U2, and two gates 
of U3. Ul and U2 are two-input, exclu- 
sive OR gates that make up the main 
port decoding section. Switches S1-S6 
consist of an 8-DIP-switch (dual in-line 
processor) package that plugs into a 
16-pin integral cd circuit {!C) socket 
with two switches left for future use. 
Use these switches to set or change the 
speech ports to the configuration you 
need, but keep them within the zero to 
7F hexadecimal (hex) port limits set by 
Radio Shack. 

1 use four ports to operate the speech 
board via an 8255 programmable pe- 
ripheral interface chip that controls the 
Votrax chip. For simplicity, Fig. 1 
shows the port decoding signals that 
consist of everything to the left of the 
8255 chip (U4). Figure 2 details the sig- 
nals that control the SC-01 chip. 

1 use the 8255 chip as the interface be- 
tween the Model l/lll and the SC-01 , 
due to the SC-OI's internal set-up re- 
quirements. I'll cover this when I de- 
scribe the SC-Ol synthesizer chip below. 

Address lines A2-A7 in Fig. 1 tie to 
U 1 and U2 to decode the base port val- 
ue. Address lines AO and A I tie directly 
to the 8255 to decode its four internal 
ports. Ul and U2 turn on and stay 
selected for a decoding range of four, 
while address lines AO and Al actually 
perform the internal selection of the 
four ports within the 8255 chip. 

Since 1 selected ports 16-19 decimal 
to control the Votrax chip, Ul and U2 
set up the base, or bottom, port number 
(16 decimal) and stay selected while the 
combination of AO and Al make up the 
actual four ports (16-19) that control 
the 8255 chip. 
144 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



Ul makes up the most significaiu 
half of the SC-Ol's base port number. 
Only one-half of U2 makes up the least 
significant half of the SC-Ol's port. The 
unused gates are available for future 
use. Select the port number by setting 
switches S!-S6 to either high (open) or 
ground. The switches you set to ground 
actually make up the port's decoded 
number. 

When you don't select the port, the 
logic state on pin 1 of U3A is normally 
low. This is because the exclusive OR 
gate always outputs a logic low whenev- 
er either two lows or two highs are on 
the gate's inputs. Thus, when a decod- 
ing switch is open, one of the inputs 
goes to a high state, if an address line on 
the other input is high at the same time, 
it yields a logical low on the output gate 



that turns off the decoder. 

The decoder section requires only one 
gate with a low output from U 1 or U2 to 
turn off. Since a logical high is onc-haif 
the requirement on pin 1 of U3A to turn 
on the decoder, all decoding exclusive 
OR gates must have a logical high out- 
put. The exclusive OR gate supplies a 
logical high output only when both of 
the inputs on each gale are of opposite 
states. 

For example, 1 decoded the speech 
board for ports 10-13 hex (16-19 deci- 
mal). Since the most significant port 
digit is ! hex, I set switch S4 to ground 
and leave switches S1-S3 open. Since 
the least significant hex digit is a zero, 
switches S5 and S6 are also open. The 
switches tied to ground apply a logic 
low to one-half of a gate's inputs while 




^ 






^' 





POWER 


*'CC 


GNC 




Ul. u;. U! 


(4 


' 




U4 


2!, 


' 





J 



TO flGUSE 2 



Figure 1. Decoder section. 




ADJJSI 10 



SOUND 
OUTP'J' TO 
AMPLIFIER m 
[■"IGURE 3 



POWER 


'cc 


ONO 


ua 


J6 


7 


U5 


1 


IB 


U6 




r 


ur 




8 



Figure 2. Main speech circuil. 




The 



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Texas 817-274-6998 

800-433-5355 




BTA's MODEL 524 MULTIPORT 
CONTROLLER is a code activated one 
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each port can operate with a different 
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same as model 524 except has 256 byte 
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the open switches apply logical highs. 

At the selection of port 10 hex, ad- 
dress lines A5-A7 are logical low giving 
opposite states on the inputs to the 
gates. This results in logical highs on 
their outputs. Address line A4 is high, 
and since its corresponding switch is 
low, the inputs are of opposite states 
and result in a logical high as an output. 

The least significant digit using ad- 
dress lines A2 and A3 works the same 
way as the most significant digit. Since 
address lines A2-A7 decode the base 
port (10 hex), the decoder enables no 
matter what state address lines AO and 



Al are in. While address lines A2-A7 
stay .selected to enable the 8255, the 
combination of address lines AO and Al 
changes to select the four internal ports 
required to operate the 8255. 

Any time the Input or Output com- 
mand selects a port, the computer gen- 
erates a corresponding in or out signal. 
The computer applies these two signals 
to the gates of USB and its output goes 
high in the presence of either one of the 
in or out signals. The computer applies 
the logical high output of U3B com- 
bined with the decoded port signal to 
the inputs of U3A to give a logical low 



Model I pin designations 


Signals 


Computer Pin Designations 


DO 


Pin 30 


Dl 


Pin 22 


D2 


Pin 32 


D3 


Pin 26 


D4 


Pin 18 


D5 


Pin 28 


D6 


Pin 24 


D7 


Pin 20 


AO 


Pin 25 


Al 


Pin 27 


A2 


Pin 40 


A3 


Pin 34 


A4 


Pin 31 


A5 


Pin 35 


A6 


Pin 38 


A7 


Pin 36 


In' 


Pin 19 


Out* 


Pin 12 


lOBUSINT* 


Pin 21 


(* 


= negative true) 


Model ni pin designations 


Signals 


Computer Pin Designations (J2) 


DO 


Pin 1 


Dl 


Pin 3 


D2 


Pin 5 


D3 


Pin 7 


D4 


Pin 9 


D5 


Pin 11 


D6 


Pin 13 


D7 


Pin 15 


AO 


Pin 17 


Al 


Pin 19 


A2 


Pin 21 


A3 


Pin 23 


A4 


Pin 25 


A5 


Pin 27 


A6 


Pin 29 


A7 


Pin 31 


in* 


Pin 33 


Out* 


Pin 35 


lOBUSINT* 


Pin 39 




All Even 




Ground > < 2 TO 50 


Table 1. Model I and Model III pin designations. 



146 • 80 Micro, January 19B4 



output. 

The output of U3A enables the 8255 
chip for the Read and Write commands 
needed to control the SC-OI speech 
chip. The computer also tics the in and 
out signals directly to the 8255 to con- 
trol the direction of data flow in con- 
junction with the actual Input or Out- 
put command. The computer ties the in 
signal to the RD input and the out signal 
to the WR input of the 8255. The com- 
puter connects all data Unes to the 8255 
for reading from and writing to the 
SC-01 synthesizer chip. 

You may wonder why U3 is a stan- 
dard TTL (transistor to transistor logic) 



'Through part-swapping 
and troubleshooting 

I discovered 
that the system runs 

without trouble 
with a 7400 chip/' 



chip instead of an LS (low power Schott- 
ky) chip like the others. I discovered 
through pari;-swapping and trouble- 
shooting that a 74LS(K) doesn't have 
enough drive capability to enable the 
8255. The system either locks up or gets 
lost when I used a 74LS00, but runs 
without trouble with a 7400 chip. Please 
keep this in mind when you buy the 
parts for the speech circuit. 

The 8255 Controller 

The programmable peripheral inter- 
face, or 8255 {U4) for short, allows 
configuration to any system or device 
with Uttle difficulty. You can set it up to 



run in three different modes. I opted to 
run the 8255 in mode zero for the speech 
board application. 

There are 16 possible configurations 
within mode zero and Table 2 shows 
these different configurations. Config- 
uration 8 applies to the speech board 
application. (Gel Intel's Component 
Data Catalog for more information on 
the 8255 interface chip. This book 
describes in detail the many combina- 
tions and configurations available with 
this chip in all three modes of opera- 
tion.) 

Writing a control word to the 8255 
sets mode zero, making two 8-bit ports 
and two 4-bit ports available. Ports A 
and B are the 8-bit ports and port C is 
split in half to create the two 4-bit ports. 
All outputs are latching outputs and all 
inputs are non-latching inputs. 

For the speech application, decoded 
port 19 decimal writes the control and 
configuration word (144 decimal) to the 
8255 chip. Decoded port 18 sets up 
communications with the 8255's inter- 
nal port C. Decoded port 17 sets up port 
B and port 16 communicates with ihc 
8255's port A. 

Figure 2 shows the ports that control 
the SC-01 speech chip. Port B, with its 
latching outputs, sends a code to the 
SC-01 and stores it there while port C 
tells the SC-01 to latch port B's con- 
tents. Port C also controls the SC-OTs 
infiection inputs. Port A samples an 
output from the SC-01 to indicate that 
it's ready for a new phoneme code. I'll 
discuss phonemes in more detail below. 

The SC-01 Speech Synthesizer 

The SC-01 is a self-contained chip ca- 
pable of phonetically synthesizing con- 
tinuous speech by combining pho- 
nemes. This chip can reproduce the 64 



Num 


Value 


Port A 


Port B 


Port C/Upper 


Port C/Lower 





128 


output 


output 


output 


output 


I 


129 


output 


output 


output 


input 


2 


130 


output 


input 


output 


output 


3 


131 


output 


input 


output 


input 


4 


136 


output 


output 


input 


output 


5 


137 


output 


output 


input 


input 


6 


138 


output 


input 


input 


output 


7 


139 


output 


input 


input 


input 


8 


144 


input 


output 


output 


output 


9 


145 


input 


output 


output 


input 


10 


146 


input 


input 


output 


output 


11 


147 


input 


input 


output 


input 


12 


152 


input 


output 


input 


output 


13 


153 


input 


output 


input 


input 


14 


154 


input 


input 


input 


output 


15 


155 


input 


input 


input 


input 






Table 2. Mode 


zero configurations for the 8255. 





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80 Micro, January 1984 • 147 



different plionemes that emulate the 
English language using 6-bit access 
codes. 

Sending out these different pho- 
nemes at a continuous rale produces 
synthesized speech. Table 3 lists the 64 
different phonemes, their symbols, 
average duration time in milliseconds, 
and examples important in creating 
speech. You can create any word by 
combining the proper phonemes. 1 use a 
Basic program to test the hardware cir- 
cuits by putting together phonemes to 
create actual speech (see the Program 
Listing). 

Refer again to Fig. 2. I^ort B of the 
8255 (U4) transfers the 6-bit phoneme 
code to the Votrax chip. Since the pro- 
gram sets the outputs of port B to latch, 
the phoneme code stays on the inputs 
{pins 9-14) of the SC-01 chip (U5) until 
the program sends a new one. Now that 
the phoneme code is on the SC-OTs in- 
put pins, it must latch in through the 
STB input (pin 7). Latching occurs on a 
rising edge signal so that the PCO o\' the 
8255 is set high to latch in the pending 
phoneme code. 

A time delay in the latching set-up 
time is necessaiy. The Votrax chip re- 
quires at least 1(X) microseconds to sta- 
bilize its internal circuits. After stabili- 
zation, the program sets the STB input 
high to latch in and hold the phoneme 
code. Due to this latching capability, 
the Votrax chip is capable of continual- 
ly sending out the same code until ii re- 
ceives a new one. 

Since each phoneme code has its own 
time duration, it's necessary to know 
when the SC-01 finishes creating it. This 
is where the acknowledge/request 
(A/R) output (pin 8) from the SC-01 
comes into play. The A/R output indi- 
cates when the program should send tiie 
next phoneme. Upon completion of the 
phoneme, the A/R output goes from a 
low state to a high state. Since the A/R 
output is CMOS and the input to the 
8255 is TTL, the A/R output doesn't 
have enough drive capability to operate 



the TTL gate. U7 takes care of the inter- 
face requirement. 

U7 (4049) is a hex inverter/buffer ca- 
pable of driving two TTL loads. Since it 
has CMOS input and TTL-compalible 
output, the SC-01 and 8255 chips are 
completely compatible. The 4049 in- 
verts the signals, while two gates keep 
U7B's input the stime as U7A's output. 

A 4050 CMOS chip also works in 
place of the 4049. The only difference 
between the two is that the 4050 doesn't 
invert the logic signals. Should you use 
a 4050 chip, you need only one gale. I 
used a 4049 because I had one available 
when I built the circuit. 



''You can synthesize 
four different voices 

or mix sounds together 
to change the pitch 

of a spoken sentence. " 



input PAO (pin 4) of the 8255 con- 
stantly scans the state of the A/R out- 
put. When ilic A/R line goes from a low 
to a high state, il tells the conlroHing 
program to send another phoneme to 
the SC-01 chip. The sequence of events 
using the phoneme inputs, SIB line, 
and A/R line continues until the con- 
trolling program stops sending new 
phoneme codes. 

11 (pin 3) and 12 (pin 2) represent the 
inflection inputs to the Votrax chip. 
These inputs let you change intlection 
or pitch for a higher- or lower-sounding 
output. This gives you the ability to syn- 
thesize four different voices or to mix 
sounds together to change the pitch of a 
spoken sentence. 

Because inflection inputs must be at a 
constant logical state, they require ex- 
ternal latches. The latched outputs of 




NOTE 

i: ALL RESISTORS ARE l/OWATT 
?1 ALL CAPACITORS AFtE RATED 
AT I5V0LTS OR MORE 



Sr. SPEAKER 



Figure 3. Sound pre-amp /amplifier circuit. 



PCI and PC2 (pins 15 and 16) of U4 
provide this function. The gates of U6 
act as a buffer between U4 and U5 for 
the inflection inputs. Notice that the 
outputs of L16 are tied to 12 volts 
through 4.7K resistors. The inflection 
inputs require the same voltage as the 
SC-Ol's power supply and U6 provides 
this interfacing requirement. Remem- 
ber this because the circuit doesn't func- 
tion if U6's outputs are tied to 5 volts 
instead of 12 volts. 

Ciate U3C is one of two methods that 
uses interrupts to let the computer know 
it's time to send out another phoneme 
code via the 8255. The program sets the 
state of PC7 (pin 10) to high to enable 
the interrupt gate. When the A/R line 
signals the readiness for a new pho- 
neme, its high output combines with 
PC7's output to give the required low 
signal for an interrupt. 

The other method used is scanning 
PAO for the low to high transition. I use 
this method and scan the PAO input for 
a logic change. I set the interrupt usage 
aside for advanced applications in the 
future. 

The master clock frequency inputs, 
MCRC and MCX, are connected to a 
resistor and a capacitor. These two in- 
puts and components reach an oscillat- 
ing frequency o{ approximately 720 
kHz. This frequency sets up the stan- 
dard phoneme timing so that, by vary- 
ing the variable resistor, the voice and 
sound output change from a low pitch 
to a high pitch. 

If you use the external clock source 
option instead of the internal one, the 
MCRC output (pin 16) is tied to ground 
while the external frequency source is 
applied to the MCX input (pin 15). 
Since 1 use the internal clock, both 
MCRC and MCX are lied together as 
shown in Fig. 2. The easiest way to ad- 
just the internal clock is to send out a 
phoneme code or message and set the 
frequency for the most pleasing sound, 
rii cover this in the testing section of 
this article. 

I tied audio outputs CB, AF, and AG 
together so 1 could use them in conjunc- 
tion with a class A amplifier. If you use 
these outputs in an ampUfier other than 
a class A amplifier, separate them. I 
chose class A because it's popular and 
easy to build. The combined output of 
the three signals are tied to the amplifi- 
er's input shown in Fig. 3. 

Figure 3 also shows the speech ampli- 
fier circuit, consisting of a pre-amp and 
a main amplifier. I decided to design an 
amphfier that could handle speakers 
larger than those in transistor radios to 
get better sound quality. 



148 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



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80 Micro, January 1984 • 149 



The pre-amp section consists of ev- 
erything to the left of the dotted line in 
Fig. 3. It conditions the signal from the 
SC-01 and sends it to the main amplifier 
section, to the right of the dotted line. 
Note that the volume control for the 
speaker is located in the pre-amp sec- 
tion. 

U8 (LM380) is an amplifier chip ca- 
pable of handling speaker loads of up to 
2.5 vv'atts with proper heat sinking. A 
typical 6-inch car speaker shouldn't pre- 
sent any heat problems when used with 
this amplifier chip. The pre-amp/am- 
plifier circuit is powered from the same 
12-volt supply that powers the Votrax 
chip. 

Generating a Phoneme 

Here is the sequence of events that 
creates a phoneme sound. First, enable 
the external bus with the command 
OUT 236,16 to allow any input or out- 
put from or to the computer (Model III 
only). The next step is to set the 8255 in- 
terface chip to mode zero, option 8, 
with the OUT 19,144 command. The 
OUT 17, 'CODE' sends a phoneme 



code to the Votrax chip through the 
8255 (PBO to PB5). Now consider the 
required set-up time delay. 

If Basic controls the Votrax chip, a 
time delay loop isn't necessary due to 
the internal slow speed of the Basic lan- 
guage as compared to machine-lan- 
guage code. If you use machine-lan- 
guage code, the program loads register 
pair BC with a value and calls 60 hex for 
the time delay. I use this last method 
and will describe it under the Text-to- 
Speech program section next month. 

After the controlling program sends 
the phoneme code to the SC-01 chip, 
the chip must latch in the code to start 
the sound output via the STB line input. 
Port 18 controls the 8255's PCO, PCI, 
PC2, and PC7 outputs. It always starts 
the SC-01 chip by making the STB line 
into a high stale. 

The value sent to port 18 controls the 
STB line, inflection levels, and enables 
gate U3C for interrupt control. The val- 
ue must always be an odd number to 
ensure control of the STB line. The 
phoneme sounds when an OUT 18,X 
command latches in. 



After phoneme generation, the pro- 
gram monitors the Votrax chip to know 
when to send out another code. Port 16 
samples the 8255's PAG input, which is 
the same as the A/R line. The program 
scans the A/R line in a loop until a posi- 
tive value indicates the Votrax chip is 
ready for a new code. The Basic com- 
mand that samples port 16 is A = INP 
(16). A positive value causes the entire 
sequence of events to start all over again 
with a new phoneme until stopped un- 
der program control. 

Speech Construction 

Regardless of the board system on 
which you build the circuit, be sure to 
use sockets for all the integrated cir- 
cuits. Figure 4 shows the component 
layout of the speech board. Table 4 is 
the parts list for ail the circuits. 

Since there are a couple of CMOS 
chips in the circuit, especially the Vo- 
trax chip, take extra precautions to dis- 
charge static electricity when handling 
them. A good rule to practice is never to 
assemble a project in an area that has a 
rug beneath your feet. The rug can gen- 



Pboneme 


Phoneme 


Duration 


Example 


20 A 185 daj' 

21 AY 65 day 


Code 


Symbol 


(ms) 


Woitl 


00 


EH3 


59 


jacket 


22 Yl 80 yard 


01 


EH2 


71 


enlist 


23 UH3 47 mission 


02 


EHl 


121 


heavy 


24 AH 250 mop 


03 


PAO 


47 


no sound 


25 P 103 p^t 


04 


DT 


47 


butter 


26 185 cold 


05 


A2 


71 


made 


27 I 185 pm 


06 


Al 


103 


made 


28 U 185 move 


07 


ZH 


90 


aiure 


29 Y 103 an^ 


08 


AH2 


71 


honest 


2A T 71 tap 


09 


13 


55 


inhibit 


2B R 90 red 


OA 


12 


80 


inhibit 


2C E 185 meet 


OB 


11 


121 


inhibit 


2D W 80 win 


oc 


M 


103 


mat 


2E AE 185 dad 


OD 


N 


80 


sun 


2F AEl 103 after 


OE 


B 


71 


hag 


30 AW2 90 salty 


OF 


V 


71 


van 


31 UH2 71 about 


10 


CH* 


71 


chip 


32 UHl 103 uncle 


11 


SH 


121 


shop 


33 UH 185 cup 


12 


Z 


71 


zoo 


34 02 80 for 


13 


AWl 


146 


lawful 


35 OI ' 121 aboard 


14 


NG 


121 


thing 


36 lU 59 you 


15 


AHl 


146 


father 


37 Ul 90 you 


16 


OOl 


103 


iQfiking 


38 THY 80 the 


17 


OO 


185 


book 


39 TH 71 t_hin 


18 


L 


103 


land 


3A ER 146 bird 


19 


K 


80 


trick 


3B EH 185 get 


lA 


J* 


47 


judge 


3C El 121 be 


IB 


H 


71 


heUo 


3D AW 250 call 


IC 


G 


71 


get 


3E PAl 185 no sound 


ID 


F 


103 


fast 


3F STOP 47 no sound 


IE 


D 


55 


paid 


/T/ must precede /CH/ to produce CH sound. 


IF 


S 


90 


pass 

Table 3. Pho 


/D/ must precede /J/ to produce J sound. 
neme chart. 



150 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



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80 Micro, January 1984 • 151 



erate static charges with a potential of 
thousands of volts that, in dry climates, 
could easily destroy CMOS chips. 

I use Radio Shack wire-wrap for ail 
of my connections. If you use wire- 
wrap, use a wire stripper to facilitate 
working with the small-sized wire. I rec- 
ommend using wire -wrap because it's 
small, easy to work with, and comes in 
various colors. I standardized my color 
coding system so that blue wire is for 
address lines, yellow for data lines, 
green for control signals, and red for 



power. The color codes make trouble- 
shooting easy. 

All of the control signals coming 
from the computer are labeled in the 
schematics. How you get them to the 
speech circuits is up to you. You have 
tvv'o options. You can run them directly 
from the computer or go through an in- 
terface like the one described in the 
March 1983 issue of 80 Micro ("Real 
World, It's About Time!", p. 342). 

If you don't build an interface, tie the 
appropriate signals from the Model III 



Decoder Section Parts List (Figure 1) 




U1,U2 


74LS136 




U3 


7400 


« 


U4 


8255A 




S1-S6 


RS #275-1301 




4-Fater Caps 


.01 ^F @ 25V disk 




7-Resistors 


Ik ohm @ 1/4 watt 


' 


Main Speech Circuit Parts List (Figure 2) 




U4 


8255A 




U5 


Votrax SC-01 chip 




U6 


7417 




U7 


4049 




3-Filter Caps 


.01 mF @ 25V disk 




1 Cap 


120 pF cap @ 25V 




1 Cap 


100 nF @ 25V electrolytic 




Resistors are 1/4 watt: 




4.7k ohm 


Quantity = 10 




6,8k ohm 


Quantity = 1 




10k ohm pot 


Quantity = 1 (any power rating) 




Sound Ampliiier 


I^ircuit Parts List (Figure 3) 




U8 


LM380 




Ql 


2N3391 




Capacitors: (rated 


minimum of 25V) 




100 fiF elect. 


Quantity = 1 




50 fJ elect. 


Quantity = 1 




5 nF elect. 


Quantity = 1 




.lO^F 


Quantity = 1 




.05 mF 


Quantity = 1 




.003 fjF 


Quantity = 1 




.002 fiP 


Quantity = 1 


' 


Resistors are 1/4 watt: 




10k ohm pot 


Quantity = 1 (any power rating) 




IM ohm 


Quantity = 2 




10k ohm 


Quantity = 1 




Ik ohm 


Quantity = 2 




Phone Jack 


RS #274-249 




8 ohm speaker 






Miscellaneous 






Wameco QMB-12 Motherboard (if used) 




Vector 8802-1 S-100 card (if used) 




12V regulator 






5V regulator 






IC sockets 






PC board 






50 pin connector and cable (40 pin for Model I) 




Wire-wrap, power-supply heat sinks. 




solder, hardware. 


suitable enclosure 
Table 4. Parts list. 





to the speech circuits directly through a 
50-pin edge connector and conductor 
cable. Use a 40-pin edge connector and 
conductor cable for a Model I. Table 1 
shows the signals and pin-outs of the 
Model I and Model III expansion buses. 

You can buy the 40- and 50-pin con- 
nectors from Radio Shack, but you'll 
have to get the cable from an electronics 
dealer. Run the appropriate signals to 
the designated inputs shown in Figs. 1 
and 2. For the Model III, be sure to con- 
nect all the even cable conductors to 
ground as shown in Table 1 . The Model 
I doesn't use this configuration. (The 
article referred to above explains the 
cable/conductor assembly in greater 
detail.) 

I mount both the 5- and 12- volt regu- 
lators on opposite sides of the S-IOO 
card. Be sure to mount these regula- 
tors on heat sinks to keep them cool. In- 
stall aS^jF electrolytic capacitor on each 
regulator's input lead to suppress any 
oscillations should they occur. These 
oscillations drop the output voltage to 
an undesirable value. Install the 100 juF 
electrolytic capacitor across the SC-Ol's 
12- volt power supply to ground as shown 
in Fig. 2 to prevent noise from entering 
the circuit. 

Although it isn't required, 1 highly 
recommend that you add .01 jjF disk ca- 
pacitors across each integrated circuit's 
power and ground pins. These ICs 
sometimes produce noise when they're 
involved in high-speed switching. The 
capacitors filter out most of it. I always 
mount mine on the back side of the 
S-100 card, soldering one lead directly 
to the chip's power input pin and the 
other to the chip's ground pin. 

On completion of the speech board, 
check your circuits carefully for wiring 
errors, opens, and shorts before you ap- 
ply power to the circuits. If everything 
checks out, apply power and measure 
the 5- and 12-volt supplies for correct 
operation. It's also a good idea to check 
each IC socket's power pins for voltage. 
Take time to read all of the SC-Ol's 
socket pins for voltages. 

Use a miniature plug and socket to 
connect the speaker to the speech board 
as shown in the Photo. Install all of the 
pull-up resistors as shown in Fig. 2. 
These resistors ensure correct logic 
levels between the 8255 (U4) and SC-01 
(U5) chips. 1 install my resistors on 
14-pin component carriers to obtain a 
neater appearance. 

With the power off, carefully install 
all of the ICs. Make sure you set the 
port address decode switches (SI to S6) 
to decode the base port of 10 hex. 



152 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



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80 Micro, January 1984 • 153 



Testing the Speech Board 

The Program Listing Is a Basic pro- 
gram that tests the speech board and 
sets up the master clock frequency, h is 
well-commented and follows my earlier 
discussion on the creation of phonemes. 
Type in and save the Listing. Turn on 
the speech board's power. You may 
hear a phoneme sounding at a constant 
rate due to the possible erratic power-up 
condition of the circuits. Type RUN to 
execute the test program. 

The computer should now say "Hel- 
lo, I am now a talking computer." Af- 
ter this message, the speech board is 
quiet since the last data value sent con- 
sists of the Votrax stop code of 63 
decimal. 

If the speech board doesn't talk, 
check the DIP switch to see if you 
selected the correct base port number. If 
the problem persists, recheck all your 
circuits for possible errors. If the board 
does talk, you can set the master clock 
frequency. 



''When you type RUN 

to execute 

the test program, 

the computer should say 

'Hello, 

I am now 

a talking computer. ' *' 



Change line 270 in the Listing to 
RUN. This puts the program into a con- 
tinuous talk mode. Now run the pro- 
gram and adjust the variable resistor 
that changes the master clock frequency 
as shown in Fig. 2. Adjust this resistor 
to obtain the most pleasing sound pitch. 
When the sound pitch is set, check the 
inflection circuits. 

To do so, modify the Listing once 
'more. Change line 170 to INPUT "EN- 
TER INFLECTION VALUE";VO. 
This lets you enter different inflection 
values to see how they change the voice 
output. Line 180 ensures that the value 
is odd between 1 and 7. If you use the 
interrupt option, add a value of 128 to 
the 1 to 7 value. 

Run the program and enter odd val- 
ues from 1-7 to hear how the voice 
changes pitch. You should be able to 
detect a total of four different voices. 1 

154 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



incorporate the ability to change the 
pitch or inflection inputs in the Text- 
To-Speech program, which I'll discuss 
next month. This lets you change pitch 
within sentences. 

When you order and receive the Vo- 
trax chip, you also get the data sheets 
and a phonetic speech dictionary' that 
gives you the codes to make up numer- 
ous words. The values in the data state- 



ments located in the Listing were taken 
from this book. You must, however, go 
through a conversion process to obtain 
the correct decimal value for the data 
statements. 

Refer again to Table 3. Note that 
each phoneme code has a hex value. 
You must convert this value to its deci- 
mal equivalent in order to put it into da- 
ta statements. To make it easier, I put 



10 ' 


********************************************** 


20 ' 




LISTING 1 




30 ' 


********************************************** 1 


40 ' 








50 ' 


TEST PROGRAM FOR THE SPEECH BOARD | 


60 ' 




BY 




70 ' 
80 ■ 
90 ' 




DAVID ENGELHARDT 






05/04/83 




100 








110 


' THIS BASIC PROGRAM IS USED TO 


TEST THE 


120 


' HARDWARE 


CIRCUITS. 




130 








140 


1********************************************* 1 


150 








160 


CLS 






170 


V0=1 






180 


IF V0=1 OR 


V0=3 OR V0=5 OR V0= 7 


THEN GOTO 190 ELSE 170 


190 


E=43 






200 


DATA 27,2,35,24,35,53,55,62,62 : 


' HELLO 


210 


DATA 21,0,9,41,62,47,0,12,62 : 


' I AH 


220 


DATA 13,21 


35,55,62,6,33,41,62: 


' NOW A 


230 


DATA 42,61 


25,10,20,62 : 


' TALKING 


240 


DATA 25,50 


12,37,34,54,55,42,58, 


63: ' COMPUTER 


250 


t 






260 


GOSUB 50 00 


; 


• DO IT. 


270 


STOP 






280 


' 






290 


1 ************************************************ ] 


300 


' THIS SUBROUTINE WILL MAKE THE 


VOTRAX CHIP TALK 


310 


r ************************************************ 1 


320 


r 






5000 


OUT236,16 










' ENABLE EXTERNAL 


BUS 


5010 


F0RX=1 TO 


E: 


' SET UP LOOP 


5020 


READ C: 




' GET PHONEME CODE 


5030 


OUT19,144 




' SET 8255 FOR MODE 


5040 


0UT17,C: 




' SEND PHONEME CODE 


5050 


OUTlSfVO: 




' LATCH CODE AND TALK 


5060 


A=INP(16) 


IFA=0 GOTO 5060 : 


' SCAN A/R HIGH = DONE 


5070 


NEXT Xi 




' DO AGAIN 


5080 


RETURN 






5090 


END 










Program Listing. Test speech program. 



I Z UOLT -""^ 

REGULATOR 
ON OTHER SIDE 





































JACK 1 




'cK 




RES 
POCK 




ue 














5 VOLT 1 
' RFOULJ^TOR' 


u; 




1 1 FBfO OSC 1 
1 PARTS ' 
1 OHPLIFIER 1 1 

1 COMPONENTS 1 




































ua 




U5 


1 1 




FtE5 
P4CK 




Ul 


























5 1 
TO 
S6 




U2 






U6 




UT 


























S80Z-I 



Figure4. Parts placement for speech board. 



the decimal equivalent just to the right 
of the hex value. Start with the pho- 
neme code 00 and number them from 
zero to 63. 

You can adapt the Listing to run in 
any Basic program. Just put the subrou- 
tine from lines 5000-5080 in your pro- 
gram with the appropriate data state- 
ments. Change the data statements and 
you can apply the talk feature to games, 
and so on. If the application requires 
only certain spoken phrases, you can 
save memory by putting them into data 
statements, when you use the Text-To- 
Speech program in next month's issue. 

Using Table 3 might seem a little 
complicated at first, but it gets easier 
with experimentation. For practice, break 
the word "hello" down into its phoneme 
equivalent by using the example word 
pronunciations given in Table 3. 

First find the H sound in the table, 
phoneme code IB hex or 27 decimal. 
The next letter, E, comes closest in pro- 
nunciation to that in the word "enlist," 
so the phoneme code is 01 decimal. 
Since the next two letters are L's, add 
two decimal L codes, which are 24,24. 
The final code for the letter O is 38. The 
last value should always be the stop 
code of 63 for any spoken phrase. 

Now put the decimal codes 27, 01, 
24, 24, 38, and 63 into the first data 
statement in the Listing. Also, change 
the E value (line 190) to 6 for the loop 
count. Run the program and listen to 
the pronunciation of hello. You may 
find that some words need a little more 
work by adding a few extra phoneme 
codes. 

For example, compare the phoneme 
codes for hello to those in the first data 
statement in the original Program List- 
ing and you'll see what 1 mean. 

When you get the speech board built 
and running, you're ready for the soft- 
ware that converts ASCII text to speech, 
as well as some practical applications. I'll 
present those next month, along with 
some instructions on how you can as- 
semble the listings on your particular 
system. ■ 



Wrile to David Engelhardl at 10221 
West Wlsl Place, Broomfietd, CO 
80020. 

The addresses of the manufacturers 
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Microminl Inc., 561 Willow Ave., Ce- 
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91342 (213-365-9661). 



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80Micro, January 1984 • 155 




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IMMEDIATE DELIVERY 

DVS SIX MONTH 

PARTS AND LABOR WARRANTY 



Authcaized Dealership at: 
111 Marshall Street, Litchfield. Michigan 49252 P142 

To Order Call (313) 426-5086; (313| 482-4424; (517) 542-3280 

(517) 542-3939; (517) 542-3947 

OR WRITE; 

Displayed Video. Ill Marshall St., Litchfield. Ml 49252 

■ TRS 80 IS a Trademark ol (ht rdiidy Cotporaiion Pnces iubiecl (o chanye wilhoul notice 






TUTORIAL 



Phantom Disk 



by Donald Goss 



When the Model 4 first hit the stores, 
most of us Radio Shack groupies were 
so dazzled by the 80 x 24 screen and the 
promised CP/M operating system that 
we overlooked the Memdisk feature. 
Unfortunately, the TRSDOS 6.0 manu- 
al that accompanies the Model 4 does a 
poor job of explaining Memdisk. So I'll 
describe the use of the Memdisk in ran- 
dom-access files. 

The basic concept behind Mem- 
disk — using a bank of random-access 
memory as a pseudo-disk — is by no 
means new. Usually referred to as a 
RAMdisk, it is useful to reduce the 
thrashing that accompanies a random- 
access search while simultaneously 
speeding up the search process. 

While writing a data-base program 
for a small school, I learned how to use 
the Memdisk feature. Rather than 
quoting the program as I demonstrate 



Use the Model 4's Mem- 
disk utility instead 
of a real disk to speed 
random access searches. 



Memdisk, I refer only to those aspects 
that illustrate the feature. 

First, you must create and format 
Memdisk. If you have only one disk 
drive, Memdisk functions as drive 1. 
For the purpose of this illustration, I as- 
sume that you have two drives (zero and 
1) and want to create a Memdisk as 
drive 2. 

From the TRSDOS READY prompt, 
type SYSTEM (DRIVE -2, DRIV- 
ER ="MEMDISK/DCT") and press 
the enter key. Answer the next prompt 



SET *PD CLICK/FLT 

FILTER *KI *PD 

SYSTEM [DRIVE=2,DRIVER="HEMDISK/DCT' 

D 

D 

y 

SYSTEM {SYSRES=1) 

SYSTEM (SYSRES=2) 

SYSTEM (SYSRES=3) 

COPY STUDENT/DAT:1 :2 

COPY COUNT/DAT :1 :2 

BASIC 

CLS 

LOAD "PR0GRAH/BAS:1" 

RUN 

//STOP 

Figure. Build Startup /JCL File. 



with D to indicate that you want to use 
all 64K of upper memory. 

Answer the following prompt by typ- 
ing D to indicate that you want the 
pseudo-disk to be double density, then 
answer the prompt Do You Wish to For- 
mat It? by pressing the Y key. After for- 
matting, you'll have 12 cylinders on the 
Memdisk with 4,608 bytes each, for a 
total of just over 55K of usable 
memory. 

To access the pseudo-disk with the 
greatest speed, transfer some of the sys- 
tem modules from your TRSDOS disk 
to high memory. 

You need only the first three modules 
for the functions associated with ran- 
dom-access files. To transfer these, type 
SYSTEM (SYSRES = 1) and press the 
enter key. Repeat the command with 
= 2 and =3 to transfer the other 
modules. 

I assume that your program and data 
are on a disk in drive 1. My project con- 
tains a Basic program, named Pro- 
gram/BAS, a data file, Student/DAT 
and a short, one-record file Count/ 
DAT that holds the counters on a disk 
in drive 1 . 

Use the Copy command to transfer 
the data file(s) over to drive 2, just as if 



The Key Box 

Mode! 4 
TRSDOS 6.0 



158 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



it were a real disk drive. It's not neces- 
sary to transfer your program to Mem- 
disk. At this pwint load Basic, load your 
program, and run it — accessing your 
data files in drive 2 just as you normally 
use random-access files. 

You'll have to get used to not seeing 
the disk access lights go on and off 
periodically and to the speed of file ac- 
cess, which is surprisingly fast. 

To simplify all of this, and to elimi- 
nate the possibility of errors, I suggest 
that you put this process into a Build file 
and execute it with the Do command. 

From the TRSDOS READY prompt, 
type BUILD STARTUP/JCL and 
press the enter key. Then enter the com- 
mands in the Figure, substituting your 
own program names. I am including the 
click filter here, since this is unclear in 
the manual. 

After following the instructions in the 
Figure, hold dovra the shift and control 
keys, and press the @ key to end the 
Build sequence. By typing DO START- 
UP/JCL, you can execute all of the 
commands without error. 

You can also set the disk to auto- 
matically perform all these tasks dur- 
ing boot-up by entering AUTO DO 
STARTUP/JCL. That way, after turn- 
ing on your computer and entering the 
correct date, you'll have time to pour 
yourself another cup of coffee while 
your program executes. Depending on 
the length of your data files, you should 
have between 1 Vi and 2 minutes of exe- 
cution time. 

Make certain that you copy your data 
back to your data disk at the end of 
each session. Although you may begin 
to think of Memdisk as a very real and 
fast disk drive, when the power goes 
off, Memdisk's data disappears. To 
prevent this from spoiling your day, I 
suggest that you set up another Build 
file (EXIT/JCL) with the commands: 

COPY STUDENT/DAT:2 :1 

COPY COUNT/DAT:2 :1 

Then you can set up an orderly exit by 
typing SYSTEM "DO EXIT/JCL" in- 
stead of END, and so file your data 
away. By doing this, your data is always 
waiting for you on your next boot-up. 
Happy filing! ■ 



Dr. Donald Goss is Chairman of the 
Division of Humanities at Volunteer 
State Community College in Gallatin, 
Tennessee. He can be reached at the Di- 
vision of Humanities, Volunteer State 
Community College, Gallatin, TN 
37066. 

^ See L/sf o1 Advertisors on Page 227 



\ferbatim 

flexible disks 

Call Free (800) 235-4137 for 

prices and information. Dealer 
inquiries invited. CO.D. and 
charge cards accepted. 




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hubmitted gems rhe veiy neii monih usmg simple low-budger prmt- 
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CREST SOFTWARE ^^'^ 

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(303) 247-9518 
isd. MC dUfplfil. iniludf i.iril ' jml (-ipicHtion ddic 



Watch for 

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to 




Micro-Ed 




educational 
software 

Send for free catalogs 

• TRS-80 Color Computer 

• TRS-SO Model III 

telephone 

us at 

1-800-MICRO-ED 

Micro-Ed Inc. 
P.O. Box 444005 
Eden Prairie, MN 55344 

80 Micro, January 1984 • 159 



HOME/HOBBY 



[.*> 



LOAD 80 



The Bucks Start Here 



by N.B. Parrish 



Y 



ou're expecting a tax refund, but you're not 
sure how to invest it. Use this program to 
evaluate the options, then enjoy the payoff. 



Everyone knows there's no such 
thing as a free ride. You can, however, 
come close to getting something for 
nothing if you know where to invest 
your hard-earned money. This little 
Model III program can help (see the 
Program Listing). With the changes 
I've noted, this program also runs on a 
Model II, Model 100, and a Color 
Computer. 

Those of you fortunate enough to 
receive an income tax refund this year 
may wonder what to do with it. If you 
decide to invest it, then additional ques- 
tions arise. 

How can you get the most return 
from your money investment? Do you 
invest in tax-free bonds or some other 
form of tax-free security? Is a fully 
taxable bond, treasury bill, or regu- 
lar saving account best for you? Oth- 
er factors, such as liquidity of assets, 
may be important to you, but if you 
want yield, read on. 

Enter Uncle Sam 

The answers depend on your federal 
income tax bracket. A while ago, I 
stumbled on an article in Changing 

160 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



Times called "What is Tax-Free Income 
Worth to You?" It included a table 
comparing taxable and nontaxable 
yields for various tax brackets. 

As usual, my bracket and the yield I 
wanted fell between those listed. In the 
process of interpolating up, down, and 
across, I lost my place. And I didn't 
know what to do about state and local 
taxes. 

Instead of giving up, I wrote a pro- 
gram that brings all these factors 
together. 

The Menu 

The main menu has three options. 
The first calculates the break-even tax 
bracket for a specific taxable and non- 
taxable investment. The second option 
figures the tax-free equivalent of a tax- 
able yield, while the third gives the tax- 
able equivalent of a tax-free yield. 

Sample Problem 

Say you're in the 35 percent federal 
income tax bracket and have the choice 
between purchasing a taxable security 
yielding 10.55 percent and something 
that yields 7.75 percent tax-free. 




The Key Box 

Models I and EQ 
Model n (with changes) 
Model 100 (with changes) 
Color Computer (with changes) 
16K RAM Cassette Basic 
32K RAM Disk Base 
16K RAM Color Baac 



c 



POCa^ET C»MFHJTm MEWSyETTEft 





Tm 



mm 

D 



A Newsletter for Pocket Computer Fans! 



This is a tinely, conpact, easy reading 
publication that provides up to the ninute 
infornation of vital interest to people who use 
pocket conputers -- and Mho want to know how to 
better capitalize on their capabilities. We 
concentrate on the Sharp PC-1500 6 PC-1500A and 
Radio Shack PC-2 C PC-3 nodels. But we also 
provide infornation about newconers to the field. 
Ue report prinarily on pocket and hand-held 
conputers that are enable of executing a high 
level language such as BASIC. Many new nodels 
will be introduced in this year. 
Especially for Busy People 
This is a neusjetter. It is not a nagazine. The 
naterial we provide is condensed to 8 to 16 pages 
per issue. This carefully selected infornation is 
presented in an easy to digest fornat that is 
ready assinilated by busy people. 
Product and E(|uipnent (toviews 
As new ftodels and accessories becone available we 
publish forthright reviews as reported to us by 
actual users. Books, software packages and other 
kinds of supporting naterials also cone under our 
careful scrutiny, 

Inportwt Operating Tips and Practical Advice 
Every nodel has its strengths and weaknesses, its 
ins and outs. Our publication quickly conpiles 
critical infornation fron users and passes this 
on to you. Ue show you how lo save keystrokes and 
naxinlze perfornance. ue often uncover hidden 
features and are able to tell you about 
capabilities not discussed in the nanufacturer's 
literature. (Ue have, in particular, published a 
wealth of naterial about the actual nachine codes 
used in the PC-1500/PC-2I) 
Lots of Practical Prograns 
Ue publish all kinds of practical, useful 
prograns that enhance the use and enjoynent of 
your own personal unit. In past issues we have 
presented prograns that: convert nunbers fron one 
base to another, perforn linear regression 
analysis, plot aviation courses, solve for 
unknowns in triangulation problens, tally 
supernarket purchases, do polynonial arithnetic, 
display a calendar of any nonth over a 500 year 
range, perforn linear interpolation, calculate 
anortizatlon, figure tab locations for conplex 
colunnar reports, perforn sinple anination, dunp 
nenory, do curve fitting, renunber all or part of 
a progran, and play a variety of anusing ganes. 
Ue are always on the lookout for the highest 
quality prograns to bring to you. 
Delivered with a Sinple Guarantee 
If, at any tine, you becone disatisfied with our 
publication, you nay sinply cancel your 
subscription and receive a refund for unnailed 
issues. 






Product Reviews 

ProgrsiTviriing Tips 

Timesavers 

Custcxnizing 

Tutorials 

Short Cuts 

Technical Information 

Application Forums 



s 



a< 



'mm 









m 



Available Only by Prepaid Subscription for a Calendar Year 
Period (January - Decenber) . Vou are sent back issues for the 
calendar year to which you subscribe, at the tine you enroll , 

I an interested. Please send nore infornation, I have: 

_a Sharp PC-1500 _ Radio Shack PC-2 

Enroll ne as a 1984 Subscriber (Issue nunbers 51 --56). 

$18.00 in U.S. (U.S. $21.00 to Canada/Mexico. Elsewhere 
U.S. $30.00 payable in U.S. funds against a U.S. bank.) 

Enroll ne as a 1983-84 Subscriber (Issue nunbers 21-36) . 

$54.00 in U.S. (U.S. $63.00 to Canada/hexico. Elsewhere 
U.S. $80.00 payable in U.S. funds against a U.S. bank.) 

Enroll neasa 1982-84 Subscriber (Issue niflibers 11-56). 

$78.00 in U.S. (U.S. $95.00 to Canada/Mexico. Elsewhere 
U.S. $120.00 payable in U.S. funds against a U.S. bank.) 
Check here if paying by MasterCard or VISA. Please give 
credit card infornation below. 
Orders nust tw acconpanied by p^nent in full. 



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JKUJ t/iis order forn to: 

POCKET COtPUTER NEUSLETTEft 

P.O. BOK 232. SEVnOUR, CT 06483 



t' See List of Advertisers on Page 227 



80 Micro, January 1984 • 161 



5 CLS: '-WRITTEN BY N.B. PARRISH, JR. - 2/15/82 

7 SS="###.##" 

10 PRINT@144, "TAXABLE VS TAX FREE INCOME" 

20 GOSUB500:PRINT 

30 PRINT"THIS PROGRAM COMPUTES EQUIVALENT YIELDS OF TAXABLE VS TA 

X FREE INCOME DEPENDING UPON YOUR INCOME TAX BRACKET " 

40 FORX=1TO2500:NEXT:CLS 

50 PRINT@144, "SELECT DESIRED OPTION" 

55 GOSUB500:PRINT 

60 PRINT" 1.- MAX. TAX BRACKET TO BENEFIT FROM A SPECIFIED YIELD" 

70 PRINT" 2.- TAX FREE EQUIVALENT OF A TAXABLE YIELD" 

80 INPUT" 3.- TAXABLE EQUIVALENT OF A TAX FREE YIELD";B 

100 ONBGOSUB200,300,400:PRINT:PRINT:INPUT"PRESS ENTER TO CONTINUE" 

;P$ 

110 CLS:TA=0:RX=0:TG=0:ST=0:SS=0:TX=0:TT=0:CF=0:CD=0:TA=0:FI=0iFX= 

:FR=0 :FE=0 : ZZ=0 : ZX=0:GOTO50 

200 CLS:PR1NT@134,"MAX. TAX BRACKET TO BENEFIT FROM A SPECIFIED YI 

ELD" 

205 GOSUB500:PRINT 

210 INPUT"TAX FREE YIELD? (10%=10)";TF 

220 INPUT"TAXABLE YIELD? (10%=i0)";TY 

225 INPUT"ENTER EXEMPTED STATE AND LOCAL TAXES, IF ANY" ;RT: RX=RT/1 

00 

23 TB=i-(TF/{TY-{RX*TY) ) ) : IFTF>TYTHEN26 

240 PRINT:PRINT"** IF YOU ARE IN THE " ;USINGSS; TB*100 ; : PRINT"% OR 

LOWER BRACKET, YOU WILL COME OUT BETTER BY OBTAINING THE TAXABLE Y 

lELD" 

250 PRINT"BUT, IF YOUR BRACKET IS GREATER THAN " ;USINGS?;TB*100 ; ; P 

RINT"%, YOU WILL COME OUT AHEAD BY OBTAINING THE TAX FREE YIELD**" 

: RETURN 

260 PRINT:PRINT"INVALID ENTRY - TAX FREE YIELD IS GREATER THAN TAX 

ABLE AND WOULD RESULT IN A NEGATIVE BRACKET. RE-ENTER DATA":G0T021 



300 CLS:PRINT@140,"TAX FREE EQUIVALENT OF A TAXABLE YIELD" 

305 GOSUB500 

310 PRINT:INPUT"ENTER YOUR INCOME TAX BRACKET { 40%=40) " ; TA:TG=TA/1 

00 

315 INPUT"ENTER EXEMPTED STATE AND LOCAL TAXES, IF ANY (7%=7)";ST: 

SS=ST/100 

320 INPUT"TAXABLE YIELD? ( 10%=10} " ;TX : TT=TX/100 

330 CD=TT*(1-(SS+(TG*(1-SS) ) ) ) : CF=CD*100 rPRINT 

340 PRINT"A";TX;"% TAXABLE YIELD IN THE";TA;"% TAX BRACKET IS EQUI 

VALENT TO A TAX FREE YIELD OF" ;USINGSS;CF; : PRINT"% " :RETURN 

400 CLS:PRINT@140, "TAXABLE EQUIVALENT OF A TAX FREE YIELD" 

405 GOSUB500 

410 PRINT: INPUT"ENTER FEDERAL INCOME TAX BRACKET (40%=40)";FI 

420 FX=FI/100:INPUT"ENTER EXEMPTED STATE AND LOCAL TAXES, IF ANY ( 

7%=7) ";ST:SS=ST/100 

430 INPUT"TAX FREE YIELD? ( 10%=10} " ;FR: FE=FR/100 

440 ZZ^FE/(1-(SS+(FX*(1-SS) ) ) ) : ZX=ZZ*100 :PRINT 

450 PRINT"A";FR;"% TAX FREE YIELD IN THE ";FI;"% TAX BRACKET IS EQ 

UIVALENT TO A TAXABLE YIELD OF"; USING SS; ZX; : PRINT"% " :RETURN 

500 F0RX=1T064:PRINT"="; :NEXT:RETURN 



Program Listing. Evaluation of taxable and tax-free income. 



Using option 3, the computer asks 
you for your income tax bracket. In this 
example, enter 35. Next, it prompts you 
to enter any state or local taxes. If none, 
simply press the enter key. For this ex- 
ample, assume 7 percent and enter 7. 
Finally, it asks you to input the tax-free 
yield (in this case 7.75 percent). 

You find that a 7.75 percent tax-free 
yield in this case is equivalent to a 12.82 
percent taxable yield. Which investment 
would you rather have? 

If you deal in bonds, there are other 
considerations (such as whether you 
should buy at greater- or less-than-face 
value, and long term capital gains and 
losses). If in doubt, see your investment 
counselor or broker. 

Program Conversions 

The program listed here is for the 
Model III, and since there are no laser- 
zap sound effects or spectacular graph- 
ics, it works on most computers with a 
few conversions. 

For the Color Computer, Model II, 
and Model 100, change all PRINT® 
statements in lines 10, 50, 200, 300, and 
400 to PRINT statements. Instead of 
specifying an X value of 1 to 64 in line 
500, change it to 1 to 80 for the Model II 
and 1 to 40 for the Model 100. 

For use on the Color Computer 
change line 500 to: 

500 PRI^^^ string $(32 " = ");:Return 

See you at the bank. ■ 

Write to N.B. Parrish at P.O. Box 
457, Marathon, TX 79842. 



THOR symbol of new power for your Model I/III/4 Computer 

CALL 1-800-641-3885 for orders only. For technical information or in Colorado call: 303-337-5909. 



THOR INTERNAL MODEL III/4 
DISK DRIVES 

All the hardware and easy directions lo inslall one or 

Iwo drives— Wilh TRSDOS' — (NEWOOS- for dual 

drives) 

Kil containing one two drives. 1 Drive 2 Drive 

Single 40 $532 $752 

Dual 40 $618 $818 

Dual 80 $702 $952 

THOR WINCHESTER SPECIAL 

DISK SYSTEM PRICE 

One or two diives — Price includes orie drive with NEW- 
DOS-80' case and power supply— Slot lor second 



5 MegaDyie 
10 Megabyte 
15 MegaOyte 
20 Megabyte 



(Prices Subject to 
Change Without Notice] 



S14d9 
SI 649 



S2ia9 




■TBSDOS IS a trad 
Prices are cash 



Winchester/Networl^ Unit 

turns Western Micro Systems 

• 2760 South Havana, Suite S * 

Aurora. Colorado 80014 

emark of Tandy Corp and NEWDOS-80 is a trademark o' Apparat Inc 
Visa MasterCard American Express COD available on request 
^^^^"Dealers enquiries welcome ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^" 



THOR NETWORK CONTROLLER 

Connect up to 2b4 computers of mosi any make over 
as much as "lOOO feel of cable Share 5 lo 60 mega- 
bytes or more of disk slorage Call for additional infor 
malion and prices 

THOR DIGITAL PORT 

14 IN and 15 OUT— Each port a full 8 bits 

Connector lo attach to Model 1/111/4 bus — 

Compleie wilh cable and case— Requires 5 volls at 150 ma 

Assembled and tested 

For Model I Only $39 9& 

For Model lll/4 0nly $44 95 



THOR POINT-OF-SALE SYSTEM 

Includes 16 lines ol 32 changes ot green screen monilor 
(adjustaCle Mil), keyboard, 40 character per line alphanu' 
meric printer, and cash drawer — Software lo perform all 
cash register functions such as automatic pricing, inven- 
tory control, and daily totals. Can plug into a Model III/4 or 
the THOR NETWORK CALL 



162 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



Every Z80 assembly-language 
programmer needs this book. 




c 




CONTENTS 



ONE 










■■'•->" ^r^^T'', 



in REE- 




'"V*C|A1 ' ^^' '"-» '"- -- . *^. 

■rnsRT. I vT^ni'-v''^ ■"" '"■ ■'"■ ^' 







■^ •* *■ 'fc^in^fcvw 

■•H'lU-B-'. 



Programming in assembly language requires good 
tools. TRS-80IZ80 Assembly Language Library, a com- 
plete reference book on TRS-80 Model I assembly 
language, is the best tool you can find. In over 
300 pages, 45 figures, and 75 program listings, author 
Craig A. Lindley explains the details of Model I hard- 
ware and software and shows you how to write pro- 
grams that squeeze every bit of performance out of 
your computer. This book will teach you: 

• how to use ROM and DOS routines in your own 
programs 

• how to perform disk input/output 

• how to access the video display and keyboard 

• how to write easy-to-use programs 

• how to perform arithmetic operations 

• how to use the undocumented Z80 instructions 
You'll also learn about disk operating systems, device 
handling, base conversion, parameter passing, and 
more. 

TRS-80/Z80 Assembly Language Library contains a 
library of ready-to-run utility programs that are worth 
many times the book's cost. Included with the book 
are two Model I TRSDOS-compatible disks* contain- 
ing utilities for printer formatting and spooling, single- 
key entry of strings, disk editing, base conversion, 
password encoding and decoding, and more. You get 
more than 15 valuable utilities, and the source code 
files are included, so you can examine, modify, and 
learn from every program. 

Many of the programs also run on the Model III, and 

THS-80/Z80 Assftmbly Longuoge Library is a Wayne Green publicaiion 

TRS-eo. TRSDOS. Model 1. Model III are registered trademarks of the Radio Shack 

Division of Tandy Corp. 

Z80 is a registered trademark of Zilog 



those that do not require only minor modification. 
One of the book's four sections is dedicated to routines 
and programs that run on any Z80-based system. No 
matter what Z80 computer you program, this book has 
something for you. 

It's a book that's designed to be used. The text is set 
in large type, and the book is bound in an 8V2- x 11-inch 
easel-backed binder that stands up next to your com- 
puter. So there's no squinting at tiny type and fighting 
to keep the book open. 

The whole package— book, disks, and binder— is 
yours by mail for the unbelievable price of only 
$34.97. And if you charge it, you can even call toll-free 
to order. 

TRS-80/Z80 Assembly Language Library. It's the 
assembly-language book for the '80s. 

*Disks do not contain a disk operating system; two disk drives or a 
disk copy utility are required to transfer the files. 

Call Toll-Free 1-800-258-5473 for credit card orders or send 
$34.97 plus $4.50 shipping and handhng to Wayne Green Books, 
Retail Sales, Peterborough NH 03458. Dealer inquiries invited. 

I need TRS-80IZ80 Assembly Language Library. 



Send me 



. copies of TRS-80/Z80 Assembly Language 



Library (BK7395) @ $34.97 each. I have enclosed $4.50 per 
system for shipping and handling. 

D MasterCard D VISA D AmEx D payment enclosed 

Card fl F.Kpirfifi 



interBankfl. 



Signature. 



Name . 



Address . 
Cify 



.Zip. 



Wayne G.reen Books, Retail Sales, Peterborough, NH 03458 



80 Micro, January 1984 • 163 



GENERAL 



Bill of Fair Repair 



by Terry Kepner 



One of the decisions Radio Shack 
computer owners face is whether to buy 
upgrade equipment from Radio Shack 
or from a less expensive, independent 
source. Similar to this decision is 
whether to modify the hardware in your 
computer yourself {such as adding a 
true uppercase/lowercase modification 
to your Color Computer, or adding 
non-Tandy memory to your Model III) 
or take it to Radio Shack. 

Radio Shack^s Hard Line 

In the past, Radio Shack insisted that 
its customers patronize only Radio 
Shack company stores or associate deal- 
ers when shopping for upgrade equip- 
ment. Many times Tandy has said that it 
can't and won't work on, or provide 
repair support for, equipment manu- 
factured by outside companies or for 
modifications made by unauthorized 
individuals. Tandy used to refuse to re- 
pair any modified computers, even 
when the problem was obviously the 
Radio Shack equipment and not the 
modification. This generated iU will and 
rapid growth of a new "cottage" indus- 
try — repairing modified Radio Shack 
computers. 

This new industry has spawned hor- 
ror stories of modified computer own- 
ers and the difficulties they have getting 
their machines repaired. Stories of 
bumed-out chips, expensive and unend- 
ing repair trips, and shoddy workman- 
ship abound. 

Radio Shack usually advertises a 
90-day warranty. This warranty means 
that Radio Shack makes any repairs re- 
quired due to manufacturing defects 
free of charge. Any repairs needed after 
the warranty period are charged at a ba- 
sic labor rate, plus the cost of parts. 

You void the warranty if you open 
the case of the computer and install 
164 " 80 Micro, January 1984 



Here's the low-down on 
repair costs for your 
TRS-80— whether Tandy or 
an independent works on it. 

non-Radio Shack equipment or make 
modifications to the existing equip- 
ment. Officially, the repair technicians 
consider the warranty void if the case 
has been opened, even if no alterations 
to the Radio Shack equipment are 
made. Fortunately, most technicians 
are more lenient than this official 
policy. 

Change of Heart 

Last year Radio Shack relaxed its 
hard-line stance on repairing out-of- 
warranty (modified) equipment. Radio 
Shack now allows its technicians to 
work on computers that have non-Ra- 
dio Shack alterations or additions, but 
only when the non-Radio Shack modifi- 
cations don't affect the problem being 
corrected. 

This means that if you add non-Ra- 
dio Shack disk drives to your computer 
and begin experiencing memory prob- 
lems. Radio Shack will unplug your 
drives and test the computer. If the Ra- 
dio Shack memory is bad, they'll re- 
place it. If the added memory is bad, 
Radio Shack charges a minimum 
''check-out" charge, and you must re- 
place the bad memory. (Optionally, the 
Radio Shack technician can remove the 
non-Radio Shack modifications and re- 
turn the unit to its standard setup. 
There is a charge for this service.) 

If, on the other hand, you begin hav- 
ing disk input/output problems with 
your non-Tandy drives, don't bother 
asking Radio Shack for help. You have 



to go to the company that sold you the 
disk drives, because Radio Shack works 
only on its own drives. 

This is a reasonable position to take. 
Radio Shack technicians have repair 
manuals only for Tandy equipment, 
and their training is similarly restricted. 
Just because the foreign equipment is 
compatible with the Radio Shack com- 
puter doesn't mean that the parts, and 
design, inside the equipment are iden- 
tical with Radio Shack equipment. 

Radio Shack's new attitude makes 
the decision involving foreign equip- 
ment easier. Now you know that Radio 
Shack will take care of the basic equip- 
ment in your computer. You must take 
care of any unauthorized equipment or 
modifications. 

Repair Rates 

This leaves you in a delicate position. 
The main reason for purchasing non- 
Radio Shack equipment is cost. But 
once you have the equipment, how do 
you repair it, and how do you know 
what represents a fair repair cost? Sav- 
ing $200 by buying a disk drive from 
someone else isn't much of a savings if 
you have to spend $300 to repair it a 
year later. 

Before buying non-Tandy equip- 
ment, ask the manufacturer what its 
policies are regarding repair work, and 
if it recommends any local technicians 
who can take care of its merchandise. 
Most important, ask about technical 
manuals for the equipment (I strongly 
suggest you do this. That way when you 
find a technician, you don't have to 
wait for him to write the manufacturer 
for repair manuals before he can begin 
working on your computer). 

When your computer malfunctions, 
you must determine where the problem 
lies — in the Radio Shack equipment, or 



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General Ledger 1. CHartof AccoumsZ. CHan of AccoufiiswHIi summary dollar 
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Technical Support Hotline (8 AM to 5 PM, Mon.-Fri.}: (415) 680-8378 
Send Orders To: 1280-C Newell Avenue, Suite 147-V, Walnut Creek, California 94596 

• Wher> ordenng p\eaM menllon or include Itie AO number appearing near our reltphane rtumber • Orders stuppefl wuhm 49 hoitts via UPS » Add S5.00 lor 
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liirarH' lagiftterad Trade Marks • No sales Ed Dealvrs ■ Foreign orders pleBM call □'' *rile befpie ardenng - 1983 Rocky Mountain Soltware SyGlems. 



A\ 



ROCKY MOUNTAIN 
SOFTWARE SYSTEMS 

Speclollsfs in Accounting Sottwore 



in the foreign equipment. Sometimes 
it's easy, sometimes it isn't. If the prob- 
lem is with the non-Radio Shack equip- 
ment, take your computer to an outside 
repair technician. If Radio Shack's 
equipment is at fault, you have a choice: 
take your computer to a Radio Shack 
computer repair center or take it to an 
outside technician. The decision is up to 
you, and will probably be based on cost. 
Radio Shack's policy is that it charges 
a basic rate for any computer brought in 
for repair work that's out of warranty 
isee Table 1). Additionally, if you bring 
in a peripheral (printer, modem. Vox 
Box, etc.) at the same time Radio Shack 
charges an additional $5 for each pe- 
ripheral the technician checks out with 
the CPU. If the peripheral is brought in 
at the request of the service center, then 
they don't charge you. If you bring in 
the peripheral separately, there is an ap- 
propriate service charge (see Table 1) 
i.e., the Vox Box repair service charge is 
normally $15. If you bring it in with the 
CPU for checkout, the charge is only $5 



for the Vox Box, plus $15 for the CPU 

checkout. 

The policy for installing kits is simi- 
lar. If you install more than one up- 
grade kit, the highest labor charge is at 
list price, while the additional kits' labor 
charge is discounted by 30 percent. If 
you are installing multiple RAM or 
ROM upgrades all at the same time, 
then Radio Shack charges only the base 
labor rate for one installation. For ex- 
ample, installing three 26-1102 RAM 
kits in the same computer has a single 
labor charge of $15. 

If the equipment has any non-Radio 
Shack parts or modifications, the rates 
in Table 1 don't apply. Instead the re- 
pair cost is $15 per half hour. These 
prices don't include the cost of parts re- 
quired for the repair. 

Table 1 is a listing of the current ser- 
vice charges and checkout charges Ra- 
dio Shack uses. These prices are subject 
to change without notice, but if past ex- 
perience is any indication, the prices 
should be good for about a year. 



Any Radio Shack computer product 
(catalog #26-xxxx) not listed in Table 1 
has a maximum checkout of $30 for all 
CPUs and $15 for all other items. As a 
matter of policy, any checkout charge 
billed within 45 days of a repair is cred- 
ited against the labor charge for that 
repair. The amount credited does not 
exceed the labor charge. 

The primary use of Table ! , for those 
with modified computers, is to deter- 
mine a fair rate for repair work by inde- 
pendent repair technicians. If Radio 
Shack charges $25 to align a disk drive, 
an independent technician shouldn't 
charge much more (usually, it's less). 

If your computer is unmodified, and 
contains only Radio Shack parts. Table 
1 gives you a good idea of what to ex- 
pect when you take your computer in 
for repairs. ■ 



You can reach Terry Kepner c/o 80 
Micro, 80 Pine St., Peterborough, NH 

03458. 





Table I. Radio Shack computer service 


charges. 




Catalog 


Descriplion of Service 


Service 


Checkout 


Number 




Charge 


Charge 


26-lOOX 


Repair Model I CPU 
(Maximum labor = S30.00, maximum parts = $50.00) 


$l5.00/'/2hr 


$15.00 


26-1006 


Install DISD Modification 


$50.00 


(NO DISCOUNT) 


26-106X 


Repair Model 111 w/o Drives 

(Maximum labor = S30.(X), maximum parts = $45.00) 


$15.00/'/2hr 


$15.00 


26-106X 


Install REV "B" ROM "C" (includes parts) 


$20.00 


N/A 


2fr-106X 


Install Network III Download ROM"C" in shop 
(On Site charge is time and material) 


$15,00 


N/A 


26-1101 


Install 16K RAM & Keypad (note 1) 


$30.00 


N/A 


26-1102 


Install 16KRAM(note2) 


$15.00 


N/A 


26-1103 


Install Keypad (note 1) 


$15.00 


N/A 


26-1104 


Install Lowercase (note 1) 


$15.00 


N/A 


26-1120 


Install Level 11 Basic (note 2) 


$15.00 


N/A 


26-1121 


Install Model III Basic and 16K RAM (note 2) 


$15.00 


N/A 


26-1125 


Install Model Hi Hi Res Graphics Kit 


$30.00 


$10.00 


26-1131 new 


Install Model I/III Hard Drive 1/2/3 Slave 


$30.00 


$15.00 


26-1140/1/2 


Repair Expansion Interface *(1 hr. max) 


$15.00/'/2hr 


$10.00 




Repair Buffer Cable 


$15.00 


N/A 


26-1143 


Install Double Density Adapter 


$15.00 


N/A 


26-1145 


Repair RS-232C 


$15.00 


$10.00 


26-1145 


Install RS-232C connector if req'd 


$15,00 


N/A 


26-1148 


Install RS-232C (note 1) 


$15.00 


N/A 


26-1150 


Install Tractor Feed (AXX-5006) 


$30.00 


N/A 


26-1158 


Install New Revision ROM 


$30.00 


N/A 


26-1 158 


Replace Line Feed motor 


$15.00 


(NO DISCOUNT) 


26-1160/1/4 


Repair and/or Align Disk Drive 


$30.00 


$10.00 


26-1162 


Install Disk Drive #0 


$30.00 


N/A 


26-1163 


Install Disk Drive #1 (note 1) 


$15.00 


N/A 


26-1170 


Repair Telephone Interface I *(1 hr. max) 


$15.00/'/2hr 


$10,00 


26-1171 


Repair Telephone Interface II *(1 hr. max) 


$15.00/'/2hr 


$10.00 


26-1172 


Repair Modem 1 (1 hr. max) 


$15.00/ 1/2 hr 


$10.00 


26-1173 


Repair Modem II (1 hr. max) 


$I5.00/i/2hr 


$10.00 

Table continued 



166 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



Catalog 


Description of Service 


Service 


Checkout 


Number 




Charge 


Cbarge 


Table continued 








26-1174 


Repair AC 3 Modem (1 hr. max) 


$15.00 


$10.00 


26-1180 


Repair Voice Synthesizer 


S!5.00 


$ 5.00 


26-1181 


Repair Vox Box (1 hr. max) 


$15.00/'/2hr 


$ 5.00 


26-1182 


Repair Plug'n Power Controller 


$10.00 


$ 5,00 


26-1190 


Install New Revision ROM 


$15.00 


N/A 


26-120X 


Repair/AEgn Cassette Recorder 


$15.00 


$ 5.00 


26-1210/11/12 


Repair Network l/II/III (1 hr. max) 


$ 15.00/ '/2hr 


$10,00 


26-1260 


install Envelope Feeder for 26-1158 


$45.00 


$10.00 


26-1411 


Repair Printer Interface Cable 


$15.00 


$ 5.00 


26-1429 


Repair Auto Control Power Strip 


$15.00 


$ 5.00 


26-1448 


Install Single Sheet Feeder for 26-1 158 


$45.00 


$10.00 


26-1451 


Repair Line Filter 


, $15.00 


$ 5.00 


26-1498 


Repair Parallel Printer Switch 


$15.00 


$ 5.00 


26-1499 


Repair RS-232C Selector Switch 


$15.00 


$ 5.00 


26-300X 


Repair Color Computer 

(Maximum labor = $30.00, maximum parts = $20.00) 


$l5.00/'/3br 


$15.00 


26'300X 


Install RFl Disk Clip Kit (Charged to 0097) 


$15.00 


(NO DISCOUNT) 


26-3015 


Install 16K RAM 


$15.00 


N/A 


26-3015/18 


Install 16K RAM and Extended Basic ROM 


$15.00 


N/A 


26-3017/18 


Install 32K RAM and Extended Basic ROM 


$30.00 


N/A 


26-3017 


Install 32K RAM 


$30.00 


N/A 


26-3018 


Install Extended Basic ROM 


$15.00 


N/A 


26-3022 


Repair and/or Align Controller 


, $15.00 


$10.00 


26-3022/23 


Repair and/or Align Drive 


$30.00 


$10.00 


26-3501 


Repair Pocket Computer 1 


$30.00 


$10.00 


26-3503 


Repair Pocket Computer 1 Cassette Interface 


$15.00 


$ 5.00 


26-3505 


Repair Pocket Computer 1 Printer 


$30.00 


$10.00 


26-3601 


Repair Pocket Computer 2 


$30.00 


$10.00 


26-3605 


Repair Pocket Computer 2 Printer/Plotter 


$30.00 


$10.00 


26-3615 


Repair PC 2 4K RAM Module 


$15.00 


N/A 


26-3616 


Repair PC 2 8K RAM Module 


$15.00 


N/A 


2^3801/2 (new) 


Repair Model 100 


$15.00/ 1/2 hr 


$10.00 


26-3801 (new) 


InstaU 8K RAM for Model 100 (note 2) 


$15.00 


N/A 


26-4O0X 


Install DMA Modification (TT if 11:49) 


$15.00 


N/A 


26-4102 


Install 32K RAM (note 1) 


$15.00 


N/A 


26-4104 


Install Hi Res Graphics Kit (note 1) 


$30.00 


$10.00 




Install in Model 12 (no video align) (note I) 


$15.00 


$10.00 




($15.00 additional if video alignment req'd) 






26-4105 


Install 64K VisiCalc RAM Board (note i) 


$15.00 


N/A 


26-4150/2 


Install Primary Hard Drive Kit (note 1) 


$60.00 


$15.00 




Install in Model 12 (note 1) 


$15.00 


$15.00 


26-4153 


Install 12 meg slave 1/2/3 


$30.00 




26-4163/4 


Install Drive Kit (Model II Bay) (note 1) 


$30.00 


N/A 


26-4167 


Install Drive Kit (Model 16 Bay/CPU) (note 1) 


$30.00 


N/A 


26-4715/16 


Install Bi sync Modification (TT # 11:38) 


$15.00 


N/A 




Install Model 12 Bi sync 


$30.00 






(On Site charge is time and material) 






26-5000/1/2 


Repair Videotex 

(Maximum labor = $30.00, maximum parts = $20.00) 


$15.00/'/2hr 


$15.00 


26-6010 


Install Model 16 Enhancement Option (note 1) 


$45.00 


N/A 




Install 6010 in Model 12 (note 1) 


$15.00 


N/A 


26-6011 


Install 128K RAM Board (note 1) 


$15.00 


N/A 


2^6012 


Install i28K RAM Kit (note 2) 


$15,00 


N/A 


26-6017 


Install Model 12 Card Cage 


$30.00 


N/A 


26-6050 


Repair DT 1 Terminal 
(Maximum labor = $30.00) 


$15.00/ '/2hr 


$15.00 


76-1001 


Repair PT 210 Terminal 


$15.00/'/ihr 


$15.00 


76-1009 (new) 


Exchange DC1200 Modem Board 




$15.00 


Note 1: 


If more than one kit is being installed at the same time in the same machine, the highest labor will be charged 




at listed price; each additional kit's labor will be discounted by 30%. 




Note 2: 


If multiple RAM and/'or ROM upgrades are installed in the same 


machine at the same time, 


then only one base 




labor rate is to be charged. Example — Installing two 26-1102 RAM kits in the same machine 


is charged at 


'■ '" ~ 


$15.00 labor. 







80 Micro, January 1984 • 167 



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168 • 80 Micro, January 1984 




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k- See List of Ich'e/t/sere on Page 227 



80 Micro, January 1984 • 169 



CNotes 




by Dan Robinson 



-Mnemonic Powers- 



Radio Shack's Model 100 is a chip off the old block, so to 
speak. It uses a low-powered version of the 8085 central pro- 
cessing unit (CPU) and its instruction set is almost identical to 
that of the 8080 chip. 

Since the Z80 CPU that drives the Models 1, II, III, and 4 is 
upwardly compatible with the 8080, most of the lOO's 8085 in- 
structions should be familiar to Model I/I1/II1/4 Assembly- 
language programmers. But some significant differences exist. 
I'll go over them and provide you with a table listing the com- 
mand mnemonics for each chip. 

The primary differences between the chips arise from the 
fact that the 8085 is short a few registers. It has no IX and lY 
index registers, and no primed alternate register set. Also, the 
8085 has no instruction to directly load the interrupt register. 
Instead, a pair of RIM and SIM instructions use a bit pattern 



in the A register to set the interrupt mask and data bus, and to 
perform a restart instruction. The restart instructions — 
numbered RST zero through 7 — work from locations in the 
first 64 bytes of memory. 

The 8085 doesn't support relative jumps, and is missing the 
set and reset bit tests. The miscellaneous instructions that com- 
pare blocks and moves are also missing, as are the CB, ED, 
DD, and FD families of instructions. 

In theory, it's possible to use Model I/III utilities such as 
EDTASM to write assembler code for the Model 100, but 
you'll have to avoid commands that the Model 100 doesn't 
support. The object is to send code to the Model 100 through a 
modem while filtering out unsupported loading codes. 

Intel uses its own jargon with the 8085 (MOV instead of 
LD, for example). Since Z80 terms are currently more familiar 
to TRS-80 owners, you're likely to see many Zilog words ap- 
plied to the 8085. Table 1 helps you make the translation. ■ 

You can reach Dan Robinson at 1625 Higgins Way, 
Pacifica, CA 94044. 







Table I. Translulion of Inte! S085 mnemonks lo Zilog Z80. 




Intel 8085 


Zilog Z80 


Description 


JC nn 


JP C,nn 


Jump to nn if carry 


M 


(HL) 


Contents of HL register pair 


JM nn 


JP M,nn 


Jump lo nn if minus 


ACI n 


ADC A,n 


Add n + carr>' bit to A 


JMP nn 


JP M,nn 


Jump to nn if minus 


ADCr 


ADCr 


Add r + carr\' bit to A 


JNCnn 


JP NC.nn 


Jump to nn if no carry 


ADDr 


ADD r 


Add r to A 


JNZnn 


JP NZ,nn 


Jump to nn if not zero 


ADI n 


ADD A,n 


Add n 10 A 


JP nn 


JP nn 


Jump to nn 


ANA r 


AND r 


Logical AND r & A 


JPEnn 


JP PE,nn 


Jump lo im if parity even 


ANIn 


AND n 


Logical AND n & A 


JPOnn 


JP PO,n 


Jump to nn if parity odd 


CALL Qii 


CALL nn 


Call routine at nn 


JZ nn 


JP Z,nn 


Jump to nn if zero 


CC 


CALL C,nn 


Call nn if carry bit set 


LDAnn 


LD A,{nn) 


Load A with contents of nn 


CM 


CALL M,nn 


Call nn if minus 


LDAX 


LD A,(rr) 


Load A with contents of register pair 


CMA 


CPL 


Complcincni A 


LHLD nn 


LD HL,(nn) 


Load HL with data contained at 


CMC 


CCF 


Complement carry flag 






address nn 


CMPr 


CPr 


Compare r to A 


LXI r,nn 


LD rr,nn 


Load register pair with nn 


CNCnn 


CALL NC.nn 


Call nn if no carry 


MOV r,r 


LDr,r 


Load register with contents of second 


CNZ nn 


CALL NZ,nn 


Call nn if not zero 






register 


CPnn 


CALL P,nn 


Call nn if positive 


MVI r,n 


LD r,n 


Load register with n 


CPE nn 


CALL PB,nn 


Call nn if parity even 


NOP 


NOP 


No Operation 


CPI n 


CPn 


Compare n to A 


ORAr 


ORr 


Logical OR r with A 


CPO nn 


CALL PO,nn 


Call nn if parity odd 


ORIn 


OR n 


Logical OR n with A 


CZ nn 


CALL Z,nn 


Call nn if zero 


OUTn 


OUT n,A 


Send byte in A out port n 


DAA 


DAA 


Decimal adjust A 


PCHL 


JP (HL) 


Jump to address in HL 


DADr 


ADD HL,rr 


Add HL & register pair 


POPr 


POPrr 


Load register pair from stack 


DCRr 


DECr 


Decrement register 


PUSHr 


PUSH rr 


Put register pair on stack 


DCXr 


DECrr 


Decrement register pair 


RAL 


RLA 


Rotate A left with carry 


DI 


DI 


Disable interrupts 


RAR 


RRA 


Rotate A right with carry 


EI 


EI 


Enable interrupts 


RC 


RETC 


Return if carry 


HLT 


HALT 


Stop processor 


RET 


RET 


Return 


INn 


INn 


Read byte from port n to A 


RIM 


— 


Load A with byte & read interrupt mask 


INRr 


INCr 


Increment register 






& serial port 


INXr 


INCrr 


Increment register pair 


RLC 


RLCA 


Copy A to carry, rotate left 

Table 1 continued 



170 • SOMicro, January 1984 



CNotes 



TaMe 1 coniinueii 










Program Listing I. COM/CMD. 




RM 


RET M 


Return if minus 






00100 
00110 


cOMXTXT/SOR COH/CHD 
A MODEL 1 DISK UTITLITY 




RNC 


RET NC 


Return if no carry 






00120 


FOR FILE TRANSFER BETIVEEN 




RNZ 


RtT N/. 


Return if not zero 






00130 
00140 


THE MODEL 1 AND MODEL 100 
USING RS232 COMMUNICATION 




RP 


RET P 


Return if positive 






00150 
00160 

00170 


BY RONALD F. BALONIS 8/23/83 




RPE 


RET PE 


Return if pariiy even 










RPO 


RET PC) 


Return if parity odd 




7y0o 


00180 
00190 


ORG 07000H 




RRC 


RRCA 


Copy A 10 earry, rotate right 






00200 


PROGRAM PARAMETERS 




RST 


RST 


Restart instruction 






00210 
00220 


RS232 COB STATS 

9600 BAUD. 8 BIT WORD, 




RZ 


RETZ 


Return if zero 






09230 

00240 


PARITY ENABLED, 
ONE STOP BIT 




SBBr 


SBC A,r 


Subtract r from A wiili carry 






00250 


XON/XOFF ON SEND TO 




SBIn 


SBC A,n 


Subtract n from A witli carry 






00260 
00270 


MODEL 100 ONLY 
ON MODEL 100 USE COM 




SHLD nil 


LD (nn),HL 


Load ]-IL to address nn 






00230 


STATS OF 88E1E 




SIM 


— 


Set interrupt mask from A, read byte 
from serial port reset data bus 






00290 
00300 
00310 
00320 
00330 


TO OUTPUT A DISK FILE 
TYPE: COM FILENAME 




SPHL 


LD SP,HL 


Load stack pointer witli HE 






TO INPUT A 100 FILE 




STA TiTi 


LD (nn),A 


Load address nn with A 






00340 
0350 


TYPE: COM I FILENAME 




STAXr 


LD (rr),A 


Load address pointed to by register pair 
with A 




00EE 
00E5 


00360 BAUDS EQU 0EEH 
00370 CONFG EQU 0E5H 










aaii 


00380 XON EQU IIH 




STC 


SCF 


Set carry flag 




0013 


00390 XOFF EQU 13H 




SUBr 


SUBr 


Subtract r from A 




404A 
4318 


00400 HIMEM EQU 404ftH 
00410 CMD EQU 431 0H 




SUIn 


SUBn 


Subtract n from A 




431C 

431E 


00420 FUNCT EQU CMD+4 
00430 FILE EQU CMD+6 




XCHG 


EX DE,HL 


Exchange DE & HL registers 




40 2D 


00440 QUIT EQU 402DH 




XRAr 


XORr 


Logical exclusive OR, r & A 




4420 

4424 


00450 DINIT EQU 4420H 

00460 DOPEH EQU 4424H 




XRIn 


XORn 


Logical exclusive OR, n & A 




4436 


00470 DREAD EQU 4436H 




XTHL 


LX(SP),HE 


Exchange contents of stack pointer 
with HL 




4439 
4423 
0033 

7000 


00480 DWRITE EQU 4439H 
00490 DCLOSE EQU 4428H 
00500 VIDEO EQU 33B 

00510 ; RESET THE UART FIRST 

CDDE71 00520 START CALL RSRST 

Listing 1 


con tinned 



bv Ronald F. Balonis 



100 Disks 



The Model lOO's tape file system is great, but this is 1984 and 
I prefer disk storage. So I wrote a program called COM/CMD 

(Program Listing 1) thai allows easy file transfer between a 
Model I/III and the Model 100 and adds manual disk storage 
to your Model 100. 

To use the utility, connect the machines' RS-232 ports with 
a null modem cable or directly to the Model 1 if the com- 
munications terminal (COM/TERM) switch is set to COM. 

File Transfer 

To transfer a tile from the Model 100 to a Model I/III, get 
into DOS on the Model l/III, type COM I and the file name, 
and press the enter key. Then, on the Model 100, type SAVB 
"COM:88ElE and press the enter key. 

After a time, depending on the file type and length, 
COM/CMD sends the file to the Model lOO's RS-232 port and 
saves it to the Model I/III disk. When the READY prompt 
and cursors appear on both computers, the transfer is com- 
plete. 

To transfer a file from the Model I/III to the Model 100, 
type LOAD "COM:88ElE on the Model 100 and press the 



The Key Box 

The programs in "100 Disks" require 8K RAM on the 
Model 100, 32K RAM on a Model I or ffl. The pro- 
grams in "Rooting Out the Problem" and "Autoliner" 
run in 8K RAM. 



enter key. In DOS on the Model I/III, type COM and the file 
name and press the enter key. 

After a fime, again depending on the file t>pe and length, 
the program reads the disk file and sends it to the Model 
I/IIFs RS-232 port. When the READY prompt and cursors 
appear, the transfer is complete. 

The Program 

My program is a collection of familiar Model I Z80 routines 
(see Table 2 for Model III modifications). The program first 
reads the DOS command line to select input or output mode 
and for the file name. The program then reads the files, 
whether input or output, into memory storage and then out- 
puts them according to the mode of operation. In sequence, 
the routines are: Disk In, Com Out, Com In, Disk Out, Error 
messages, and the software for the RS-232 port. 

The RS-232 stats are set in the software. It ignores configu- 
ration switches and sets communications parameters at 9600 
baud, 8-bit word length, even parity, I stop bit, and XON/ 
XOFF enabled on send to the Model 100 only. 

The XON/XOFF, which enables the Model 100 to turn the 
Model I/III data stream on and off, is necessary to the com- 
munication link. Otherwise, the Model lOO's housekeeping 
routines would lose data. 

To get a copy of my utility program running on your Model 
I/III, if you have a Z80 disk assembler, simply key in the 
source listing and compile it. I use the Misosys modified ver- 
sion of the Radio Shack Series I Editor Assembler— Cassette. 
Alternatively, key in the hex listing with Debug, then use the 
DOS Dump command to put a copy on disk. ■ 

Contact Ronald F. Balonis at 118 Rice Si., Tmcksville, PA 
18708. 

80 Micro, January 1984 • 171 



C-Notes 



Listing 1 coniinued 
















7003 11E771 


00530 


LD 


DE,DCB 


7061 CD2844 


00980 


CALL 


DCLOSE 


7006 211E43 


00540 


LD 


HL.FILE 


7064 C20fi71 


00990 


JP 


NZ.ERREAD 


7009 011700 


00550 


LD 


BC,23 




01000 ; 


SEND 


FILE TO RS232 COM PORT 


700C EDB0 


00560 


LDIR 




7067 210773 


01010 PUTCOH 


LD 


HL,STORAG 




00570 ; 


SELECT COM <I>N OR COM <0>UT 


706A CDCB71 


01020 COMOUT 


CALL 


ESIN 


700E 3A1C43 


00580 


LD 


A, (FUNCT) 


706D FE13 


01030 


CP 


XOFF 


7eil FE49 


00590 


CP 


' T' 


706F 2007 


01040 


JR 


NZ.COMO 


7013 2376 


00600 


JE 


Z,GETCOM 


7071 CDCB71 


01050 XXON 


CA1,L 


RSIN 


7615 E'E4F 


00610 


CP 


'0' 


7074 FEll 


0L060 


CP 


XON 


7017 C20071 


00620 


JP 


HZ,EHCMD 


7076 20F9 


01070 


JR 


NZ,XXON 




00630 i 


PUT 


THE DISK FILE IN STORAGE 


7 07 8 7E 


01080 COMO 


LD 


A, lilL) 


701A ilE771 


006 40 GETDEK 


LD 


DE,DCB 


7079 CDBE7I 


01090 


CALL 


RSOUT 


701D 010000 


006-5 


LD 


BC,0000H 


707C 23 


01100 


INC 


HL 


7020 C5 


00660 


PUSH 


EC 


707D 0B 


01110 


DEC 


BC 


7021 210772 


00670 


LD 


HL, BUFFER 


707R 79 


01120 


LD 


A,C 


7024 CD2444 


00680 


CALL 


DOPEN 


707F FE00 


01130 


CP 





7027 C20571 


00690 


JP 


NZ.EROPEN 


7081 20E7 


01140 


JR 


NZ, COMOUT 


702a 110773 


00700 


LD 


DE,STORAG 


7083 78 


01150 


LD 


A,B 


702D CI 


0710 


POP 


EC 


7084 FE01 


01160 


CP 


1 


792E C5 


00720 READLF 


PUSH 


BC 


7086 20E2 


01170 


JR 


NS, COMOUT 


702F D!i 


00730 


PUSH 


DE 


7088 3E1A 


01180 


LD 


A,01AH 


7030 11E771 


00740 


LD 


DE,DCB 


708A CDBE71 


01190 


CALL 


ESOUT 


7033 CD3644 


00750 


CALL 


DREAD 


708D C32D40 


01200 


JP 


QUIT 


7035 FEIC 


00760 


CP 


ICH 




01210 ; 


GET FILE FROM ES232 COM PORT | 


7038 281C 


00770 


JR 


Z.RCLOSE 


"■090 CDF470 


01220 GETCOM 


CALL 


EEADY 


703A FEiD 


00780 


CP 


IDH 


7093 010000 


01230 


LD 


BC.0000[i 


703C 2818 


00790 


JR 


?,RCLOfiF 


7096 210773 


01240 


LD 


HL.STORAG 


703E B7 


00800 


OR 


A 


7099 CDCB71 


01250 COMIN 


CALL 


RfilN 


703F C20A71 


00810 


JP 


NZ,ERREAD 


709C B7 


01 260 


OR 


A 


7042 Dl 


00820 


POP 


DE 


709D 2002 


01270 


JR 


NZ, DATAIN 


7043 210772 


00830 


LD 


[IL, BUFFER 


709F 18F8 


01280 


JR 


COMIN 


7046 010001 


00840 


LD 


BC.256 


70A1 FE0A 


01290 DATAIN 


CP 


0AH 


7049 EDB0 


00850 


LDIR 




7 A3 28F4 


01300 


JR 


Z, COMIN 


734E CI 


00860 


POP 


BC 


70A5 FEIA 


01310 


CP 


01AH 


704C 0C 


00870 


INC 


C 


70A7 2805 


01320 


JR 


S.EOF 


704D 3A4A40 


00880 


LD 


A, (HIMEM) 


70A9 77 


01330 


LD 


(HL) ,A 


7050 BA 


00890 


CP 


D 


7eAA 23 


01340 


ItJC 


HL 


7051 CA2071 


00900 


JP 


S.TOOBIG 


7 0AB 3 


01350 


INC 


BC 


7054 1808 


00910 


JE 


READLP 


70AC 18EB 


01360 


JR 


COMIN 


7056 11E771 


00920 RCLOSE 


LD 


DEpDCB 


70AL C5 


01370 EOF 


PUSH 


BC 




00930 ; 


PUT 


PILE LENGTH IN BC 




01380 ; 


PUT 


THE FILE ON THE DISK 


7059 3AF371 


00940 


LD 


A, (DCB+12) 


70AF 11E771 


01390 WDISK 


LD 


DE,DCB 


705C 47 


00950 


LD 


B,A 


70B2 210772 


01400 


LD 


HL, BUFFER 


705D 3AEF71 


00960 


LD 


A, (DCB+8) 


70B3 010000 


01410 


LD 


BC.0000K 


706 4F 


9 7 


LD 


C,A 


70B8 CD2044 


014 2 


CALL 


DINIT 

Liiliiif; 1 coniinued 



MOE3EL 100 



MARKET YOUR 
0\A/IM SaFT\A/ARE! 

ALPHAWARE proudly announces two new distribution pro- 
grams designed to publish and market YOUR software: the 
Complete Concept Marketing Program distributes your soft- 
ware on a risk-free royalty basis. The Independent Distribu- 
tion Publishing Program is perfect for those who want to mass 
produce their works and independently market them. Write for 
complete details, free samples, and enter the Model 1 DO soft- 
ware market today! 

MicroEditor II, pagination, right, left & alternate mar- 
gins, line and page numbering, headings, multiple data 
form letters, etc. $49.95 



Mail Master, sorts, alphabetizes, prints mailing labels, 
form letter compatability with MicroEditor II $34.95 

M100 Tape Log, reference log designed specifically for 

the MIOO, columns for begin and end positions, file 
name, description, etc. Pad of 50 sheets $3.50 



^^yp^^^^^l 



I N 



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found ." lofnvtrt "i my hit two y»»rs ol p*rson»l 



COrnput'Og 

PEL-TEK'S 



J 8 . Tutcon, A2 



UlOfCl 

mcichine 2.0 



A unique Word Processor for the TRS-80 Mod I/Ill 
32/48K Disk System — different in design, concept. 
function and price. 



Your SECOND Word Processor shouldn'i be a "me loo" product but should be useful, 
economical, and ttuty ditlerfint with features like these 





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mode lo mn ijuphits wuh leT on ihe 
s lonnier ^uppon needed h 


■ Emtwci any ASCH character 2S5in le-r Suuco 
anv pinrei's special tea lures 


On scree 
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Create sr 


Inrmatrrr^g So ^hsf lO^ lyoe i^ whoi 
including center friij, ^0'(J v-Td Piling 

* su[jpOii (or unp^kodified MuO 1 b 
d Edit CommuniCdhons li<ps like Iho^e 


■ So'tware forms control Epeci liries o.iije^ prir^i 
muHipie copies pr-riMime entries 

■ WriM^n m machine idn^udye pfir^rpr indpoend 

■ And n<uO- \^<\>«• 



Send sett- addressed, stamped envelope for FREE copy of Manual (S.37 postage, please) 
• •••••• SPECIAL - F(M JUWPYArcsde game or^ dish 



PEL-TEK ■ P.O. Bex 1026 ■ Southampton. PA 18966 

TDllfrMDrdttrlirw 1-800-523-2445, Ext. 19 
inPBnniylvBniacain-800-346'7S11,Ext. 19 

Viu, Uaitar Charga, ch«ck of money order 
Add I2.W Posuge aod Handling ■ PA reudentt add 6% utet tax „> 324 



172 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



CNotes 



Listing 1 coniinued 
















70BB C21571 


01430 


JP 


NZ,ERHRIT 


7118 CD2844 01880 




CALL 


DCLOSE 


THBE 210773 


01440 


LD 


F1L,ST0RAG 


711B 217E71 01890 




LD 


Hr.,ERR3 


7eci CI 


01450 


POP 


BC 


711E 1809 01900 




JR 


DISPLY 


70C2 C5 


01460 WRITLP 


PUSH 


BC 


7120 11E771 01910 


TOOBIG 


LD 


DE,DCB 


70C3 110772 


01470 


LD 


DE, BUFFER 


7123 CD2844 01920 




CALL 


DCLOSE 


70C6 010001 


01480 


l.D 


BC,256 


7126 219971 01930 




LD 


HL, TOBIG 


70C9 EDB0 


01490 


LDIl! 




7129 7E 01940 


DISPLY 


LD 


A, IHL) 


70CB CI 


01500 


POP 


BC 


712A B7 01950 




OW 


A 


70CC C5 


01510 


PUSH 


BC 


712B CA2D40 01960 




JP 


Z.QUIT 


70CD E5 


01520 


PUSH 


HL 


712E CD3300 01970 




CALL 


VIDEO 


7eCE 210772 


01530 


LD 


HL, BUFFER 


7131 23 01980 




INC 


HL 


70D1 11E771 


01540 


I.D 


DE,DCB 


7132 18F5 01990 




JR 


DISPLY 


70D4 CD3944 


01550 


CALL 


DWRITD 


02000 








70D7 B7 


01560 


OR 


A 


7134 20 02010 


ERR0 


DEFM 


' ' 


70DB C21571 


01570 


JP 


NZ,ERWRIT 


20 20 20 20 








70DB El 


01560 


POP 


HL 


7139 2A 02020 




DEFM 


'* COMMAND LIHE ERROR *' 


7 0DC CI 


01590 


POP 


BC 


20 43 4F 4D 4D 


41 4E 


44 




70DD 05 


01600 


DEC 


B 


20 4C 49 4E 45 


20 45 


52 




7 0DE 78 


01610 


LD 


A,B 


52 4F 52 20 2A 








70DF PEFF 


01620 


CP 


255 


714F 00 02030 




DEF5 





70E1 C2C270 


01630 


JP 


n;i,wrI'['lp 


7150 20 02040 
20 20 20 20 


ERRl 


DEFM 


' ' 


70t:4 11E771 


01640 KCLORE 


LD 


DE,DCB 








70E7 79 


01650 


LD 


A,C 


7155 2A 020.S0 




DEFM 


' ' FILE >iOT FOUND * ' 


70E8 32Ef71 


01660 


LD 


(DCB+8) .A 


20 46 49 4C 45 


20 4E 


4F 




70EB CD2B44 


01670 


CALL 


DCLOSE 


54 20 46 4F 55 


4E 44 


20 




70EE C21571 


01680 


JP 


HZ ,ERWRIT 


2A 








70F1 C32D4e 


01690 


JP 


OIITT 


7167 00 02060 




DEFB 






01700 ; 


DISPLAY MESSAGES 


7168 20 02070 


ERR2 


DEF^! 


' 


701-4 21AF71 


01710 READY 


LD 


HL,RDY 


20 20 20 20 








70F7 7E 


01720 DSPLY 


LD 


A, (HL) 


716D 2A 02080 




DEFM 


' * SOURCE ERROR *' 


70F8 B7 


01730 


OR 


A 


20 53 4F 55 52 


43 45 


20 




70F9 ce 


01740 


RET 


Z 


45 52 52 4F 52 


20 2A 






70FA CD3300 


01750 


CALL 


VIDEO 


717D 00 02090 




DKFB 




70FD 23 


01760 


INC 


HL 


717E 20 02100 


ERR3 


DEFM 


' ' 


70t'E 181''7 


01770 


JR 


DSPLY 


20 20 20 20 










01780 : 






7183 2A 02110 




DEFM 


'* DESTINATION ERROR *' 


7100 213471 


017U0 ERCMD 


LD 


HL,EER0 


20 44 45 53 54 


49 4E 


41 




7103 :y24 


01800 


JR 


DISPLY 


54 49 4F 4E 20 


45 52 


52 




7105 215071 


018111 EHOPEN 


LD 


HL.EHRl 


4F 52 20 2A 








7106 181F 


01820 


JR 


DISPLY 


7198 00 02120 




DEFB 




710A 11E771 


01830 ERREfin 


LD 


DE.DCB 


7199 20 02130 


TOBIG 


DEFM 


' ' 


710D CD2344 


01840 


CALL 


DCLOSE 


20 20 20 20 








7110 216371 


01650 


LD 


Hr.,HRK2 


719K 2a 02140 




DEFM 


" FILE TOO BIG *' 


7113 1614 


01860 


JR 


DISPLY 


20 46 49 4C 45 


20 54 


4F 




711b 11E7 71 


01870 ERKEIT 


LD 


DE,DCB 


4F 20 42 49 47 


20 2fi 




Listing 1 continued 




PROFESSIONAL QUALITY PERSONAL INCOME TAX PROGRAMS 
NOW IN OUR SECOND GREAT YEAR AND STILL UNDER $30 



• Dont wait until April 15. Use SUPERTAX to develop your 
tax strategy/ NCW, 

• An ABSOLUTE MUST for every personal software library. 

• Invaluable for YEAR-END tax planning or for tax return 
preparation. 

• The friendliness and efRdency of these programs are setting 
standards by which others are judged, 

• Highly acclaimed by tax professionals and laymen alike. 

• Written by CFA. 

SUPERTAX I: Using cither screen or printer output, SUPERTAX ! generates 
clear and concise summaries of Page 1 and 2 and Schedule A of FORM 
1040, allowing you to see at a glance and quickly comprehend your tax 
situation. This program also prints an OVERALL SUMMARY of the return 
showing Adjusted Gross Income, Itemized Deductions, Taxable Income, 
Regular Tax, Income Averaging Tax, Minimum Tax and Payment Due or 
Refund all of which are calculated by the program. SUPERTAX I also 
calculates the moving expense deduction, investment credit, taxable 
capital gains, political and child care credits, medical limitations, and much 
more. Input is fast and easy and changes can be made in seconds. This 
program actually makes lax planning a breeze. 

SUPERTAX II: Includes the efficient SUPERTAX I program as well as the 
more detailed SUPERTAX II program which makes all of the SUPERTAX i 
calculations, but which also PRINTS THE INCOME TAX RETURN This 
program prints Page 1 , page 2, Schedules A, B, and G (income averaging) 
of the FORM 1040 as well as FORM 3468 (investment tax credit) on 
standard government forms or on blank computer paper for use with 
transparencies. Any input item can be changed in seconds and the entire 
return recalculated almost instantly. 



• Available for IBM PC. Radio Shack Models 1, II, III, 12 and 
16, Apple 11+ , and Kaypro II (all require at least 48K). 

• Also available on standard 8" CP/M using Microsoft BASIC. 

• Data can be saved on disk. 

• Changing any data item instantly changes entire return, 

• Subsequent year versions of SUPERTAX available at 40% 
off. 

• Programs are fully prompted and include manual loaded 
w^th valuable tax information and guidance. 

SUPERTAX III: This package includes both the SUPERTAX 1 and SUPER- 
TAX n programs PLUS a program to calculate and print Schedule C of the 
FORM 1040. Also included is a stand alone depredation program which 
calculates and prints your depredation schedule using both the old rules 
and the new ACRS rules. Output from the depredation program is de- 
signed to serve as a supplement to IRS FORM 4562. 



SUPERTAX I 


$29.50 


SUPERTAX 11 


$49.95 


SUPERTAX ill 


- $59.95 



.^^^^^8 



Add $2.00 for postage & handling Add $2.00 if ordering on 8" diskettes. 
Radio Shack models require 2 disk drives. 

ROCKWARE DATA CORPORATION ^,,, 

1635 Dorchester ■ PLANO. TX 7&075 ■ (214) 596-0588 "^ 
CP'M Radio Shack S Apple II ( are liaderrarksol Digital Research. Tandy Corp and Apple Coniculers. 
Inc 



80 Micro, January 1984 • 173 



C-Notes 



Listing I continued 

71AE 00 
71AF 20 

20 2[ 

71B4 2A 



02150 
0216 RDY 
20 

02170 



DEFR 



52 45 41 44 59 20 2A 



71BD 00 02180 

02190 ; 

02200 ; 

00EB 02210 RESET 

00E9 02220 COHFIG 

00EA 02230 CONTHI, 

KHEB 02240 DATA 

022 50 ; 

71BE CS 02260 RSOUT PUSH 

71BF 4F 02270 LD 

71C0 DBEA 02280 SENT IN 

71C2 CB77 02290 BIT 

71C4 2aFA 02300 JR 

71C6 79 02310 LD 

71C7 D3EB 02320 OUT 

71C9 CI 02330 POP 

71CA C9 02340 RET 

02350 ; 

71CB DBEA 02360 RSIN IN 

71CD CB7F 02370 BIT 

71CF 2808 02380 JR 

71D1 E638 02390 AND 

71D3 C20A71 02400 JP 

71D6 DBEB 02410 IM 

71D8 C9 02420 RET 

71D9 AF 02430 NODATA XOB 

71DA C9 02440 RET 

02450 ; 

71DB D3E8 02460 RSRST OUT 

71DD 3EE5 02470 LD 

71DF D3EA 02480 OUT 

71E1 3EEE 02490 LD 

71E3 D3E9 02500 OUT 

7le5 AF 02510 XOR 

71E6 C9 92520 RET 

02530 ; 

0020 02540 DCB DBFS 

0100 02S50 SUFFER DEFS 

7307 02560 STORAG EQU 

7000 02 57 END 

00000 TOTAJ, URRORS 



DEEB 

TBE aS232 COM PORT 
EQU 0E8H 

EQU 0E9H 

EOU 0EAH 

EQU 0EBH 



BC 
C,A 

A, (CONTRL} 
6, A 

Z.SENT 
A,C 

(DATA) ,A 
BC 



A, (CONTRL) 

7, A 

V. . NODATA 

3 814 

Ni:,ERREAD 

A, (DATA) 

A 



(RESET) ,A 
ApCONFG 

(CONTRL) ,A 
A, BAUDS 

(CONFIG) ,A 
A 



32 
256 

S 
START 



by Scott Jones 



The Great Escape 









Changes 






Line 




Label 


Source 




Slnil 


4(X) 




HIMHM 


EQU 




4412 hex 


410 




CMD 


EQU 
Additions 




4225 hex 


Lint' 




Label 


Source 




Stml 


945 






INC 




A 


1642 






LD 




A,(DCli + 12) 


1644 






DEC 




A 


1646 






LD 




(DCB+ 12), A 


Table 


2. 


Mudd III 


modijlcaiions for 


disk 


storage program 


(COM/CD) 











Among the data omitted in the Model 100 user's manual are 
the escape codes, which control screen functions and cursor 
positioning. Though designed for use in the text editor, you 
can use the escape codes in Basic programs and with telecom- 
munications (TELCOM) when transmitted from a host com- 
puter. 
174 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



Using Escape Codes 

To use an escape code in Basic, type 

PRINT CHR$(27);"*"; 

replacing the asterisk with the letter in Table 3 after ESC, not- 
ing whether the letter is in upper- or lowercase. 

To use an escape code in TELCOM, the host computer 
must first transmit an escape code (ASCII value of 27 decimal 
or IB hexadecimal), then transmit the letter after ESC (see Ta- 
ble 3). The host computer should transmit the two characters 
together with no intervening space. 

Special Instructions 

Some of the codes in Table 3 require an explanation. 

Use ESC T to set up the label line the Model 100 displays 
when you press the label key. ESC T protects the bottom line 
from scrolling and prevents the cursor from entering the bot- 
tom line. If the cursor is on the bottom line when you issue 
ESC T, it stays there until it's moved up or past the lower right 
position on the display. 

ESC U unlocks the label line by allowing the cursor to move 
onto the last line; it does not clear the last line. If you press the 
label key and issue ESC U, you can print over the label line. 

ESC V keeps the display from scroUing. When the cursor is 
in the lower right position and you've invoked ESC V, charac- 
ters print over each other. ESC W allows scrolling to reoccur. 

Use ESC Y to position the cursor. You must issue two char- 
acters after ESC Y: The first one determines the row; the sec- 
ond one, the column where the cursor goes. The cursor is posi- 
tioned at the ASCII value of the characters minus 32. To move 
the cursor to row R and column C in Basic, type this com- 
mand: 

PRINT CHR$(27);"Y" ;CHRS{R + 32);CHR$(C + 32); 

Note that column numbers begin with zero instead of 1. 
The upper left comer is Row 0, Column 0. This method may 
be more convenient than using the one value in a PRINT@ 
statement. ■ 

Contact Scott Jones at 3908 Stoney Ridge Trail, Charlotte, 
NC 28210. 





Table 3. Escape codes. 


Kscape Code 


Descriplion 


ESC A 


Moves cursor up 


ESCB 


Moves cursor down 


ESC C 


Moves cursor to the right 


ESCD 


Moves cursor to ihe left 


ESCH 


Clears display and homes cursor 


ESC H 


Homes cursor (does not clear display) 


ESC J 


Clears from current position to end of display 


ESC K 


Clears from current position to end of line 


ESCL 


Inserts a blank line at the current line; moves 




text below cursor down a line 


ESCM 


Deletes the current line; moves lexl below cur- 




sor up a line 


ESCP 


Turns on flashing cursor 


ESCQ 


Turns off flashing cursor 




Table 3 continued 




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80 Micro, January 1984 • 175 



C-Notes 



Table 3 cnnlinued 

ESC T Protects bottom line from scrolling and overprint 

{used by label key) 
ESC U "Breaks through" label line 

ESC V Stops scrolling 

ESC W Starts scrolling 

ESC Y X Z Moves cursor to row X and column Z (ASCII 

character values minus 32) 
ESC j Clears display and homes cursor 

ESC 1 Clears entire current line 

ESC p Displays characters as white-on-black (inverse) 

ESC q Displays characters as biack-on-white (normal) 



Rooting Out the Problem 

by William R. Hariow 

Get to the roots of your math problems. 

Two short programs for the Model 100, Plot (Program 
Listing 2) and Bisection (Program Listing 3), help you deter- 
mine the roQt(s) of any given function. 

Suppose you have an intei"v-a] l(a,b) and a variable V^j^ 
associated with it. The equation needed to transfer points to 
an interval r(c,d) with associated variable V^^^, is: 

V = (d - c)V + (b*c - a*d) 



(b - a) 

The PSET command of the Model 100 allows 15,360 pixels. 
I decided to use a horizonla! range of five to 235 units and a 
vertical range of three to 60 units. To establish the horizontal 
range, let XL and XR be the old values of X-to-the-left;X-to- 
the-right. Then XP equals (230*X + 5*XR - 235*XL)/ 
(XR-XL). Use a similar expression for the YP. The pro- 
gram tests whether it can plot the axes; then it plots the curve 
and PRINT® puts the original ranges at the top of the plot. 
The program puts the function at line 140 in the form Y = a 
function of X. 

The program includes two examples. When you run the 
first, Y = 4*SIN(3*X)-XA2+3, it asks for XL and XR. I 
keyed in -4,4. The suggested increment becomes .08. 1 keyed 
in .1. Too large an increment spreads pixels out; too small an 
increment slows the plotting speed. Line 30 gives a reasonable 
value. 

The program then asks for Y below and Y above. I keyed in 
-15,10. Now plotting takes place reasonably quickly. Line 
200 is a loop; press the break key to get control back. A sub- 
routine to select the smallest and largest Y value would add 
about five lines to the program. If the plot is poor, you can al- 
ways try again with different values. You can also estimate 
roots by expanding the plot range. 

The Bisection Programi 

The bisection method, one of the oldest known algorithms 
to determine a real root, isn't fast but it's fairly foolproof. If a 
function changes sign in an interval, there is at least one root in 
that interval and the bisection nriethod will get it. Here is where 
the plot comes in handy: you can see places where roots occur 
or are close together and can use the appropriate values. 

Line 300 is in the form F = a function of X. Here I used 
F = LOG(X) - XA2 + 4. X must be greater than zero. The plot 
revealed two roots: one close to zero and the other between 



two and three. The program asks you to key in X left, X right, 
and epsilon. I keyed in .01,.2,lE-8. The program iterates, 
showing successive values. When ABS(F) is less than epsilon, 
the program displays the root atid functional values. You can 
then run the program for other possible roots. 

To check your program, print out the two roots of the log 
function. The six roots of the trigonometry function displayed 
show how the plot helps you see close roots and how the bisec- 
tion method determines them. ■ 

William R. Harlow has taught at the University of Cincin- 
nati (the Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineer- 
ing, 836 Rhodes Hall, Cincinnati, OH 4522 J) since 1943. 



10 CLS 

20 INPUT"KEy IN X-LEFT, X-RIGHT ";XL,XR 

30 PRINT"A SUGGESTED INCREMENT IS ";(XR- 

XL)/100 

40 INPUT"KEY IN YOUR INCREMENT " ; DX 

50 INPUT"KEY IN YOUR Y-BELOW, Y-ABOVE 

";YB,YA 

60 CLS 

YV= ( 6 0*YA-3 * YB) / ( YA-YB) 
IF YV<3 OR YV>60 THEN 100 
90 FOR H=5 TO 235:PSET(H,YV} :NEXT H 
100 XH=(5*XR-235*XL)/{XR-XL) 

IF XH<5 OR XH>235 THEN 130 

FOR V=J TO 60:PSET(XH,V) :NEXT V 

FOR X=XL TO XR STEP DX 

Y=4*SIN(3*X)-X"2+3 
145 XP=(230*X+5*XR-235*XL)/ (XR-XL) 
150 YP={60*YA-3*YB-57*Y)/(YA-YB) 
160 IF YP<3 OR YP>60 THEN 180 
170 PSET(XP,YP} 
180 NEXT X 
190 PRINTXL;"<X<";XR;TAB(27) ; YB; " <y>" ; YA 



70 
80 



IK 
12( 
131 
14( 



200 GOTO 200 



Program Lining 2. Plot. 



SOLUTION OF Y=F(X) BY 



10CLS 

20PRINT" 

BISECTION" 

30INPUT"KEY IN X-LEFT, X-RIGHT, EPSILON 

";L,R,E 

40X=L:GOSUB 300:FL=F 

50X=R:GOSUB 300:FR=F 

60M=(L+R)/2:X=M:GOSUB 300:FM=F 

70CLS: PRINT: PRINT: PRINT 

80PRINTTAB(10) USING"ITERATE IS + 

#.### ";M 

95IF ABS(FM)<E THEN 200 
100IF FL*FM<0 THEN 120 
110L=M:FL=FM:GOTO 60 
120R=M:FR=FM:GOTO 60 
20 0PRINT:PRINTUSING" F(+ 

#.########## )=+#.## ";M,FM 

210PRINT:END 

300F=LOG(X)-X"2-(-4 

310RETURN 

Program Listing 3. Bisection. 



176 • SOMicro, January 1984 




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80 Micro, January 1984 • 177 



UNITED SOFTWARE 
ASSOCIATES 

PRESENTS 


C-Notes 




^Autoliner 

by Richard Ramella 

Autoliner (Program Listing 4) gives the Model 100 an auto- 
matic line-numbering capability similar to what Level II Basic 
provides. 

The program lets you specify the starting line number of a 
program and the increment for each succeeding line. It is most 
useful when keying in published programs with regular line in- 
crements — 100, 110, 120, and so on. Autoliner can also handle 
irregular line numbers — for instance, a line number of 237 in a 
program otherwise marked by lines in increments of ID. 

Autoliner creates a text (.DO) file that becomes the program 
you key in. 

Program Operation 

First the prompt Name of Program ? appears. Name the 
program as you wish. If the name has more than six charac- 
ters, the text file name becomes the first six characters in the 
name. This is required because a text file must be named in six 
or fewer characters. 

The next prompt is Starting line number ? and may be any 
number from zero to 65,529, the highest line number the Mod- 
el 100 accepts. Type the number and tap the enter key. 

The final parameter-setting prompt is Line increment ? and 


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178 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



CNotes 



From the makers of MAP: 



may be any number from one up. Type the number and tap 
the enter key. 

Now you're ready to key in the program. The prompts ap- 
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increments you set. 

An Example 

Run the program Autoliner. Answer the first prompt by 
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third prompt by typing 10 and pressing the enter key. Line 100 
appears with a prompt; answer it REM TEST and tap the en- 
ter key. Answer the line 110 prompt by typing PRINT "IT 
WORKS!" and hitting the enter key. Answer the line 120 
prompt by typing ! and pressing the enter key. Answering any 
line prompt with an ! ends the program. 

As it stops, the program announces See TEST. DO for pro- 
gram. TEST is the name of the program you have keyed in. 

Then type RUN "TEST" and the program creates and runs 
a Basic version of the text file. Break into this new program 
and type SAVE "TEST" and tap the enter key. This puts the 
program in a Basic (.BA) file where it wiU be safe. Then type 
KILL "TEST.DO" and tap enter. This kills the unneeded text 
(.DO) version of the program. 

Don't attempt to run your new program until you have 
completely keyed it in. It doesn't exist as a Basic program until 



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80 Micro, January 1984 • 179 



C-Notes 



you end things by typing ! and tapping the enter key. 

If you find an irregular number in the listing, answer the line 
prompt with an asterisk and the program responds New line 
number and data ?. Answer this by typing the irregular line 
number and the program information that accompanies it. 
Then tap the enter key, and the program returns to the regular 
line increments you specified. 

To correct a line, answer a line prompt with the asterisk and 
then type in the line number you want corrected and the cor- 
rect version of the Une. While useful for short lines, the pro- 
gram doesn't allow the full-screen text editing available when 
you've turned your program into a Basic file. You can put the 
same line number twice into a text file, but when you run it as a 
Basic program, it eliminates the old line and uses the new one. 

A few lines at the start serve no purpose other than goof- 
proofing the program. If your starting line number is 65,000 
or more, the program tells you the number of lines with which 
you have to work. If the increment you choose allows 150 or 
fewer lines for the program, Autoliner tells you that 
number. ■ 



Richard Ramella can be reached at J 493 M(. View Ave., 
Chico, CA 95926. 



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100 REM * Autoliner * TRS-80 Model 100 

8K / Richard Ramella 

110 CLS 

120 MAXFILES=1 

130 CLEAR 500 

140 DEFSTR A 

150 INPUT "Name of Program";L$ 

160 C=ASC(LEFT$(L$,1) ) 

170 IF C>96 THEN C=C-32: L$=CHR$(C)+ 

RIGHT?(L$,LEN(L$)-1) 

180 IF L$='"' THEN GOSUB 420: GOTO 150 

190 MS=LEFT$(LS,1) 

200 IF ASC(M$)<65 OR ASC(HS)>90 THEN 

GOSUB 420: GOTO 150 

210 IF LEN{L$)>6 THEN Z$=LEFT$ (L$ ,6) 

ELSE Z$=L$ 

220 OPEN Z$ FOR OUTPUT AS 1 

230 CLS 

240 INPUT "Starting line number";B 

250 B=INT(B) 

260 IF B<0 THEN CLS: GOSUB 420: GOTO 240 

270 IF B=>65000 THEN PRINT "The Model 

100 allows line numbers up to 65529, You 

have"65529-B''lines with which to": PRINT 

"work.": GOSUB 570 

280 CLS 

290 INPUT "Line increment" ;D 

300 F=INT( (65529-B)/D) 

310 IF F<150 THEN PRINT "You 

have"F"lines with which to work.": 

GOSUB570 

320 CLS 

330 PRINT B; 

340 LINEINPUT A 

350 IF A="l" THEN 530 

360 IF A="*" THEN PRINT "New line number 

and data": INPUT A: PRINT #1,A: GOTO 330 

370 A=STR$(B)+A 

380 PRINT #1,A 

390 A="" 

400 B=B+D 

410 GOTO 330 

420 PRINT "Impossible, Please try again" 



430 GOSUB 500 




440 FOR T=l TO 


5 


450 BEEP 




460 NEXT 




470 GOSUB 500 




480 CLS 




490 RETURN 




500 FOR T=l TO 


500 


510 NEXT 




520 RETURN 




530 CLS 




540 PRINT "See 


"Z$",DO for program" 


550 PRINT LS 




560 END 




570 PRINT 




580 INPUT "Tap 


a key to continue" ;G 


590 CLS 




600 RETURN 




610 END 





Program Lisling 4. Autoliner. 



180 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



RAM FILES 



Disassembler Debug 

Several errors appeared in my Disassembler program (Sep- 
tember 1983, p. 283) that make it run improperly. The follow- 
ing is a list of corrections: 

RCLA in line 20 should be RLCA. 

Lines 160 and 170 are the same in the listmg. Line 160 
should read: 



160 DATA"LD 

L,H","LD 

L,(HL)","LD 



L,D","LD 
L,L","LD 
L,A","LD 



L.E","LD 



(HL),B" 



Don't forget that tabs, not spaces, separate the mnemonics 
and operands. 

Line 170 is missing a right parenthesis. "LD (HL,H" 
should read "LD(HL),H". 

Lines 1760 and 1770 should end in RETURNrELSE 
RETURN. 

Finally, the two spaces in line 10530 in Fig. 1 should be 
carets for exponentiation (press the shift/6 keys). 

I also have a few changes in the mnemonics. When 1 wrote 
the program 1 used Z80 code, but no relative jumps or alter- 
nate register sets exist in the 8085. You should make EX 
AF,AF' and EXX undefined. Leave EX DE,HL, and EX 
(SP),HL as they are. 

All but two JR . . . @ (including DJNZ @) should be changed 
to undefined. JR NZ,@ should be RIM and JR NC,@ 
should be SIM. RIM is the read interrupt mask, and SIM is the 
set interrupt mask. 

I put the equivalent restart commands for the Z80 and the 
8085 in Table 1. Their functions are identical. 

David A. Cloulier 

BuUard Road 

North Brookfield, MA 01535 

CIS ^75705,730 

CR Patch 

Most printers have a switch labeled "Auto LF after 
CR." Most computers (e.g., the IBM PC) require this 
switch to be off to distinguish between a line feed (LF) 
and a carriage return (CR). 

TRS-80 computers require this switch be on so when 



Z80 


ms 


RSTOOH 


RSTO 


RST08H 


RST 1 


RST lOH 


RST 2 


RST 18H 


RST 3 


RST20H 


RST 4 


RST28H 


RST 5 


RST30H 


RST 6 


RST38H 


RST 7 


Table 1. Restart commands for the Z80 and the 8085. 



the computer sends a carriage return, the printer supplies 
the implied line feed. 

If you use two different computers with the same printer, 
this protocol can be a hassle. We wrote the patch in Pro- 
gram Listing 1 to eliminate this problem. 

Model 100 document files have CR/LF pairs embedded in 
them (try using control/P, control/M, control/P, control/J in 
Text), but the printer driver strips out any line feed immediately 
following a carriage return. This patch intercepts the printer 
driver between each character so it never knows that it just 
printed a carriage return. 

We offer this patch with some trepidation, since it redirects 
a system jump vector into user memory. It presents no prob- 
lems under most circumstances, but if you leave it switched on 
and load a program that clears memory above 62700 decimal, 
the results are unpredictable, and probably disastrous if you 
try to print anything. 

The programs from the Portable Computer Support Group 
(PCSG) are an exception to the above caveat. They are fully 
compatible with this patch, even though they reserve memory 
above 62700. 

Michael Stanford & 

Robi Robinson 

Portable Computer Support Group 

11035 Harry Mines §207 

Dallas, TX 75229 

Support Hotline: 214-351-0564 



Built-in Criticism 

Publicity for the Model 100 always emphasizes the five 
built-in programs, including the editmg program. Text; the 
scheduler program, Schedl; and the address orgaiiizer, Addrss. 

Schedl and Addrss consist of nothing but the search and 
find parts of Text, with the rest of the text modification capa- 
bilities turned off so you can't accidentally clobber any of 
your address or schedule information. This is OK, but it's 
more like one and a half programs than three. 

In addition, Addrss only operates on the ADRS.DO file, 
and Schedl can only operate on the NOTE. DO file. This is 
quite inconsistent. 

Next time around, Tandy should combine Schedl and Ad- 



' Program CRLFIX VI . 830827 

10 ON KEY GOSUB 20,30:KEY ON 

12 CLS:PRINT@130,"PCSG Line Feed Patch"; :P 

RINT@281,"On Off"; 

14 GOTO 14 

15 DATA 245,58,172,250,254,13,194,48,245,6 
2,10,50,17 2,25 0,241,201 

20 CLEAR 256,62700:FOR 11=62754 TO 62769: 
READ A:POKE I!,A:NEXT 

25 POKE 64228,34 :POKE 64229,245: MENU 
30 POKE 64228, 243:POKE 64229,127: MENU 

Program Listing I. Patch to insert a linefeed after a carriage return. 



80 Micro, January 1984 • 181 



RAM FILES 



drss into a single program that operates on any Model 100 file. 
You can then keep and search multiple lists of data, addresses, 
jobs, and so on. 

A.E. Siegman 

Edward L. Ginzton Laboratory 

Stanford University 

Stanford, CA 94315 



The best change is to put Avg in addition to Turns and High 
at the top of the screen. Add G = G+1 to line 40, 
TT = TT + N to line 200 (before CLS), and add AV = TT/G. 

I'm looking forward to the expansion of C»Notes. 

David Dunn Thomas 

2308 Chetwood Circle ffl03 

Timonium, MD 21093 



Bar Graph Program 

I am looking for a bar graph program for the Model 100 
that either produces printable data from the program from 
"The Year in Review" (August 1983, p. 207) or from another 
program containing a hard copy print routine. 

The program must work on my A.M.P. 120 printer. 

T. Hardy McCoy 
7718 D.S. Victor 
Tulsa, OK 74136 

Cram Notes 

Brad Dixon's Cram 100 program (October 1983, p. 283) is a 
barrel of fun. 

He mentions sound capabilities, so I changed lines 100 and 
130 to values other than 2216 for variety. In line 200 I put 
SOUND0,2: between BEEP: and NEXT. 



Worksheet 1 00" - A Spreadsheet' 
Program for the TRS-80"''' 
Model 100 Portable Computer 

The "Worksheet 100" works with spreadsheets of up to 16 
columns by 40 rows wilh 24K of RAM or up to 16 columns by 60 
rows with 32K Eight main functions using the programmable 
function keys plus three entry modes provide large spreadsheet 
convenience. The "Goto" function, doubling as a "search 
function", will speedily move the. marker to any cell given 
coordinates, column and row labels or cell contents. Full arith- 
metic operators plus summation, averaging, maximum and 
minimum functions are provided 

Worksheets can be saved or loaded using RAM or cassette A 
very useful group ol worksheet templates (with formulas) is 
provided ready to load These are "Expense Report", "Sales 
Report' . "Service Report", "Weekly Schedule", 'Personal Tax 
Worksheet", and "Personal Finances I and 11" 

The "Worksheet 100" and the seven ready to use templates are 
supplied on a single cassette and require 24K RAM 

The "Worksheet 100" and seven useful templates— for 
only $89.95 

Mail ihi^ ordt?r Slip to Disz Enterprises 
P.O. Box 4609 
Mountain View, CA 94040 

n Please send me the "Worksheet 100" and 7 useful templates lor $S9.95 

Payment Enclosed MasterCard Visa Amex 

Card # Signature . 

Name „_^ 



Postage and nandling included witliin the USA snd Canada Caiifor 
residents should add 6 5% sales tax ,„„ 

■'•'TRS-eO IS a trademark ot Tandy Corporation 



Screen RAM Location 

While stepping through the Model lOO's RAM (24K), 1 
found that the screen RAM is located at 65024 to 65343, inclu- 
sive, for a total of 320 bytes. 

While I can't POKE characters on the screen, 1 can PEEK 
them. Even stranger, the information POKEd to the screen is 
in RAM, but Is not on the screen! I have displayed the key- 
board matrix setup in Table 2. 

I use Program Listing 2 to PEEK about in RAM. The com- 
mands are: 

• CTRL to enter a new address. 

• SHIFT to add one to the address. 

• GRPH to subtract one from the address. 

The program displays both the decimal value and the ASCII 
value if it is printable. The best feature of this program is that 
it constantly updates information on the screen. 

I hope the readers of SO Micro can make use of this infor- 
mation. 

Joseph Gaudreau 

314 E. Main St. 

Malone, NY 12953 









Value found when PEEKing matrix: 




Addre^ 


1 


2 


4 


8 


16 


32 


64 


128 


65425 


Z 


X 


C 


V 


B 


N 


M 


L 


65426 


A 


s 


D 


h 


G 


H 


J 


K 


65427 


Q 


w 


E 


R 


r 


Y 


U 


I 


65428 





p 


BRAKT 


:; 


" ' 


<, 


>, 


?/ 


65429 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


65430 


9 





_ 


+ = 


LA 


RA 


UA 


DA 


65431 


SPC 


DEL 


TAB 


ESC 


PASTE 


LABEL PRINT 


ENTER 


65432 


Fl 


F2 


r3 


F4 


F5 


F6 


n 


FR 


65433 


SHIFT 


CTRL 


GRPH 


CODE 


NUM 


CAPS 


Tim 


BREAK 




Table 2. Keyboard matrix setup for the Model J(X). 





100 ' "RAHER.BA" - A RAH SCANNER 

110 PRINT:PRINT:INPUT"Statt @;A:CLS 

120 PRINT@,A; :FORP=0TO6 

130 PRINT@+4*P,PEEK{A+P) ;" "; 

150 IFPEEK(A+P) >32THEN PRINT @9+4*P,CHR$ ( PEEK (A+P) ) 

ELSE PRINT @9+4*P," "; 

16 NEXT 

170 C=PEEK(65433) :IFC=0THEN120 

180 IFC=1THENA=A+1 

190 IFC=2THEN110 

200 IFC=4THENA=A-1 

500 GOTO 120 



Program Listing 2. RAM screen POKE for the Mode! 100, 



182 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



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• 45 day historical graph showing HIGH. LOW, 
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The cost of Ihe daily service, this soft- 
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Send check, money order or VISA/MC 
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cattle *TRS-80 IS a trademark ot the Tandy Corporation 



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The GOLD FtlE 80 extends the existirg 
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.^ See List of AOverlisers on Page 227 



80 Micro, January 1984 • 183 



NEWS 



edited by Eric Grevstad 




NEW 

J"HI- 
MONTH 



From House to school 




Micros in class: will Congress foot the bill? 



Even before Rep. Pete Stark pre- 
sented his "Apple bill" to Congress 
in 1982 (see 80 Micro, May 1983, p. 
340), micros were pouring into Ameri- 
ca's schools. Now seven other propos- 
als, including one from Radio Shack 
sponsored by House Majority Leader 
Jim Wright, have increased the pressure 
to make computers a classroom pre- 
requisite. 

Stark's original bill, which would 
have encouraged computer makers to 
donate micros to schools and take the 
machines' value as a tax write-off, 
passed the House last year by a 323-62 
vote. It stalled in the Senate, amid 
charges it was mainly a boost for Ap- 
ple^which was poised to contribute 
$200 million worth of He's, reaping not 
only the tax break but an enormous 
market among school officials buying 
replacements and parents buying com- 
puters to use at home. 

The California Democrat has rein- 
troduced the "Apple bill," essentially 
unchanged, as H.R. 701 in the current 
session . In the meantime, however. 
Majority Leader Wright has introduced 
H.R. 2417— which might, considering 
its technical specifications and Wright's 
Texas constituency, be described as 
"the Tandy bill." 

While its overall concept is similar to 
Stark's, H.R. 2417 has several vital dif- 
ferences. One requires that dealers give 
teachers eight hours of training on do- 
nated equipment, this training to take 
place within "the immediate vicinity of 
the panicipating teacher's school." 
While mileage has not been specified, 
the training requirement favors Radio 
Shack, whose 6,500-plus outlets far out- 
number Apple or other brands' dealers. 

184 • 80 Micro, January 1984 




TRSDOS to go: Tandy's new transportable. 



The Model 4P 

The Model III mode's on a disk in- 
stead of in ROM, but the slogan is 
terrific: Radio Shack's TRS-80 Model 
4P, "a microcomputer worth carry- 
ing about," reached dealers on Nov. 
15. The transportable version of the 
64K Model 4 weighs 26 pounds and 
costs $1,799. 

The 4P's white case contains a 
9-inch screen, two slimline 184K disk 
drives, and a detachable keyboard 
{with all 70 Model 4 keys, including 
Control, Caps Lock, and three func- 
tion keys). Like its deskbound cous- 
in, the 4P offers both a 64-column 
Model III mode and an 80-column 
by 24-line display for TRSDOS 6.0 



programs, as well as compatibility 
with Tandy's long-delayed CP/M 
Plus. 

Memory is expandable to 128K, A 
$149.95 modem board offers direct- 
connect 300-baud communications; 
Radio Shack describes the board as 
"user installable," which — consider- 
ing Tandy's famous void-warranty 
warning against opening a TRS-80' s 
case — is as revolutionary a develop- 
ment as the 4P itself. 

The transportable 's $1,799 price is 
$200 under the 12-inch-screened 
Model 4's; with the demise of the Os- 
borne 1, the 4P's closest competitor 
seems to be another 64K Z80 suit- 
case, the Kaypro II. The Kaypro cur- 
rently sells for $1,595, with 10 CP/M 
applications programs included. ■ 



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BOSS / RENUM90 . . , Best operated single stepper. This machine language BASIC program 
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On tape or disk, BOSS / RENUM90 for $24.95 or BOSS only $15.95 



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SOMicro, January 1984 • 185 



NEWS 



Wright's bill also outlines hardware 
standards, recommending a system with 
two 184K disk drives. To skeptics, this 
translates as "a TRS-80 Model 4"; the 
system Apple has been giving to Cali- 
fornia schools includes one 140K drive. 

Finally, Wright appeals to legislators' 
thrift: Apple's plan lets manufacturers 
write off 200 percent of the hardware's 
"basis cost" (a bit more than produc- 
tion cost), while Tandy would settle for 
125 percent and throw in software equal 
to 10 percent of the machines' value. 

Naturally, the two manufacturers 
disagree on the bills' pros and cons. 
Stephen Scheier, director of Apple's 
Kids Can't Wait program (now distrib- 
uting micros to California schools), told 
InfoWorl(fs Scott Mace that the Radio 
Shack bill "would limit the number of 
computers we or other manufacturers 
can offer." 

Tandy's director of corporate plan- 
ning, George Kuhnreich, countered by 
criticizing Apple's lack of training re- 
quirements: "You can't just dump the 
CPU on someone's desk." 

Both the Stark and Wright proposals 
are currently stalled in committee. 

A FuU House 

Meanwhile, six other computer bills 
are now crowding Capitol Hill. Rep. 
Tim Wirth (D-Colorado) would let 
schools choose their micros as indepen- 
dent shoppers rather than giveaway re- 
cipients, with government subsidies for 
purchase of systems, software, and pe- 
ripherals. Wirth also advocates training 
facilities similar to those created by the 
Defense Education Act after the USSR 
launched Sputnik in 1957. 

His bill, H.R. 3750, attracted 40 co- 
sponsors in its debut before the Labor 
Day recess, despite an estimated cost of 
up to $200 million for each of 10 years. 

Rep. Tom Downey (D-New York) 
has introduced legislation to create 
computer education and information 
centers, which would provide some 
software in addition to teacher training 
and demonstration facilities. 

Finally, Mace writes. Rep. Brian Don- 
nelly (D-Massachusetts) grants the same 
200 percent deduction as Stark, but his 
bill requires companies to make 75 per- 
cent of their donations to "schools with 
students whose parents' incomes are be- 
low the national median." 

In the Senate, John Danforth's S. 

186 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



1194, written by the American Elec- 
tronics Association, has attracted en- 
dorsements from the National Associa- 
tion of Secondary School Principals 
and the National Committee on Indus- 
trial Innovation. The Missouri Demo- 
crat's bill, which would cost some $300 
million, encourages teacher training 
and educational research and develop- 
ment, as well as supplying tax breaks 
for the donation of hardware and soft- 
ware. 

Sen. Lloyd Bentsen (D-Texas) has 
introduced a similar bill. Along with 
his Apple proposal, Stark has put a 



HARDWARE 



bill identical to Danforth's before the 
House. 

Though S. 1 194 has strong support in 
the Senate, as do Stark, Wright, and 
Wirth in the House, no single plan 
seems likely to break out of committee 
before the others. With legislators torn 
between election-year economy and ris- 
ing demand for better education, an al- 
liance between schools, micro manufac- 
turers, and the federal goverament^an 
idea reportedly bom in early 1982, 
when Stark met Apple Chairman Steve 
Jobs on a cross-country plane trip — 
may be ready to graduate. ■ 



Remember PMC? 



From Model I clones to CP/M boxes. 



With the IBM PC inspiring a dozen 
imitators and the Apple/Franklin 
copyright lawsuit making headlines (see 
80 Micro, December 1983, p. 258), it's 
easy to forget that the first microcom- 
puter work-alike was based on Radio 
Shack's trusty Model I. Today, Person- 
al Micro Computers Inc. is phasing out 
its Tandy twin in favor of an 8-pound 
box that gives CP/M power to main- 
frame terminals — and PMC's presi- 
dent is optimistic that the corporate 
market will bring better sales than did 
their TRS-80 copies. 

"We're pioneers in the clone field," 
President Ron Troxell told 80 Micro. 
Originally a vendor of printers and pe- 
ripherals, the Mountain View, CA, firm 
made its systems debut in 1980 with the 
$495 PMC-80, a beige-cased micro with 
16K RAM, Level II Basic in ROM, 
CRT interface, and built-in high-speed 
cassette deck. 

A year later, the PMC-81 appeared: 
the same machine, with upper- and low- 
ercase standard and a numeric keypad 
replacing the tape deck, for $595. Users 
could upgrade both machines to 48K 
with a PMC expansion interface, and 
run all Model I software. 

PMC sold its micros through mail 
order and a small group of about 60 
dealers. They didn't sell very many. 
Datapro Research Corp. of Delran, NJ, 
estimates that 35,000 of the Model 1 
compatibles are in operation; Troxell, 
while claiming "that's probably low," 



won't give an official figure. 

Is PMC stiU making 80s and 81s? As 
of September 13, Troxell indicated the 
work-alikes aren't long for this world: 
"Yes, we are [selling them]. We've also 
introduced a new computer which will 
take the place of that product." 

That may be a little misleading; the 
new PMC-101 MicroMate is not a per- 
sonal computer, but a Z80A-based unit 
with 128K RAM, one 400K disk drive, 
RS-232 and Centronics ports, and no 
monitor or keyboard. It operates with 
any asynchronous terminal, turning a 
mainframe outlet into a workstation for 
CP/M Plus software. 

"We have targeted the market very 
accurately on this product to the installed 
terminal base existent in large corpora- 
tions and government agencies, where 
these agencies are looking to add local 
computing power to their existing main- 
frame operations," Troxell said. 

"They can switch between dumb ter- 
minal operation and intelligent work- 
station operarion, where they can do 
local word processing and spreadsheet, 
things like that, or any other CP/M 
program off-line from the mainframe, 
and also upload information to and 
from the mainframe. 

"There's also a very strong OEM 
market for this particular product be- 
cause it's nice packaging," he con- 
tinued. "It's a simple little thing that 
provides a lot of computing power at a 
smaU price [$1,195]." 



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NEWS 




The old: PMC's EPS-80 word processor. 



Considering that corporations are 
rushing to complete office automation 
systems from makers like IBM and 
DEC — and that demand today is for 
16-bit rather than 8-bit machines — the 
MicroMate might be considered an un- 
derdog. Nevertheless, Troxell antici- 
pates success when his distributors' 
salespeople call on data processing 
managers. 

"[The MicroMate] doesn't compete 
with [the big firms' products] at ail," he 
said. "It really augments the systems 
that they're providing." 

As for software, Troxell sees CP/M 
Plus (Digital Research's 3.0 version) 
and the PMC-lOl's price as offsetting 
any 16-bit advantages. "We were the 
first people on the market with a CP/M 
Plus system delivered," he claimed. 
"We've been very happy with it. It's a 
good [operating] system. 

"The wealth of software that's avail- 
able on CP/M right now makes this ap- 
188 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



proach very reasonable, and something 
that other CP/M companies have by- 
passed. Nearly every other CP/M ma- 
chine on the market is sold with a termi- 
nal and keyboard. So there's a huge 
market, my gosh, there're six million 
terminals out there." 

As for the PMC-80 and -81, Troxell 
reassures owners, "We'll continue to 
support the product, provide service 
and so forth, here. And we're stiU in- 
volved in selling peripherals, printers, 



'We're pioneers in 
the done field." 



disk drives, that sort of thing." In addi- 
tion, PMC's EPS-80 word processor, a 
48K model with both Basic and Electric 
Pencil in ROM, will be sold at least a 
while longer at $795. 

Looking to the future, TroxeU said, 
"We're in very good shape. The Micro- 
Mate's going to make a very significant 
impact on PMC sales; as the Micro- 
Mate picks up we'll probably phase the 
others out completely as we expect the 
MicroMate to be a very good seller." 

Beyond that? "All I can say is that 
the logical direction for everybody is to- 
ward 16-bit systems, but it's not practi- 
cal for us at this time." ■ 

—E.G. 




The new: PMC's MicroMate for CP/M. 



NEWS 



UPDATE 



The Model I: Staying alive 

Vendors vow continued support. 



Nothing lasts forever, and three 
years is forever in the computer in- 
dustry. Nevertheless, the TRS-80 Model 
I — the first mass-marketed persona! 
computer — is hanging in there nearly 
seven years after its introduction, defy- 
ing both old age and its replacement by 
newer Radio Shack micros. Perhaps 
250,000 of the 300,000 Model I's sold 
are still in service — and, judging from 
an unofficial survey, some vendors 
think the 1 will survive for some time to 
come. 

The survey, conducted by question- 
naire to 69 TRS-80 hardware and soft- 
ware manufacturers and distributors, 
yielded 18 opinions of the Model I mar- 
ketplace. A solid majority of respon- 
dents described the I as "still viable" for 
hardware and software sales {57 and 73 
percent respectively), and a quarter of 
them said their business had increased 
in the past year. 

Among hardware vendors, 28 per- 
cent said the Model I market was up, 43 
percent said it was unchanged, and 28 
percent admitted business was down. 
Model I software seems less popular, 
with figures of 27 percent (up), 27 per- 
cent (unchanged), and 36 percent 
(down). 

The Model I has always attracted 
hardware buyers, since it's a system de- 
signed to be upgraded. Many of today's 
vendors began as frustrated hackers sell- 
ing their own solutions to Model I prob- 
lems — clock speed-up kits, disk storage 
doublers, gold-plated replacements for 
unreliable cormectors, and so on. 

When the Model III appeared m 
1980, fixing many of the I's limitations 
but lacking complete compatibility, Ra- 
dio Shack's move forward — plus the I's 
expandable, modular design — opened 
the door to outside initiative. In a sense, 
Tandy taught the Model I to fly by 
pushing it out of the nest. 

Is it still flying? Questionnaire re- 
sponses fell roughly into three catego- 
ries, describing the Model I in negative, 
neutral, and positive terms — or, to pick 




Swaim: New life for "a dead horse." 



distinctive adjectives, obsolete, ade- 
quate, and wonderful. 

On the negative side, George Blank 
of New Classics Software said, "[The 
Model I] is unreliable and getting more 
so as time goes on." In addition to "not 
reliable," Eugene Shklyar of XYZT 
Computer Dimensions Inc. mentioned 
"slow processor," "limited memory," 
and "not produced any more," and 
Arlene Schaffer of Taranto & Associ- 
ates Inc. said, "Too many problems, 
too slow, not enough capacity." 

On the other hand. Logical Systems 
Inc.'s J. Kyle DiPietropaolo pointed 
out, "The fact that new computers exist 
doesn't make Ithe Model I] any less use- 
ful for doing the things it is capable of." 
Several vendors echoed John Monin of 
Alpha Products Co., who said the I 
"does the basic job once the bugs are 
fixed." 

And some are loyal fans, who see the 
Model I as a workhorse that still works 
for technically astute or upgrade-con- 
scious owners. George Geczy of JMG 
Software International wrote, "Com- 
pared to my Model I, the Apple He is 
not so hot." United Software Asso- 
ciates' John Burgan added, "My Model 
I does everything my Model III can 
three times faster [with a speedup 
mod]." 



Rather than comparing the 1 to 
younger machines, Theresa Welsh of Al- 
phaBit Communications Inc. summed 
up TRS-80 pioneers' situation pragmati- 
cally: "Our customers like it. Their only 
worry is lack of service, parts, and soft- 
ware. People will keep their Model I's as 
long as there's support for it." 

As for that, the prospects aren't all 
bad. Fifty-seven percent of the hard- 
ware vendors claimed their firms had 
new Model I products coming, as did 55 
percent of software respondents. 

To companies not already involved, 
LNW Research Corp.'s Jim Swaim ad- 
mitted that the Model 1 has "basically 
been abandoned in the marketplace. It's 
simply a dead horse." For current sup- 
porters, though, "the Model I can be- 
come a very viable marketing area for 
someone with a product that makes 
sense, at a price the user can live with." 

Besides, Swaim added, "The mental- 
ity of people who own Model i's is su- 
perior from an electronics standpoint, 
and of course their dedication to the 
machine is almost legendary." Age may 
not count for much in the computer in- 
dustry, but 250,000 owners pack some 
clout. ■ 



^Vester Scott 

80 Micro, January 1984 • 189 



PULSETRAIN-rLrULTLr 



Apple sings 
the blues? 

No one expects Apple 
Computer Inc. to go the way 
of Atari, Tl, or Mattel, but 
there are some clouds over 
Cupertino, CA. Apple stock 
fell from last June's high 
of $62 to $24.25 a share by 
late September, and fourth- 
quarter profits were expect- 
ed to total $5 million to $8 
million, compared to $18.7 
million a year ago. Still 
worse, some industry ana- 
lysts predict that up to 600 
Apple employees might be 
laid off by Christmas. 

The trouble, to put it brief- 
ly, was that the He and III 
were getting old, the Mcin- 
tosh was still in the wings, 
and the Lisa was too expen- 
sive. Despite rave reviews for 
its integrated software, Ap- 
ple's $10,000 flagship has 
been trounced by the IBM 
PC in corporate sales— and 
industry analysts like Charles 
Newton of Newton-Evans 
Research Co. fear Apple has 
"too many eggs in its Lisa 
basket." 

One corporate move, 
though it scared Wall Street 
(sending Apple stock down 
eight points), made sense: a 
cut in Lisa prices, bringing 
the system to $8,190. Apple 
also began selling an "empty" 
Lisa for $6,995, offering its 
six programs (LisaWrite, 
Calc, Graph, Project, Draw, 
and List) individually or as a 
$1,195 set. 

As Info World reported, 
this made it possible to buy a 
Lisa package for less than an 
IBM PC XT with Vision 
software. (The XT has 10 
megabytes of hard disk 
storage to Lisa's five, but 
Lisa has 1 megabyte of RAM 
versus the IBM's 256K.) 

Even so, buyers are hesi- 
tating to spend the money for 

190 • 80 Micro, January 1984 




Lisa: Low in sales appeal. 



Lisa, especially since rumors 
ever since its January 1983 in- 
troduction have promised a 
similar Apple at a fraction of 
the cost. The Mcintosh, first 
described as a $3,000 PC 
competitor, is now supposed- 
ly a $1,200 rival to IBM's 
Peanut. January is expected 
to bring a Lisa-like upgrade 
for the Apple He, perhaps 
reviving sales of the antique 
machine. 

And there are various ru- 
mors about the fate of the 
Apple HI: disappearance (as 
Apple concentrates on the 
He, Mcintosh, and Lisa for 
the low-, middle-, and high- 
end markets), a comeback 
sparked by a new business 
unit in Cupertino, or any- 
thing in between. 

Most of all, Apple finds it- 
self (in Computerworld' s, 
phrase) ''swimming in a Big 
Blue sea." A crucial part of 
Lisa's quest for corporate ac- 
ceptance, the ability to link 
with IBM mainframes, was 
postponed when a widely re- 
ported deal with Cullinet 
Software Inc. collapsed, and 
the harsh realities of the soft- 
ware world have brought 
about the specter of Lisa 
owners junking their inte- 
grated programs and running 
MS-DOS with an 8086 card. 

Marc Rudov of Venture 



Development Corp., Welles- 
ley, MA, and other analysts 
say that Apple, like Osborne, 
created a market and then 
fell behind its changes. As 
CWs Patricia Keefe reports, 
"Rudov recommended Ap- 
ple abandon its 'No. 1 strate- 
gy' and start thinking of itself 
as 'No. 2.' " 

Modem 

technology 

patented 

For most of 1983, industry 
watchers were saying that 
1984 would be the year of the 
$50 smart modem — -that low- 
er prices would spark the 
same boom in telecommuni- 
cations that cheaper micros 
have brought to home com- 
puting. Now it looks like just 
the opposite may occur: A 
Sunnyvale, CA, firm has pa- 
tented the technology used in 
many modems. If its claim is 
upheld, the company can 
command licensing fees from 
manufacturers, thereby driv- 
ing retail prices up. 

Michael Eaton, president 
of Bizcomp, told InfoWorld 
that he thought of the intelli- 
gent modem, which automat- 
ically switches between com- 
mand and data status, in 



1978. Bizcomp began selling 
a unit in March 1980, 14 
months before Hayes Micro- 
computer Products intro- 
duced its popular Smart- 
modem. 

Besides the Hayes unit, 
}Ws John Markoff reports, 
"virtually ail currently mar- 
keted personal computer mo- 
dems that link to the serial in- 
terface," as opposed to being 
bit-mapped directly to a bus, 
use Bizcomp's switching 
technique. 

As a result, though the ex- 
act amount is a secret, Hayes 
"has signed a multinullion- 
dollar licensing agreement" 
for the use of "technolo- 
gies. . .defined in the Biz- 
comp patent." And Bizcomp 
intends to sign up other man- 
ufacturers. 

"It's not our intent to drive 
anyone out of business," Ea- 
ton said. "[However,] we ex- 
pect a lot of reaction [from 
modem makers] when they 
realize their product line is 
subject to licensing." 

As for reaction from buy- 
ers, Eaton admits, "Costs 
will go up because of royalty 
payments to us." Kenneth 
Bosomworth , president of 
International Resource De- 
velopment Corp. of Nor- 
walk, CT, calculated that 
Smartmodem prices would 
rise 3 to 5 percent. 

Others disagree. Bert 
Weiss, national sales man- 
ager for Anchor Automa- 
tion, predicted Bizcomp 
would have trouble enforcing 
its patent: "It's tough to pa- 
tent a smart modem. I don't 
think we're using anyone 
else's designs." 

Bizcomp Marketing Du-ec- 
tor Bruce Miller, on the other 
hand, told Markoff that the 
company would pursue pa- 
tent users: "If we are chal- 
lenged, it's safe to say we'll 
take them to court." 

Few expect the patent to 



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80 Micro, January 1984 • 191 



PULSETRAIN-TLnJUU 



make Bizcomp a household 
word. Hayes and Novation, 
according to Dan Foley of 
Dataquest in Cupertino, CA, 
control 70 percent of the 
personal computer modem 
market. 

Nevertheless, Foley said, 
"I think the agreement is 
significant in the sense that it 
will provide Bizcomp with a 
great deal of capital." With 
the power of the patent, one 
of the Network Nation's ma- 
jor players may be behind the 
scenes. 

The silicon 
college 

Education via correspon- 
dence courses has been 
around almost as long as the 
mailbox, but the "electronic 
university" is an idea whose 
time has come. According to 
Ron Gordon, former chief 
executive officer of Atari 
Inc., his new venture, Tele- 
Learning Systems Inc., will 
soon link as many as 5,000 
teachers, half a million stu- 
dents, and micros in homes 
and offices across the U.S. 

The San Francisco com- 
pany plans to offer a 24-hour 
network giving students 170 
courses, with hundreds more 
planned by late 1984. Its 
"knowledge module," a 
300-baud modem , transfers 



lectures, questions, answers, 
and homework assignments 
and exams, as well as giving 
students a high-resolution 
image of the professor on the 
other end of the wire. 

The modem, the only way 
to access TeleLearning's net- 
work, is available for disk- 
equipped Apple lis and IBM 
PCs ($229.95) and Commo- 
dore 64s ($129.95), with Ra- 
dio Shack and Atari versions 
on the way. Tuition is $35 to 
$250 per course, for lessons 
ranging from college prep 
work to accounting and law. 

TeleLearning's two selling 
points are ease of use — its 
software automatically han- 
dles log-on sequences and 
other protocols and verifies 
data transmission in both di- 
rections — and impressive ac- 
ademic credentials. Gordon 
promises that the American 
Medical Association plans to 
offer at least 100 courses, and 
"world-famous instructors" 
will be among those estab- 
lishing on-line office hours in 
other subjects. 

By "breaking down the 
barriers of time and dis- 
tance," Gordon told Cotn- 
pulerworld, his project will 
"bring education to millions 
and millions of people who are 
unable to have an educa- 
tion." In addition, TeleLearn- 
ing is offering its software 
to corporations or existing 



schools interested in set- 
ting up tutoring systems of 
their own. 

The Reagan Administra- 
tion Hkes the idea. U.S. 
Secretary of Education T.H. 
Bell attended TeleLearning's 
initial press conference in 
Washington, along with 
James Coyne, head of the 
White House Office of Pri- 
vate Sector Initiatives. 

Said Coyne, "This is like 
the first day of school for a 
whole generation of Ameri- 
cans. It's a wonderful new 
beginning, and we at the 
White House wish it well and 
look forward to providing it 
with assistance." 

Osborne U.K. 
to press on 

Osborne Computer Corp. 
has filed for bankruptcy in 
California, but the micro 
may yet survive in Adam Os- 
borne's native England. Ac- 
cording to MicroScope, 
Osborne U.K. Managing Di- 
rector Mike Mealy hopes to 
set up production of the new 
Executive transportable and 
introduce the low-end Os- 
borne that never made it to 
America. 

"We have always traded 
on an arms-length basis with 
the U.S. manufacturer, and 
have always paid our way," 



Healy told the British bi- 
weekly. "We can get supplies 
of the [Executive], and we 
can continue trading." 

While competition from 
Compaq and Kaypro is less 
severe in Britain and Aus- 
tralia, Healy admitted that 
"credibility is the problem" in 
keeping afloat as buyers watch 
his parent firm coUapse. 

"We have to take steps to 
protect our customers," he 
said. "In principle, we could 
have a 'Made in Britain' label 
on by February, and I think 
the Executive and the IBM- 
compatible Executive are 
competitive." 

In addition, MicroScope 
says, Healy plans to sell the 
Vixen, the smaller, lighter 
replacement for the Osborne 
1 that was rumored but never 
reached the U.S. market. 

As for Adam Osborne, MS 
reports that the company 
founder was using idle post- 
bankruptcy hours to finish a 
novel, when not pointing out 
that his work with the Hay- 
ward, CA, firm had been pri- 
marily ceremonial since Rob- 
ert Jaunich became president 
in January 1983. 

Osborne has also been ap- 
proached by science fiction 
writer and Byle columnist 
Jerry Poumelle, who's re- 
portedly interested in writing 
a novel about the company's 
rise and fall. ■ 



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192 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



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80 Micro, January 1984 • 193 



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Comdex fever 

• For some time, people have been saying that the bian- 
nual COMDEX shows are getting too big. The expos' spon- 
sor, The Interface Group, has re- 
sponded with more and bigger Com- 
dexes: a third show on the West 
Coast, to be held each winter, will 
join the spring and fall events in 
1984. Meanwhile, the Needham, 

MA, group has joined with the producers of the Consumer 
Electronics Show to finance a 120,000-square-foot addition 
to the Las Vegas Convention Center. 

• The ADAM chronicles continue. In October, with 
FCC approval in hand and the $600 system about to make its 
delayed debut, Coleco Industries execs were hit with a law- 
suit from stockholders, claiming stock manipulation^sell- 
ing shares in June, when Adam's announcement sent Coleco 
soaring, while concealing the real or rumored technical de- 
fects that surfaced later. 

• Remember CadiUac's short-lived V-8-6-4 ENGINE, 
that ran on more or fewer cylinders depending on power de- 
mand? The latest trend in computing is multiple-personality 
micros. The Seequa Chameleon and Lanier's new Business 
Processor 1000 each have both Z80 and 8088 processors to 
run 8-bit CP/M and 16-bit MS-DOS software, and Micro 
Craft Corp.'s 8-, 16-, and 32-bit Dimension supports its own 
68000 CPU and plug-in 280, 8086, and 6502 cards. 

• Half a dozen colleges assigned micros to incoming 
FRESHMEN last fall; Dallas Baptist College is the first to 
hand out Model 100s for in-class use. Each of DBC's 500 
campus newcomers paid a computer-use fee of $150 to $300 
to pick up a portable. After paying for four semesters, stu- 
dents will own their 100s, or can apply the fees toward pur- 
chase of a larger computer. 

• In addition to challengmg AT&T in long distance 
phone service, MCI Communications Corp. is moving into 
VIDEOTEX: For $1, an MCI Mail subscriber with a micro 
and modem can call a local number and send a 7,500-charac- 
ter message to another subscriber anywhere in the U.S. If 
you're writing to someone who isn't on line, MCI will deliver 
a printout via the U.S. Postal Service for $2 or Purolator 
Corp. for $6. 

• The forecasters at International Resource Develop- 
ment Inc. have given a morning line on the DOS WARS: 
CP/M-80, they say, will go from running on 58 percent of 
1983's micros to 54 percent of 1986's, while MS-DOS' per- 
centage climbs from 29 to 50 and Unix's from 2 to 10. Ap- 
pleDOS will decline from 24 percent to 10 percent, and the 
big winners will be Smalltalk- or Lisa-style systems, with 
percent today but 30 percent in 1986. 

• Making the government-endorsed BBC micro has giv- 
en ACORN 80 percent of the British educational market. 
The firm has launched a $3 million ad campaign m hopes of 
placing its 64K, 6502-based machine in U.S. schools, but its 
chances seem dim: an Acorn costs $995 with no monitor or 
disk drives. 

• Speaking of dim, Acorn has proudly announced a new 
line of NON-SEXIST software, rightly declaring, "Britain is 
in danger of losing half its talent if girls don't acquire vital 
computer skills" and planning software that is "more rele- 
vant and useful to women." The first feminist release? A 
gardening program. ■ 



194 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



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196 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



PROJECT BD 



by Roger C. Alford 



Project 80, a regular column devoted 
to hardware projects, premieres in this 
issue. This month Roger Alford de- 
scribes how to build a communications 
interface for your Model I or III. 

—Eds. 



The ability to communicate with other 
computer systems and devices makes 
today's computers versatile. By using a 
standard interface on a TRS-80, for ex- 
ample, you can communicate with a 
mainframe computer system, transfer 
messages and files to and from other per- 
sonal computers, send data to a printer, 
and control ongoing processes. 

It's surprisingly simple and inex- 
pensive to make such an interface us- 
ing very large scale integration (VLSI) 
technology. 

A variety of standard communica- 
tions interfaces defme the physical links 
whereby computers and other devices 
communicate. Included among these 
are: IEEE-488 (general purpose interface 
bus, or GPIB), RS-232C, RS-422, and 
the Hewlett-Packard interface loop 




Hardware 

that 

communicates 



(HPIL) interfaces. To help complicate 
things, several standard communications 
protocols define the format of the com- 
municated data, including asynchro- 
nous, binary synchronous (BISYNQ, 
synchronous data link control (SDLQ, 
and higher data link control (HDLC) 
protocols, among others. After carefully 
observing the computer industry — not 
only the communications aspect—Fve 
concluded that there are too many stan- 



nB-25 Pin # 


Mnemonic 


Description 


1 


AA 


Proleclive ground 


2 


BA 


Transmitted data 


3 


BB 


Received data 


4 


CA 


Request to send 


5 


CB 


Clear to send 


6 


CC 


Data set ready 


7 


AB 


Signal ground 


8 


CF 


Received line signal detector 


9 


— 


Reserved 


10 


— 


Reserved 


n , 


— 


Un assigned 


12 


SCF 


Sec. received line signal detector 


13 


see 


Sec. clear to send 


14 


SBA 


Sec. transmitted data 


15 


DB 


Transmitted signal element liming (DCE) 


16 


SHE 


Sec. received data 


17 


DD 


Receiver signal element timing (DCE) 


18 


— 


Unassigned 


19 


SCA 


Sec. request to send 


20 


CD 


Data terminal ready 


21 


CG 


Signal quality detector 


22 


CE 


Ring indicator 


23 


CH/CI 


Data signal rate selector 


24 


DA 


Transmitted signal element timing (DTE) 


25 


— 


Unassigned 



Table I. RS-232C connector pin/function breakdown. 



dards, and too few "standard" stan- 
dards. 

For this project, I've chosen the popu- 
lar RS-232C interface with the asynchro- 
nous protocol. The board I'll discuss 
contains two RS~232C ports with hand- 
shaking and individual baud rate selec- 
tion, three input switches, three LEDs 
for output, a beeper and a 16-bit count- 
er/timer. You can use the interface with 
a 16K Model 1 or III. The Program List- 
ing lets you use the computer as a termi- 
nal with the RS-232C board. 

RS-232C Principles 

The RS'232C interface standard speci- 
fies a logical high in the - 3V to - 25V 
voltage range, and a logical low in the 
-I-3V to -I- 25V range. Generally, devices 
using this interface use a DB-25 connec- 
tor, either male (DB-25P) or female 
(DB-25S), for the physical interface. I've 
sp>ecified most of the pins on the DB-25 
m the RS-232C standard (see Table 1), 
though in general they aren't all used in 
any given application. In fact in many, if 
not most, applications, you use only the 
ground, transmit, receive, and possibly a 
handshaking line (for example, clear to 
send/request to send). 

Asynchronous Protocol Operation 

Asynchronous communication, prob- 
ably the most popular low-speed proto- 
col, is quite simple in principle. While 
asynchronous communication is gener- 
ally limited to a maximum rate of 
19,2(X) baud (bits per second), the 
board I'll describe allows up to 38.4K 
baud. 

Figure 1 shows the operation of the 
asynchronous protocol. Normally, when 
the computer isn't transmitting char- 
acters, the communication line is at a 
lo^cal high state. When transmitting, 
the computer adds a start bit to the 
beginning of the character. The high- 
to-low transition that results mdicates 
to the receiving device that a character 
is on the way. 

The receiving device must have a 
clock available with a frequency that is 
an even multiple of the receive data's 
transmit rate. Typically, a frequency of 
16 times (16X) the transmit rate is used. 
For example, if the incoming data is be- 
mg sent at 3(X) baud, the receiving de- 
vice will have a 4,800 Hz (300 tunes 16) 
clock available. For the remainder of 

80 Micro, January 1984 • 197 



PROJECT BO 



PARITY STOP 



Figure 1. Asynchronous communicatton pro- 
tocol format. 



this discussion I'll assume a 16X clock 
frequency. 

After the high-to-low transition from 
the incoming start bit, the receiver 
counts eight clocks (again, assuming a 
16X clock) to find the middle of the 
start bit. It then checks to ensure that 



the bit is still low; if it isn't, the receiver 
assumes line noise and resumes its 
search for a new start bit. 

If the start bit verifies as a low level, 
the receiver counts 16 more clocks to 
fmd the middle of the first data bit (the 
low-order bit), and stores this bit value 
in its internal shift register. The receiver 
then continues to count 16 clocks and 
read in the data bits until all of them are 
in the shift register. It also reads in the 
optional parity bit, if specified. 

After the receiver acquires all of these 
bits, it expects to see a stop bit, which is 
always a logical high. This helps verify 



Quantity 


Description 


Manufacturer 


1 


Prototype grid board 


Radio Shack 


2 


20 pF capacitors 




1 


Sonalert (see text) 


Mallory 


3 


General-purpose 
red LEDs (D1-D3) 




3 


270-ohm resistors 




3 


4.7k-ohm resistors 




1 


4-pin DIP switch 


Radio Shack 


1 


3.6864 MHz crystal 


(see below) 


1 


DUART(U1) 
(see below) 


Signeiics 


2 


1488 RS-232C drivers 
(U3. U5) 




2 


1489A RS-232C 
drivers (U4, U6) 




1 


1N914 general-purpose 
diode (D4) 




1 


74LS04 hex inverter (U2) 




1 


74LS32 quad two-input 
OR (U7— Model HI only) 




1 


40-pin cable header 


3M 


1 


(SO-pin for the Model III) 


3M 


2 


Right angle PC mount 
DB-25S connectors 






(see text) 


Winchester El 


1 


4-pin power connector 
sockets for IC's 
(wire wrap or PC 
mount, as needed) 




1 


40-pin card edge connector 
(for cable) 


Radio Shack 


1 


(50-pin for the Model III) 


3M 


1 


40-pin socket connector 


3M 


1 


(50-pin for the Model III) 


3M 


1 


8-inch piece of 40-con- 
ductor ribbon cable 




1 


(50-conducIor for the Model III) 





Part Number 

276-158 

SC628 



275-1304 
SC2681AC1N40 



3432-4205 
3433^205 



47-1125S 



276-1558 

3415-0001 
3417-6000 
3425-6000 



The 2681 DUART with the 3.6864 MHz crystal, including a copy of the 2681 DUART data 
sheet and a cassette tape with the terminal routine object files for all common memory configu- 
rations, are available from the author for $32 plus a $1 shipping and handhng fee. Michigan 
residents should add 4 percent sales tax. Winchester Electronics is located at Main St. and 
Hmside Ave., Oakville, CV 06779, (203) 274-9981. 

Table 2. Dual RS-232C board parts list and ordering information. 



that it properly found the end of the 
character, and confirms that the line is 
high, allowing the next start bit to cause 
a high-to-low transition. 

By reading each bit in the middle of 
the bit cell, the receiver allows for error 
between its own 16X clock frequency 
and the frequency of the transmitter's 
clock. Even if the frequencies are slight- 
ly off, the receiver should still read the 
correct bit values. The typical variation 
of transmitter/receiver clock frequen- 
cies generally keeps baud rates from ex- 
ceeding the 19,200 baud mentioned 
above. At high frequencies even small 
differences between transmitter and re- 
ceiver frequencies can cause problems. 

You can use asynchronous protocol 
to send and receive a break — a logical 
low on the line for a period greater than 
one character time. Many systems use a 
break as an interrupt or as an abort. 

The receiving device usually detects 
error types that occur during asynchro- 
nous communication, though the pro- 
cessor on the receiving end may ignore 
them. A parity error indicates that the 
parity of the received data was not what 
the receiver expected. A framing error 
indicates that a character was received 
without a valid stop bit. An overrun er- 
ror indicates that a previously received 
character was not removed from the re- 
ceiver's shift register before a new char- 
acter started coming in, resulting in the 
loss of the former character. 

UART Baacs 

A universal asynchronous receiv- 
er/transmitter (UART) is a device that 
operates with a processor over a parallel 
bus, but sends and receives data using 
the asynchronous format I've de- 
scribed. I use a dual UART (DUART) 
in this project since it has two inde- 
pendent asynchronous communication 
channels. The following discussion 
of UART basics also applies to the 
DUART. 

Most UARTs allow for flexibility 
when setting up. By sending commands 
to the UART, the processor can usually 
specify the number of data bits to send 
and receive (generally between five and 
eight), the parity of transmitted and re- 
ceived data, or no parity, the number of 
stop bits on transmitted data, and often 
other characteristics. 

The transmit section of the UART 
generally has two registers. The register 
most important for communication is 
the parallel load shift register; it adds 



198 " 80 Micro, January 1984 



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80 Micro, January 1984 • 199 



PROJECT SD 



the start bit, specified parity, and stop 
bits to the data you're transmitting, and 
sends the resulting bit pattern out the 
UART transmit pin at the specified 
baud rate. The second register is the 
load register, which the processor 
loads with the transmit data. This data 
is transferred to the first register as soon 
as it's empty. Thus, up to two charac- 
ters to be transmitted can exist in the 
UART at the same time. This dual 
transmit register structure allows maxi- 
mum compaction of transmitted data, 
since the start bit of the character in 
the second register will immediately 
follow the last stop bit of the preceding 
character. 

On most UARTs the receive section 
also has two registers whose purposes 
are similar to those in the transmit sec- 
tion. The computer shunts the incom- 
ing data into a shift register where it 
strips the start, stop, and parity bits. It 
then places the resulting character into 
the second buffer register, where it 
stores it while it transfers new data into 
the cleared shift register. 

Since there are only two receive regis- 
ters, the processor must be sure to read 
the characters from the UART before a 
new character comes into the shift regis- 
ter and destroys the previous character, 



causing an overrun error. While in 
many applications this isn't a problem, 
since the processor can read the charac- 
ter in the buffer register while it moves 
the next character into the shift register, 
in some applications it is, at the very 
least, inconvenient. 

Depending on how fast the data ar- 
rives and how much other work the 
processor has to do, it may not be able 
to get the data out of the UART in time 
to prevent problems. To help remedy 
this, many UARTs^ including the Sig- 
netics 2681 DUART I'm using, have 
quad-buffered receivers, consisting of 
four registers instead of two, giving the 
processor more time to get the charac- 
ters from the UART. 

The Signetics 2681 DUART 

The 2681 DUART from Signetics is a 
relatively new device that packs a lot of 
function into a 40-pin chip. The DU- 
ART has two independent asynchro- 
nous communication channels, an on- 
chip oscillator (requiring an external 
clock or crystal), separate internal baud 
rate generators for each channel, a 
16-bit counter/timer, an 8-bit output 
port, and a 7-bit input port, as well as 
complete interrupt capability. 

In my application I use four of the in- 



put ports and output ports as RS-232C 
handshaking Hnes, leaving four spare 
outputs and three spare inputs. Three 
of the spare outputs drive LEDs you 
can use as status indicators; the fourth 
drives a beeper to indicate when the 
RS-232 has received an ASCII bell 
character. You connect the spare inputs 
to a DIP (dual in-line package) switch, 
which the processor then reads to speci- 
fy certain set-up options. 

The Dual RS-232C Board 

The accompanying photo shows the 
prototype dual RS-232C board for the 
Model I. Though compact, it has many 
functions. All of the electronics, except 
for one inverter and the RS-232C inter- 
face chips, are on the 2681, so hook-up 
to the TRS-80 is simple and straightfor- 
ward (see Fig. 2). 

As drawn, the 2681 takes up the in- 
put/output (I/O) addressing locations 
00-7F hexadecimal (hex), although the 
2681 only uses 00-OF hex. If you have 
other peripherals in this I/O addressmg 
range (the Radio Shack peripherals use 
higher addresses), you can decode the 
addressing to a narrower range as need- 
ed. I used the current configuration be- 
cause it required the least amount of 
support circuitry — a necessary goal in 



NOTE; THESE LINES 
SHOULD BE TIED TO GROUND; 

■J 2 - P I N S 11,9 
UO, ue - PIN 10 
U5-PINS 9, 10 
'U'-PINS 4,5, 13, 12, 10,9 



20pF 3.SS64MHI 20pF 




DSA-E 


TM DATA 


DBA-4 


RTS 


DBA-20 DTR 


DBA-3 


HX DATA 


DBA- 5 


CTS ' 


DBA-6 


DSR 


nBB-2 


TX DATA 


DBB-4 


RTS 


DBB-20 


DTR 


DBB-3 


RX DATA 


DBB-5 


CTS 


DBB-6 


DSR 



21 IJ9I INT 



•model IK ONLY 



(43) EXTIOSEL 



Figure 2. Schematic diagram of dual RS-232C board. 



200 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



PROJECT BD 



order to keep everything on such a 
small (2.75- by 3.75-inch) board. 

The schematic (see Fig. 2) shows the 
connector pin numbers for the Model I 
as well as for the Model III (in paren- 
theses). The Model III also requires one 
additional signal not necessary on the 
Model I. In both cases, you connect the 
interrupt line so that you can use the 
2681 interrupts, or the processor can 
poll the DUART's status register to get 
the necessary status information. Make 
sure you know which pins on the 
board's connector correspond to which 
pins on the TRS-80 connector; the 
numbering can be confusing. 

The parts list for the board (see Table 
2) includes RS-232C connectors — 
DB-25S's (females), designed for 
printed circuit board mounting. In a 
pinch, you can use Radio Shack 
DB-25S connectors (part number 276- 
1548). The DUART is available 
through many electronics distributors, 
or you can purchase it from Wash- 
tenaw Digital Systems (see Table 2). 

The RS-232C standard specifies de- 
vices as either data terminal equipment 
(DTE) or data communication equip- 
ment (DCE), depending upon their 
function in a system or network. You 
wire the two types of devices as oppo- 
sites, so that a one-to-one straight- 
through cable connects them properly 
for communication. For example, a 
DTE device transmits data on pin 2 and 
receives data on pin 3, while a DCE de- 
vice transmits data on pin 3, and re- 
ceives data on pin 2. The connections 
shown in the schematic (see Fig. 2) are 
for a DTE device (such as a standard 
terminal), allowing the board to con- 
nect straight through to a modem, for 
example. 

The beeper I used on the prototype 
board is a Mallory Sonalert, but you 
can use any 12- volt beeper requiring a 
maximum of 8 milliamps. 

It's interesting to see How much space 
you can save from older designs by us- 
ing a new IC like the Signetics 2681. 
Motorola's board, which has two asyn- 
chronous communication channels, 
uses two 24-pin UARTs, a 24-pin baud 
rate generator, a large crystal, and a 
jumper matrix for baud rate selection, 
covering over 4 square inches of board 
space, and requiring a fair amount of 
interconnecting wiring. You can replace 
all of this with one 2681 DUART and a 
small crystal, while providing addition- 




Pholo. Prototype dual RS-232C board. 



al I/O capability, greater interrupt flex- 
ibility, and a 16-bit timer/counter. The 
2681 and its crystal require only 2.4 
square inches — quite a savings! 

Operation 

Once you've constructed the board 
you'll need three power supplies: -I-5V 
(at 150 mA), + 12V, and - 12V. WhUe 
lower voltages will suffice in place of 
the -I-/- 12V supplies, I recommend 
the higher voltages, which allow greater 
communication distance. 

Since timesharing on the personal 
computer has become so popular, I've 
used this function as the set-up exam- 
ple. The handshaking lines I've provid- 
ed aren't necessary for this application; 
I've set the handshaking outputs active 
(low) in case the remote device is look- 
ing for an active signal. 

Since there are two independent 
channels to choose from, you can use 
one as your terminal output, for exam- 
ple, and the other to communicate with 



another device. For now, use channel A 
for the terminal output and set up chan- 
nel B similarly. 

My Assembly-language program (see 
Program Listing) is a complete terminal 
emulator for the Model I or the Model 
III (with slight modifications) with the 
dual RS-232C board, using channel A. 
The first part of the program refers to 
the set-up of the 2681. 

The first byte the program sends to 
the 2681, 20 hex, goes to command 
register A (CRA) and resets the chan- 
nel A receiver. The program then sends 
30 hex to CRA to reset the channel A 
transmitter. A 40 hex byte sent to the 
CRA resets channel A error latches. 
The program sends these 3 set-up bytes 
only as precautions since a computer 
reset also performs these functions. 

After the program sends the reset 
functions, it sets up the various com- 
munication parameters, including the 
number of data bits and stop bits, de- 
sired parity, if any, and the baud rate 



eeigg 

00130 
0014S 
00150 
00160 
00170 

00180 
00190 

00?00 

00210 
007.20 
00230 
00240 



Program Listing. Terminal Emulator. 



;TRf;-80 TERMINAL ROUTINE 

iCHF^ATED JUNE 25, 19fl3 

;BY RHGER C. ALFORO 

rLAST MODIFICATION: AUGUST 9, 19fl3 

;This program allows the TRk-80 model I (or model III 
;with indicated changes! to emulate a terminal, using 
;the dual asynchronous board with the 2681 DUART, After 
; initialization, the communication channel (channel A) 
;is set foe 9600 baud communication; this, however, can 
;be changed as mentioned below. 

;This program uses interrupts to receive characters, 
rallowing communication speeds up to 19200 baud. When 
rChe computer is performing various functions — such 



Listing conlinueil 



80 Micro, January 1984 • 201 



PROJECT BO 



Listing coni'iufd 


00250 


as screen scro 


lling or keyboard checking — incominq 


for each direction; it must also specify 






00260 
00270 


characters are stored in a buffer in memory until they 
can be processed. 


the necessary interrupt information. 






00230 
00290 


The Sh 


if t/ down 


-acrow combination acts as a Control kev. 


By sending 1 3 hex to mode register 1 






00300 


ailowi 


ng CTRL- 


B through 


CTRL-Y to be transmitted. The 


A (MRIA), the program specifies no 






00310 
00320 


'BREAK 
seconc 


' transm 

. CTRL-A 


its a break for approximately 1/4 of a 
acts the same as pressing 'BREAK' . 


parity and 8 bits per character, which 






00330 










are standard for most terminals. Then 






00340 


The 'CLEAR' ke 


/ is used 


mostly as a user function kev. 








00350 


By pressing it 


, followed by a numerical key, various 


the program sends 07 hex to the same 






00360 
00370 


functions can 
1 


3e implemented, as noted here: 
= Enable printer to print incoming data. 


register (now denoted MR2A), to set 






00380 
00390 




2 

3 


= Disable printer from printing data, 
= Select a new baud rate. 


the transmitter for 1 stop bit; it also 






00400 




4 


= Enable 


back-arrow as a 'DELETE' key. 


specifies that the RS-232C handshaking 






00410 
00420 




5 


= Enable 


back-arrow as a 'BACKSPACE' key, 

(default) 


lines, connected to the DB-25S connec- 






00430 

00440 




6 




= Send CTRL-Z. 

= Return to the disk operating system. 


tors, are not to be used. 






00450 










The program initializes the baud rate 
at 9,600 baud by first sending GEO hex 






00460 
00470 


Model IIT usees should include the lines that are 
originally inserted as comments, and include the words: 






00430 

00490 


'*** ADn LINE 


FOR MOD III ' . 


to the auxiliary control register (ACR) 


70fl0 




00500 
00510 
00520 




ORG 


7000H 


' 


to indicate that the clock is from the 






DEFINE 


EQUATES 






crystal and the baud selection to be 


FFFF 
37E0 




00530 
00540 


rOPMEM 
NTCHK 


EQU 
EQU 


0EFFFH 
37E0H 


TOP OF MEMORY 

LOCATION TO CLEAR 25MS INT. 


taken from set 2. Then it sends OBB hex 


eeee 

0007 




0fl5'i0 

00560 


:tur 

:tlr 


EQU 
EQU 


06H 
07H 


DUART UPPER COUNTER BYTl^ 
DUART LOWER COUNTER BYTF 


to the clock select register A (CSRA) to 


000A 




00570 


^? 


EQU 


0AH 


ASCII LINEFEED 


specify the particular baud rates. The 


000D 

eenB 




00530 

00590 


:r 

3S 


EQU 
EQU 


0DH 

3e 


ASCII EFTURN 
ASCII BACKSPACE 


transmitter and receiver can have dif- 


e07F 

01C9 




00600 

00610 


3ELETE 

rsscLS 


EQU 
EQU 


7FH 
0IC9H 


ASCII DELETE 

SYSTFM CLEAR SCEEEN ROUTINE 


ferent baud rates; each nibble of the 


0020 




00620 


3FACE 


EQU 


20H 


ASCII SPACE 


CSRA byte specifies a different baud 


0000 




006''0 


•!R1A 


EQU 


0OH 


DUART MODE REGISTER 1 CH A 




0000 




00640 


■1R2A 


EQU 


00H 


DUART MODE RRGISTFR 2 CH A 


rate. 


0001 




0CI650 


:SRA 


EQU 


01H 


DUART CLOCK SELECT REGISTER A 




0002 
000F 
000E: 




006*^0 

00670 
00680 


:ra 

jTPTHR 
3TTTHR 


EQU 
EQU 
EQU 


0?H 
0FH 
0EH 


DUART COMMAND REGISTER A 
DUART STOP TIMER PORT (READ) 
DUART START TIMER PORT (READ) 








0001 




03690 


3RA 


EQU 


01H 


DUART STATUS REGISTER A 




000D 
000E 




0070a 

00710 


3PrR 

30PR 


EQU 
EQU 


0DH 
0EH 


DUART OUTPUT PORT CONFIG. REG. 
DOART OUTPUT PORT SET REGISTER 


''It beeps whenever it 


000D 




00720 


INP 


EQU 


0DH 


DUART INPUT PORT 




000F 
0004 




007:^0 
00740 


:opr 

ACR 


EQU 
EQU 


0PH 
04H 


DUART OUTPUT PRT CLEAR REGISTER 
DUART AUX. CONTROL REG. 


receives a bell character. " 


0005 




0H75W 


ISR 


EQU 


05H 


DUART INTRHRUPT STATUS RFGISTER 




0005 
0002 




00760 
007'?0 


IMR 
rXBIT 


EQU 
EQU 


0511 

2 


DUART INTERRUPT MASK REGISTER 
DUART SRA TX READY BIT 






0000 




00780 


^XBIT 


EQU 





DUART SRA RX READY BIT 




0003 




00790 


rXDA 


EQU 


01H 


DUART TX DATA REG. CH A 


The program follows this with a (X) 


0003 




00300 


WDA 


EQU 


03H 


DUART RX DATA REG. CU A 


4012 




0flBlfl 


INTLOC 


EQU 


4012H 


TRS--80 INTERRUPT VECT. LOC. 


hex to the ouput port configuration reg- 


4016 
005F 




00820 
00830 


<BDVEC 

:rschr 


EQU 
EQU 


4016H 
5FH 


TRS-80 KEYBOARD VECTOR LOCATION 
CURSOR CHARACTEH (UNDERLINE) 


ister to specify all of the output bits as 


402D 
4026 




00340 
00850 


JOS 
=RDRVR 


EQU 
EQU 


402DH 
4026H 


DOS ENTRY POINT 

PRINTER DRIVER ADDRESS LOCATION 


general-purpose outputs, then turns on 


03E8 




00860 


^RLEN 


EQU 


1000 


PRINTER BUFFER LENGTH 


(low) all but one output by sending OEF 


37E8 




00870 
00880 


PROKFL 


EQU 


37E8H 


PRINTFR STATUS PORT 


hex to the set ouput port register 


7000 


310000 


00890 
00900 


INITIALIZATION 
PERM LD 


SP,TOPME 


"1+1 ;SET STACK POINTER TO TOP 


(SOPR). It sends the interrupt mask to 


7003 


F3 


00910 




DI 




; DISABLE INTERRUPTS 


its register (IMR), enabling the trans- 






00920 




LD 


A,10H 


;*** ADD LINE FOR MOD III 








00930 




OUT 


(0ECH) ,A 


;*** ADD LINE FOR MOD III 


mitter and receiver to begin operation. 


7004 


DB0F 


00940 




IN 


A, (STPTM 


^) ;STOP DUART TIMER 




7006 
7007 


AF 
32827-1 


00950 
00960 




XOR 

LD 


A 

(TMRFLGl 


; CLEAR ACC. 
,A jCLEAR TIMER USE BYT^ 


Terminal Software Operation 


700A 


328474 


00970 




LD 


(CLRFLGl 


,A jCLEiR CLEAR FLAG 




70RD 


328374 


009B0 




LD 


(PRTFLG) 


A jCLEOR PRINTER FLAG 


Two of the program's lines depend 


7010 
7012 


3E08 
328574 


00990 
01000 




LD 
LD 


A,BS 

(BSDEL) . 


;GET ASCII BACKSPACE 
r^ ;INIT BSDEL LOCATION 


on your system's configuration: line 


7015 
7017 


3E20 
D3 02 


01010 

01020 




LD 
OUT 


A,20H 
(CRA) ,A 


; RESET DUART RECEIVER 


530 specifies the top of memory, which 


7019 
701B 


3E30 
D30 2 


01 030 
01 040 




LD 

OUT 


ft,30H 
(CRA) ,A 


;RESET DUART TRANSMITTER 


changes depending upon the amount of 
memory in your system; line 500 speci- 


701D 


3E40 


01 050 




LD 


A,40H 


tRESET ERROR LATCHES 


701F 
7021 


D302 

3E13 


01060 
01070 




OUT 
LD 


(CRA) ,A 
A,13H 


;N0 RX RTS, RX RDY INT 


fies the starting address of the program, 


7023 


D300 


01 080 




OUT 


(HRIA] ,A 


; NO PARITY, 8 BIT/CHR 


which can be a lower location if you're 


7025 


3E07 


01 090 




LD 


A,07H 


; NORMAL MODE, NO TX RTS 


7027 


D300 


01100 




OUT 


(HH2A) ,A 


; NO CTS EN, 1 STOP BIT 


using a non-disk system. 


70-?9 
702B 


3EB0 
D304 


01110 

01120 




LD 
OUT 


A,0B0H 
(ACR) ,A 


;BRG SELECT 


When you start the program, it clears 


7 2d 
702F 


3 EBB 
D301 


01130 
01140 




LD 

OUT 


A,0BBH 
(CSRA) ,A 


;BAUD SELECTS 

; 9500 BAUD EACH 


the screen and puts a sign-on message 


70^1 


3E06 


01150 




LD 


A,06H 


iGET 9600 BAUD CODE 


on the first line. It is initially set at 9,600 


7013 
7036 


327774 
3E00 


01160 
01170 




LD 

LD 


{BORATE) 
A,00H 


,A ;SAVE BAUD RATE CODE 

jOUTPUT PORT DEFINITIONS 


baud but you can change it from the 


70-^8 
7 03A 


D30D 
3EEF 


01 180 
01 190 




OUT 
LD 


(OPCR) ,A 
A,0EFH 


; ALL 'OPR' OUTPUTS 
;GET OUTPUT BYTE 


keyboard. Several user commands, 


703C 


D30E 


01 200 




OUT 


(SOPR) ,A 


; TURN ON MOST OUTPUTS 


which make the program more versa- 


70'<E 


3E10 


01210 




LD 


A,i0H 


;GET BEEPER PORT BIT 




7040 


D30F 


01220 




OUT 


(COPR) .A 


;TURN BEEPER OFF 


tile, were necessary to make up for the 


7042 
7044 


3E0A 
D305 


01230 
01240 




LD 

OUT 


A,0AH 
(IMR) ,A 


;GET INTERRUPT EN MASK 
; ENABLE RX AND CNTR INT 


fact that I used the ROM keyboard en- 


7046 


3E05 


01250 




LD 


A,05H 


; ENABLE TX AND RX 

/ ts/iiix ccinttniied 


coder routine without a standard con- 
trol key. 



202 • 80 Micro, January 1984 




PROJECT SD 



ROAR! 



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PO. Box 1087 Santa Barbara, CA 93102 
(805) 963-1066 



All three output LEDs turn on after 
initialization, but the middle one tog- 
gles as the DUART receives characters. 
If you connect a beeper, enabled with 
the on-board DIP switch, it beeps 
whenever it receives a bell character 
(control/G). The break key sends a 
break for approximately one-quarter of 
a second. 

The program uses the clear key as 
a user key. You must press this key, 
followed by a numerical key, to exe- 
cute the desired function. Clear/1 en- 
ables the line printer, so that the pro- 
gram sends all incoming characters, 
except most control characters, to the 
printer. Clear/2 disables the printer so 
that the program sends it no more input 
characters. 

CIear/3 lets you select a new baud 
rate. The program displays the current 
baud rate, along with the available 
baud options; you need merely press 
the key associated with the baud rate 
you want and the program displays the 
new baud rate. 

Clear/4 lets you use the left-arrow 
key to delete instead of to backspace (it 
initializes as backspace). Clear/5 re- 
stores the backspace function. 

Though the simultaneous shift/ 
down-arrow combination usually acts 
as a control key, a control/Z isn't easily 
decoded because of the nature of the 
keyboard decoding software. Conse- 
quently, clear/6 is set up to transmit 
control/Z — somewhat awkward, but it 
works. 

Finally, clear/0 returns you to DOS 
(the disk operating system) — if you're 
using one; a DOS isn't necessary to run 
the terminal program. 

The program uses interrupts to pro- 
cess incoming characters, which it 
places into a memory buffer until the 
computer can process them. Interrupts 
prevent the loss of incoming data when 
the Z80 is otherwise busy — during 
screen scrolling, for example. If fast da- 
ta (that is, 4,800 baud or higher) is con- 
tinually coming in while the screen has 
to keep scrolling, the full memory buff- 
er can lose incoming characters. The 
program therefore uses as much of the 
available memory as possible. ■ 

Write to Roger C. Alford at Wash- 
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Ann Arbor, MI 48106, or call him be- 
tween 7 and 9 p.m. weeknights at 3J3- 
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80 Micro, January 1984 • 203 



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.^385 



PROJECT BO 



/.isiing coniinued 










7048 


D362 


01260 


OUT 


(CRA) ,A 




704A 


217478 


01270 


LD 


HT., BUFFER 


POINT TO BEG OF BUFFER 


704D 


227874 


B12B0 


LD 


(BSTART) ,HL 


INIT. START POINTER 


70S0 


227A74 


01290 


LD 


(BEND) ,HL 


INIT. END POIHTFB 


7053 


210000 


B1300 


LD 


Hl.,0 


CLEAR HL REGISTER 


7056 


227C74. 


B1310 


LD 


(BCOUNT) rHL 


CLEAR BUFFER CHAR COUNT 


7059 


228A74 


01320 


LD 


(PRCNT) ,HL 


CLEAR PBBUFB CHAR COUNT 


705C 


218C74 


01330 


LD 


H'.fPRBUFR 


POINT TO PRINTER BUFFER 


70Sf 


22e6'>4 


01340 


LD 


(PfiSTBT) ,HL 


INIT PRBUFR START PNTR 


7062 


2?8R74 


B135B 


LD 


(PREND) ,HL 


INIT PRBUFR END PNTR 


7065 


2A1340 


01360 


LD 


HI.,(INTL0C+1) 


GET INTERRUPT VECT 


7066 


2?7E74 


01370 


LD 


(INTVEC) ,HL 


SAVE IN OWN MEHORY 


706B 


214172 


01360 


LD 


H'.,RXISR 


GET OWN INT VECTOR 


706E 


221340 


01393 


LD 


(IHTLOC+l) ,HL 


PUT INTO INT VEC LOC. 






01400 ; 


LD 


Ar08H 


••• ADD LINE FOB MOD III 






01410 ; 


OUT 


[9E0H] ,A 


*** AOn LINE FOR HOD III 


7071 


CD717 3 


B14Z0 


CALL 


CLS 


CLEAR SCREEN 


7674 


218973 


01430 


LD 


Hl.jSIGMSG 


POINT TO START MESSAGE 


7077 


CD1D72 


01440 
01450 ; 


CALL 


PRHSG 


PRINT IT ON THE SCREEN 






01460 ;MATK PRIBRAM 


CODE: 




707A 


CD9E71 


01470 LOflP 


CALL 


CHKCHR 


CHECK FOR CHARACTER 


707D 


3AE837 


01480 


LD 


A,(PROKFL) 


GET PRINTER READY FLAG 


7080 


CB7F 


01490 


BIT 


7, A 


CHECK READY BIT 


7082 


200E 


01500 


JR 


NZ .NOPR 


IF NOT READY, OH WEL'. 


7084 


CDE971 


01510 


CALL 


PRCHK 


CHECK FOR PRINTER CHAR. 


7087 


2809 


01520 


JB 


Z.NOPR 


IF NONE, OH WELL 


7081 


4P 


01530 


LO 


C,A 


PUT CHAR. IN C REG. 


70aA 


219270 


01540 


LO 


HI., NOPR 


GET RETURN ADORESS 


798D 


E5 


01550 


PUSH 


HL 


SAVE ON STACK 


7fl8E 


2A26 4B 


01560 


LD 


HI., (PRDRVR) 


GET PBINTER DBIVER 


7091 


E9 


01570 


JP 


[HD 


PRINT CHARACTER 


7992 


DB01 


01580 NOPR 


IN 


A,(SRA) 


CHECK FOB OK TO SEND CHR 


7094 


CB57 


01590 


BIT 


TXBITfA 


CHECK TX READY BIT 


7096 


28E2 


01600 


JR 


Z . LOOP 


IF NOT, JUST LOOP AGAIN 


7098 


21A070 


01610 


LD 


HL, KBDRET 


GET RETURN ADDR OF CALL 


709B 


E5 


0162fl 


PUSH 


HI. 


PUT ONTn STACK 


709C 


2A1640 


01630 


LD 


HI.,(KBDVBC) 


GET KBD VECTOR 


709F 


£9 


0164B 


JP 


(HL) 


CHECK FOR KEY FROM KBD 


70AB 


B7 


0165B KBDRET 


OR 


A 


SET FLAGS - CHAR.? 


7BA1 


2807 


01660 


JR 


Z.LOOP 


IF ZERO, NO CHAR 


70A3 


47 


01670 


LD 


B,A 


SAVE CHARACTER 


70A4 


3A8474 


B16BB 


LD 


A, (CLRFLG) 


CHECK CLEAR FLAG 


70A7 


B7 


01690 


OR 


A 


SET CPU FLAGS 


70AB 


CA5971 


01700 


JP 


Z -HRHCHR 


IF ZERO, NORMAL CHAR- 


79AB 


AF 


01719 


XOK 


A 


ELSE, CLEAR ACCUH. 


70 AC 


328474 


01720 


LD 


(CLBFLG) ,A 


CLEAR CLEAR FLAG 


70AF 


78 


01730 


LD 


A,B 


GET CHARACTER 


7eB0 


FE31 


91740 


CP 


'1' 


NUHBEH 1? 


70B2 


20B5 


0175(1 


JR 


NZ.CHK32 


IF NOT CHECK NEXT 


70B4 


328374 


91760 


LD 


(PRTFLG) ,A 


ENABLE PRINTER 


70B7 


IBCl 


01779 


JR 


LOnp 


LOOP OVER 


7 BBS 


FE32 


01789 CHK32 


CP 


'2' 


NUMBER 2? 


70BB 


2B11 


91790 


JR 


NZ,CHK33 


IF NOT, CHECK NEXT 


7 BED 


3A8374 


91890 


LD 


A, (PRTFLG) 


CHECK PRTFLG 


7BCB 


B7 


0181" 


OB 


A 


SET FLAGS 


7BC1 


28B7 


01820 


JR 


Z.LOnp 


IF ALREADY CLEAR, DONE 


70C3 


AF 


01830 


XOR 


A 


CLEAB ACCUMULATOR 


70C4 


32B374 


01649 


LD 


(PRTFLG) ,A 


DISABLE PRINTER 


7BC7 


3EBD 


01850 


LD 


A,CR 


GET CARRIAGE RETURN 


7BC9 


CDC371 


01860 


CALL 


PRBUFF 


SEND RETURN TO PRINTER 


70CC 


18AC 


01870 


JR 


LOnp 


LOOP OVER 


70CE 


FE33 


01889 CHK33 


CP 


'3' 


NUMBER 3? 


70D0 


2R53 


91899 


JR 


NZ.CHK34 


IF NOT, CHECK NEXT 


70D2 


21B271 


91900 


LD 


Hr.,BDHSGl 


POINT TO FIR.'^T BO MSG 


70D5 


CD1D72 


91910 


CALL 


PRKSG 


PRINT IT ON THE SCREEN 


7BD8 


CD2872 


01929 


CALL 


PRBAUD 


PRINT CURRENT BAUD RATE 


76DB 


21CE73 


01930 


LD 


Hr.,BDMSG2 


POINT TO 2ND BD MEG 


7BDE 


CD1D72 


01940 


CALL 


PRMSG 


PRINT IT ON THE SCREEN 


70E1 


21E970 


01950 KBLP 


LD 


H'.,KBRT2 


GET RETURN ADHRESS 


70E4 


E5 


0196B 


PUSH 


HI. 


PUSH IT ON THE STACK 


70E5 


2A1640 


01979 


LD 


HI., (KBDVEC) 


GET KEYBOARD ROUTINE VEC 


70E8 


E9 


91989 


JP 


(HL) 


CHECK FOR KEY PRESSED 


70E9 


B7 


01990 KBRT2 


on 


A 


SET FLAGS 


70EA 


28F5 


B?0B0 


JR 


Z.KBLP 


IF NONE, KEEP WAITING 


7 0EC 


FEBD 


0?B10 


CP 


CR 


CHECK FOR RETURN 


70EE 


2e2D 


02020 


JR 


Z.BDDOHE 


IF YES, DONE 


70F0 


FE41 


02Q30 


CP 


'A' 


IF CHARACTER < 'A'? 


70F2 


3 BED 


02040 


JR 


CKBLP 


IF YES, GET NEW CHAR. 


70E4 


FE49 


0?eS0 


CP 


'I' 


IF CHARACTER >= 'I'? 


70F5 


3CE9 


0'06B 


JR 


NCKBLP 


IF YES, GET NEW CHAR. 


70FB 


F5 


0207B 


PUSH 


AF 


SAVE CHARACTER 


70F9 


CDD872 


020B0 


CALL 


SCREEN 


ECHO CHARACTER TO SCREEN 


70FC 


Fl 


B2090 


POP 


AF 


RESTORE CHARACTGB 


70FD 


0641 


B?1BB 


SUB 


41H 


GET TABLE OFFSET 


70FF 


327774 


B2110 


LO 


(BDBATE) ,A 


SAVE NEW BAUD VALUE 


7102 


5F 


02120 


LD 


E,A 


PUT OFFSET INTO E REG 


7103 


3E0A 


02130 


LD 


A,0AH 


GET BYTE TO DISABLE 


7105 


03B2 


02140 


OUT 


(CRA) .A 


DUART TX AND RX 


71B7 


16B0 


02150 


LD 


D,00 


CLEAR D REGISTER 


7109 


214974 


02160 


LD 


HI.,BDTBL 


POINT TO BAUD TABLE 


710C 


19 


02270 


ADD 


Ht.fDE 


POINT TO NEW BAUD BYTE 


710D 


7E 


05180 


LD 


A, (HL) 


GET NEW BAUD BYTE 


710E 


D301 


07190 


OUT 


(CSRA) ,A 


WRITE VALUE TO DUART 


7110 


3E05 


02209 


LD 


A,05K 


GET NEW BYTE TO 


7112 


D302 


05219 


OUT 


(CRA) ,A 


RE-ENABLE DUART TX , BX 


7114 


213174 


92220 


LD 


HL,BDHSG3 


POINT TO BD MSG 3 


7117 


C0107 2 


02230 


CALL 


PRHSG 


PRINT ON SCREEN 


711A 


CD2B72 


0224B 


CALL 


PRBAUD 


PRINT NEW BAUD BATE 


711D 


3E0D 


9?250 BODONE 


LD 


A,CR 


GET ASCII EETURN 

l.alinii coniinued 



204 • 50 Micro, January 1984 




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^368 



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Maxell Floppy Disks 

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InCal call (800) 592-5935 or 
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^ 207 



WE'RE SERIOUS 
ABOUT rUIN! 

Software for 

Radio Shack's TRS-80 

MODELS 11/12/16 

• GAMES • ADVENTURE 

• BUSINESS • LAPIQUAQE 

• EDUCATiOM 

CALL OR WRITE TOR TREE 
BROCtlURE AFID MORE mrORMATIOn 

J9 Rizzo Data 
®^ Systems Corp. 

577 Burlington Rd.. P.O. Box 458 
Bridgeton. fiJ 08302-0556 

609/451-7979 ■-"' 



TAXPAL 

Videotronics of Sarasota, Inc. 

4086 Honolulu Dr. - Sarasota, FL 
813-953-2332 33583 

The most complete and corrective tax 
program seen yet. Will do schedules: 
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Automalic transfer of figu res Irom one form to another. 
Make corrections and watch the changes ripple down 
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Calculates Taxes Automatically. Also 
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199.95 
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Vineland, N.J. 08360 

800-257-0426 
NJ 609-691-7100 ^sio 



ITS HERE! 

"CMON" IS a machine language monitor program 
Using single letter commands, the user program can be 
executed under full control of "CMON" This gives the 
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tinaing those inconspicious, and sometimes fatal little 
gremlins haunting your software "CMON" is easy to 
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FEATURES: STANDAflO MONITDH COMMANDS -I- JSER 
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AVAILABLE ON NON- SYSTEM DISK OR CASSEHE 
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COSTIS$23.00ppd. MONEY ORDER OR CASHIERS 
CHECK NO PERSONAL CHECKS PLEASE SEND 
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SUMMARY, DEOUCTABLE WITH ORDER 

Please send payment or inquiries to: 



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CENTREVILLE VA 22020 



(^ 72 



TIED UP BY 

STRING 

COMPRESSION? 



CUT YOURSELF 
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TR ASHMAN'" 

THIS PROGRAM IS A MUST FOR 
EVERYONE WHO USES "BASIC" ON A 
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these delays whenever you run a 
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keyboard won't 
work, and until 
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have been col- 
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just have to sit 
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you're using 
your com- 
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soon as you start to use it, those delays 
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advantage of it. It's written in 
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bytes of memory for itself, plus 2 bytes 
for each "string" in your program. It 
works with other machine language 
programs and all the major operating 
systems. 

IT SHOULD HAVE BEEN BUILT INTO 
THE COMPUTER IN THE FIRST PLACE, 
but since it wasn't, look at this chart, 
and then order your copy today. 




# 

STRINGS 

10 

250 

500 

1000 

2000 



SECONDS DELAY PERCENT 
NORMAL TRASHMAN IMPROVEMENT 



.1 

11.8 

45.6 

179.6 

713.2 



.1 
0.7 

1.6 
3.5 

7.8 




94 
96.5 
98 
■98.9 



"FANTASTICUl My huge database used to 
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". . . it delays are aanoyingly frequent, 
then TBASHMAN is the answer, and at the 
price, it does not take many operating 
delays to justify it's purchase. ' 
(COMPUTEONICS. March. 1983) 

TRASHMAN is available on Disk 
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Attention Soitwaie Pubhsheis: TRASHMAN may be 
/icensed for use with yam packages.Call fordetails 

OBDER NOW, TOLL-FREE 
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TERMS- VISA, MC, checks, COD Please add S2.t)0 shipping in 
U S. or Canada. S5.00 overseas, sales lax in Ca Mosf 
orders filled wHihin one tiay. 



^ See L/E( of Advertisers on Page 227 



80 Micro, January 1984 • 205 



Now. . . . 

FOR THE TRS-80* MODEL I & III 



JOSHUA'S 








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Send S19 95 (or eacn aisk and 115 95 lor eacn lace casscKi; 
PA residenis a00 6% sales tax Include 13 00 psr ilem (or ship. 
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Soecily Model I or III, lapi? or disk Prir;es subject 1o change 



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^^ 28 



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- DEALERS INVITED - 



PROJECT BO 



i.isiin^ coiilinueii 










711F CDD872 


02260 


CALL 


SCREEN ; 


PRINT ON SCREEN 


7122 C37A70 


02270 


JP 


LOOP ; 


LOOP OVER 


7125 FE34 


02280 CHK34 


CP 


'4' ; 


CHECK FOR NUMBER 4 


7127 2008 


0^290 


JR 


NZ.CHK35 ; 


IF NOT, CHECK NEXT 


7129 3E7F 


02300 


LD 


A, DELETE ; 


GET ASCII DELETE CHAR. 


712B 328574 


0231 


LD 


(BSDEL) ,A ; 


SAVE IN BCKSPC/DEL LOC. 


712E C37A70 


02320 


JP 


LOOP ; 


LOOP OVER 


7131 FE35 


02330 CHK35 


CP 


'5 ' ; 


CHECK FOR NUMBER 5 


7133 2^08 


02340 


JR 


NZ.CHK36 ; 


IF NOT, CHECK NEXT 


7135 3E08 


0?350 


LD 


A,BS ; 


GET ASCII BACKSPACE 


7137 328574 


02360 


LD 


(BSDEL) ,A ; 


SAVE IN BCKSPC/DEL LOC. 


713A C37A70 


02370 


JP 


LOOP ; 


LOOP OVER 


713D FE36 


02380 CHK36 


CP 


■6' ; 


CHECK FOR NUMBER 6 


713F 2004 


02390 


JR 


NZ,CHK30 ; 


IF NOT, CHECK NEXT 


7141 3E1A 


02400 


LD 


A,1AH ; 


GET CTRL-Z 


7143 1831 


02410 


JR 


NODOS ; 


SEND IT OUT 


7145 FESe 


02420 CHK30 


CP 


'0' ; 


NUMBER 0? 


7147 C27A70 


02430 


JP 


NZ-LOOP ; 


IF NOT, LOnp OVER 


714A AF 


02440 


XOR 


A ; 


GET NEW IMR VALUE (0] 


714B D305 


0'>4^S 


OUT 


(IMR) ,A ; 


DISABLE DUART INTS 


714D CnC901 


02460 


CALL 


TRSCLS ; 


CLEftR SCREEN 


7150 2A7E74 


02470 


LD 


HT,, (INTVEC) ; 


GET OLD INTFRPT VECT 


7153 221340 


02430 


LD 


(INTLOC+l) ,HL ; 


SAVE IN ORIGINAL PLACE 


7156 C32D40 


02490 


JP 


DO*: ; 


RETURN TO DOS 


7159 78 


02500 NRMCHR 


LD 


A,B ; 


RESTORE CHARACTER 


715A FE08 


02510 


CP 


BS ; 


BACKSPACE CHARACTER? 


715C 2005 


02520 


JR 


NZ .PROCED ; 


IF NOT, CONTINUE 


715E 3A8574 


02530 


LD 


A, (BSDEL) 


ELSE, GET PROPER CHAR. 


7161 1813 


02540 


JR 


NODOS , 


SEND THE CHARACTER 


7163 FEIA 


02550 PROCED 


CP 


lAH 


CTRL- 2? 


7165 ChlAlS 


02560 


JP 


Z , LOOP 


IF YES, IGNORE 


716B FE01 


02570 


CP 


01H 


BREAK? 

ICTRL-A) 


716A 280F 


02580 


JR 


Z, BREAK ; 


IP YES, SEND BREAK 


716C FEIF 


02590 


CP 


IFH ! 


CLEAR KEY PRESSED? 


716E 2006 


02600 


JR 


NZ-NODOS ; 


IF NOT, SEND CHAR. 


7170 328474 


0261 


LD 


(CLRFLG) ,A ; 


SET CLEAR FLAG 


7173 C37A70 


02620 


JP 


LOOP 


LOOP OVER 


7176 D303 


02630 NODOS 


OUT 


(TXDA) ,A 


ELSE, SEND CHARACTER 


7178 C37A70 


02640 


JP 


LOOP 


LOOP AGAIN 


717B F3 


26 50 BREAK 


DI 




DISABLE INTERRUPTS 


717C 3E60 


02660 


LD 


A,60H 


GET BREAK ON CMD 


717E D302 


02670 


OUT 


(CRA) ,A 


TURN ON BREAK 


7180 3A3274 


02680 


LD 


A, (THRFLG) 


GET TIMER FLAG BYTP 


7183 CB47 


02690 


BIT 


0,A 


IS BEEPER USING IT? 


7185 2809 


02700 


JR 


Z.BROK 


IF NOT, SEND BREAK 


7187 CBDF 


02710 


SET 


3, ft 


BREAK IS WAITING 


7139 328274 


02720 


LD 


(TMRFLG) .A 


STORE NEW FLAG BYTE 


718C FB 


02730 


EI 




RE-ENABLE INTERRUPTS 


718D C37A70 


02740 


JP 


LOOP 


LOOP AGAIN 


7190 CBCF 


02750 BROK 


SET 


1-A 


BREAK IS NOW USING 


7192 323274 


02760 


LD 


(TMRFLG) ,A 


SAVE NEW FLAG BYTK 


719=^ DB0F 


02770 


IN 


A, (STPTHR) 


STOP THE TIMER 


7197 FB 


02780 


EI 




ENABLE THE INTERRUPTS 


7198 CD1F73 


02790 


CALL 


TMRON 


TURN ON THE TIMER 


719B C37A70 


02300 
02810 ; 


JP 


LOnp 


LOOP AGAIN 


719E F3 


02820 CHKCHR 


DI 




DISABLE INTERRUPTS 


719F 2A7C74 


02330 


LD 


HT,, (BCOUNT) 


GET BUFFER CHAR COUNT 


71A2 7C 


02840 


LD 


A,H 


GET UPPER BYTE 


71A3 B5 


02850 


OR 


L 


ZERO COUNT? 


71A4 2002 


02860 


JR 


NZ .GOTCHR 


IF NOT, GOT A CHAR 


71A6 FB 


02870 


ET 




ELSE, ENABLE INTERRUPTS 


71A7 C9 


02880 


RET 




DONE - RETURN 


71A8 2B 


02890 GOTCHR 


DEC 


Hh 


DECREMENT COUNT 


71A9 227C74 


02900 


LD 


(BCOUNT) .HL 


STORE NEW COUNT VALUE 


71 AC 2A7 87 4 


0291H 


LD 


HI., (BST^RT) 


GET START POINTER 


71AF 7E 


02920 


LD 


A, (HL) 


GET BUFFER CHARACTER 


71B0 CD0F72 


02930 


CALL 


UPDATE 


UPDATE POINTER 


71B3 227874 


02940 


LD 


(BSTflRT) ,HL 


STORE NEW POINTER VALUE 


71B6 FB 


02950 


EI 




ENABLE INTERRUPTS 


71B7 47 


02960 


LD 


B,A 


SAVE CHARACTER 


71B8 3A8374 


02970 


LD 


A, (PRTFLG) 


SEf^ IF SHOUr^D PRINT 


71BB B7 


02980 


0" 


A 


SET FLAGS 


71BC 7 8 


02990 


LD 


A,B 


GET CHARACTER BACK 


71BD C4C371 


030(10 


CALL 


NZ .PRBUFF 


IF NONZERO, PRINT IT 


71C0 C3D872 


03010 
03020 ; 


JP 


SCREEN 


PRINT CHAR. AND RFTURN 




03030 ;BUFFER CHARACTER FOR PRINTER SU 


3R0UT1NE: 


71C3 FE2e 


03040 PRBUFF 


CP 


2HH 


IS CHAR. ABOVE 19H? 


71C5 3007 


03050 


JR 


NC.PROK 


IF YES, CHAR. OK 


71C7 FE0D 


03060 


CP 


CR 


CARRIAGE RETURN? 


71C9 2803 


0^070 


JR 


Z -PROK 


IF YES, OK 


71CB FE0C 


03080 


CP 


0CH 


FORM FEED? 


71CD C0 


03090 


RFT 


N2 


IF NOT, BAD CHAR. 


71CE 21E803 


031G0 PRHK 


LD 


Hr,,PRLEN 


GET PRINTER BUFFER LEN. 


7lDl ED5B8A7^ 


03110 


LD 


DE, (PRCNT) 


GET CURRENT BUFFER COUNT 


71D5 B7 


02120 


OR 


A 


CLEAR CARRY 


71D6 ED52 


03130 


SBC 


Hr,,DE 


GET DIFFERENCE 


71D8 C8 


02140 


RET 


Z 


■IF NO ROOM - DONE 


71D9 13 


03150 


IHC 


DE 


■ELSE INCREMENT COUNT 


71DA ED538A74 03160 


LD 


(PRCNT) ,DE 


■SAVE NEW COUNT 


71DE 2A3674 


03170 


LD 


H'., (PRSTRT) 


■GET START BUFR PNTR 


71E1 77 


03180 


LD 


(HL) ,A 


■SAVE CHARCTER 


71E2 CD0172 


03190 


CALL 


PRUPDT 


fUPDATE POINTER 


71E5 223674 


03200 


LD 


(PRSTRT) ,HL 


■SAVE NEW POINTER VALUE 


71E8 C9 


03210 
032 20 ; 


RET 




;DONE - RETURN 




03230 ;CHECK 


FOR PRINTER BUFFER CHARAC 


TER SUBROUTINE: 










l.imng i-oriiinufd 



206 • 80 Micro. January 1984 



PROJECT BO 



Llilliiy, I'liii 


llUII'li 










71E9 


ED5B8A74 


03240 


PRCHK LD 


DE, (PRCNT) 


GET CURRENT PRBUFR COUNT 


71ED 


7A 


1 2 E 


LD 


A,D 


CHECK FOR ZERO COUNT 


71EE 


B3 


03260 


OR 


E 


ZERO? 


71EF 


C8 


03270 


RPT 


Z 


IF YES, NO CHARS, 


71F0 


IB 


03280 


DEC 


DE 


ELSE, DECR. COUNT 


71F1 


ED53 8A74 


03290 


LD 


(PRCNT) ,DE 


SAVE NEW COUNT VALUE 


71F5 


2A887 4 


03300 


LD 


HT., (PREND) 


GET END POINTFR 


71F8 


7E 


03310 


LD 


A, [HL) 


GET CHARACTER 


71F9 


CD0172 


03320 


CALL 


PRUPDT 


UPDATE POINTER 


71FC 


228874 


03330 


LD 


(PREND) ,HL 


SAVE NEW END POINTER 


71FF 


B7 


03340 


OR 


A 


CLEAR ZERO FLAG 


72P0 


C9 


033 5 H 
03360 


RET 




DONE - REniRN 






03370 


; UPDATE PRINTER 


POINTER SUBROUTINE: | 


7201 


23 


03380 


PRUPDT INC 


HL 


INCREMENT POINTER 


7202 


EB 


03390 


EX 


DE,HL 


PUT INTO DE REG. PAIR 


7203 


217478 


03400 


LD 


HL,PRBUFR+PRLEN 


GET END -1- 1 


7206 


B7 


03410 


OR 


A 


CLEAR CARRY 


72H7 


ED52 


03420 


SBC 


HT.jDE 


GET DIFFERENCE 


72H9 


EB 


0343n 


EX 


DE,HL 


PUT POINTER BACK INTO HL 


720A 


C0 


03440 


RET 


NZ 


IF NOT SAME, VALUE OK 


720B 


218C74 


03450 


LD 


HL,PRBUFR 


ELSE, CHANGE POINTRR 


720E 


C9 


03460 
03470 


RRT 




DONE - RETURN 






03480 


jPOINTRR UPDATE 


SUBROUTINE: 




72«F 


23 


03490 


UPDATE INC 


HI. 


INCREMENT POINTER VALUE 


7210 


EB 


03500 


EX 


DE,HL 


PUT CURRENT PTR INTO DE 


7211 


2JDFFF 


03510 
035?0 


LD 


Hr,,BUFFER+BUFLEN 


POINT PAST END OF BUFFER 


7214 


B7 


03530 


OR 


A 


CLEAR CARRY FLAG 


7215 


ED52 


03540 


SBC 


Hr.,DE 


COMPARE DE AND HL 


7217 


EB 


03550 


EX 


DE,HL 


PUT CURRENT PTR IN HI. 


7218 


C0 


03560 


RPT 


NZ 


IF NOT SAME, VALUE OK 


7219 


217478 


03570 


LD 


HI"., BUFFER 


ELSE, UPDATE POINTER 


721C 


C9 


03580 
03590 


BET 




DONE - RETURN 






03fi00 


; PRINT MESSAGE 


ON SCRPEN ROUTINE 




721D 


7E 


03610 


PRHSG LD 


A,{HL) 


GET CHARACTER 


721E 


B7 


0'620 


OR 


A 


ZERO CHARACTER? 


721F 


C8 


03630 


RET 


Z 


IF YES, DONE 


72^0 


E5 


01640 


PUSH 


HT. 


ELSE, SAVE HI. VALUE 


72^1 


CDD872 


03650 


CALL 


SCREEN 


PRINT CHAR. ON SCREEN 


7254 


El 


03660 


POP 


HL 


RESTORE HL VALUE 


72'>5 


23 


03670 


INC 


HT. 


POINT TO NEXT CHAR. 


7226 


18F5 


03580 
03690 


JR 


PRMSG 


LOOP UNTIL DONE 






03700 


; PRINT BAUD RATE ROUTINE: 




72?8 


3A7774 


03710 


PRBAUD LD 


A, (BORATE) 


GET CURRENT BAUD BYTF 


725B 


215174 


03720 


LD 


HT.,BDTBL2 


POINT TO BAUD TABLE 2 


72?E 


B7 


03730 


OR 


A 


CHECK FOR ZERO BYTE 


72'F 


2806 


03740 


JR 


Z -BDFND 


IF YES, BAUD=110 


7231 


47 


0375" 


LD 


B,A 


SAVE BYTE IN COUNTER 


7232 


CD3B7 2 


03760 


FNDLP CALL 


FND00N 


POINT TO NEXT BAUD RATE 


7235 


lOFB 


03770 


DJNZ 


FNDLP 


LOOP UNTIL CORECT BD FND 


7237 


CD1D72 


03780 


BDFND CALL 


PRMSG 


PRINT BAUD ON SCREEN 


723A 


C9 


03790 


RET 




DONE - RETURN 


723B 


7E 


03800 


FND00N LD 


A, IHLj 


GET CURRENT CHARACTER 


723C 


23 


03810 


INC 


HL 


POINT TO NEXT CHAR. 


723D 


87 


03820 


OR 


A 


ZERO CHARACTER? 


723E 


C8 


03830 


RET 


Z 


IF YES, DONE 


723F 


18FA 


0-^840 
03850 


JR 


FND0 0N 


ELSE, CHECK NEXT CHAR. 






03860 


;RECEIVE CHAR INTERRUPT SERVICE 


ROUTINE: 


72^1 


D9 


03870 


RXISR EXX 




SAVE GP REGISTERS 


7212 


08 


03880 


EX 


AF , AF ' 


SAVE ACC. AND FLAGS 


7243 


DB05 


03890 


IN 


A, (ISR) 


GET INT STATUS REG. 


72^5 


E60A 


0T900 


AND 


0AH 


CHECK FOR DUART INT 


12il 


2306 


03910 


JR 


NZ,RXOK 


IF YES, PROCESS IT 


72'19 


3AE037 


03920 


LD 


A, (INTCHK) 


ELSE, KILL TRS INT 


72iC 


C3D472 


03930 


JP 


RTADR 


DONE - RETURN FROM INT 


72'iF 


CB5F 


03940 


RXOK BIT 


3, A 


CHECK FOR COUNTER INT 


72S1 


284A 


03950 


JR 


Z. RXOK 2 


IF NOT, CHECK RX INT 


72S3 


DBBF 


01960 


IN 


A, (STPTHR) 


ELSE, STOP COUNTER 


72=^5 


3A3274 


03970 


LD 


A, (TMRFLG) 


GET TIMER FLAG BYHV. 


72'^a 


CB47 


03980 


BIT 


0,A 


CHECK FOR BEEPER USE 


72'^A 


2821 


03990 


JR 


Z .CHKBl 


IF NOT, CHECK BREAK 


7 2';C 


47 


04000 


LD 


B,A 


PUT FLAG BYTE INTO B REG 


725D 


3E10 


04010 


LD 


A,10H 


GET BELT. BYTE 


72'^F 


D30F 


04020 


OUT 


(COPR) ,A 


TURN BELL OFF 


7261 


78 


04030 


LD 


A,B 


GET FLAG BYTE 


7262 


CB87 


04040 


RPS 


0,A 


CLEAR BELL USE BIT 


7264 


CB5F 


04050 


BIT 


3, A 


BREAK WAITING? 


7266 


2810 


04050 


JR 


Z .NOBRWT 


IF NOT, DONE 


7268 


CB9F 


04070 


RES 


3, A 


ELSE, WAIT NO LONGER 


726A 


CBCF 


04080 


SET 


1,A 


BREAK USE BIT SET 


726C 


328274 


04090 


LD 


(TMRFLG) ,A 


SAVE NEW FLAG BYTF 


726F 


3E60 


04100 


LD 


A,60H 


GET BREAK ON BYTE 


7271 


D302 


04110 


OUT 


(CRA) ,A 


START BREAK 


7273 


CD1F73 


04120 


CALL 


TMRON 


START TIMER 


7276 


185C 


04130 


JR 


RTADR 


DONE - RETURN FROM INT 


7278 


328274 


04140 


NOBRWT LD 


(TMRFLG) ,A 


SAVE NEW FLAG BYTE 


727E 


1857 


04150 


JR 


RTADR 


DONE - RETURN FROM INT 


727D 


CB4F 


04160 


CHKBl BIT 


1,A 


BREAK USING SET? 


727P 


2853 


04170 


JR 


Z -RTADR 


IF NOT, DONE - OOPS I 


7281 


47 


04180 


LD 


B,A 


SAVE FLAG BYTE IN B REG 


7282 


3E70 


04190 


LD 


A,70H 


GET BREAK STOP CMD 


7284 


D302 


04200 


OUT 


(CRA) ,A 


STOP BREAK 


7286 


78 


04210 


LD 


A,B 


GET FLAG BYTE BACK 


7287 


CB8F 


04220 


Ri=:S 


1,A 


CLEAR BREAK USE BIT 

lA.'tlirifi, conlinUL'd 




USE 



FASTER speeds up most TRS-80 
BASIC programs by 20-50%. It 
analyses programs while they 
run, then displays a simple 
change, usually one line, to 
sequence variables so the ROM 
will find them faster. 

You can use FASTER to speed 
up programs you've bought as 
well as programs you've written. 
Since it isn't a compiler, your 
BASIC programs can be read and 
changed afterwards. It works on 
business programs, models, and 
games. The more complex your 
program, the better the results. 
For the post 3 years, FASTER has 
earned high marks from review- 
ers and thousands of users: 
FASTER is a must lor any 
programmer ... It is in my 
opinion one o/ the best 
inexpensive utilities available." 
80 US JOURNAL (Apiil 1982) 
"li you . , , would like a 
significant increase in the 
run-time speed, then buy 
FASTER." 80 MICRO (April. 1382} 
EQUIPMENT: TRS-80 
Models I & III, 1G-48K Tape 
or Disk, all DOS's. $29.95 



QUICK 
COMPRESS 



This ultra-last machine lan- 
guage program reduces the size 
and increases the speed of most 
BASIC programs. It needs only 276 
bytes of memory, and removes the 
blanks and remarks from even the 
largest BASIC program in less 
than 3 seconds. Works with all 
DOS's, and is especially useful 
with LDOS, NEWDOS, and Model I 
TRSDOS. 

Models I & III, 16-48K, $19.95 

Tape or Disk 

SPECIAL: FASTER & QUICK $39.95 

ORDER NOW, TOLL-FREE 
(800) 824-7888, oper. 422 



Dept, G, Box 560, No. Hollywood, CA 91603 

[Z^3) 764-3131 Intormation and Same-Day Processing 

TERMS VISA, MC checks. COD Please add S2 00 shipping m 
U S or Canada. $5. 00 overseas, sales lax m Ca Mast 
orders filled wilhm one day 



80 Micro, January 1984 • 207 




HLE TRANSFER PROGRAMS 

TRS —►IBM PC or XT 
APPLE — ^►IBM PC or XT 

Transfer your TRS Model I, II, 111,4, 12 
or 16 files to the IBM PC or XT, 

Transfer your Apple II, II+, or lie files 
to ttie IBM PC or XT, 

• No more retyping or wasted time 

• Fast transfer-baud rates of 1 10-9600 

• RIe concatenation supported 

• Send files of any length 

• Make S$S - the IBM PC is new and 
software is scarce-take your "new" 
programs arxd sell them for S$S, 

• Transfer ASCII flies, random files, text 
files, data files, binary files, high level 
language programs (Basic, Pascal, 
Fortran. Cobol, etc.), electronic spread 
sheet data, word processor files, etc.; it 
all gets trarTsferred! 

The File Transfer Program comes 
complete with oil instructions, 
hardware and software (for both 
machines) 

FILE TRANSFER PROGRAM diskette 

(Works wth IBM DOS 1.1 or 2.0) 



APPLE 
TRS_ 



$94.95 
$89.95 



(state TRS model when ordering) 

Rus $2.00 shipping & handling 
(CA residents odd 6.5% State sales tax) 

MC/VISVCOD/CHECK OK 



Phone orders call 
(408)988-0164 

■ PERSONAL 

■ ■COMPUTER 

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IBM is a (egisteied Irodemark of Intetnoiicnal Busirwss 
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apple H, II+, and lie ara registered IrodernartiS of Apple 
Computer Inc 



PROJECT BO 



Li'^fmg coi 


linued 










7289 


CB57 


04230 


BIT 


2, A 


BEEPER WAITING? 


728B 


28EB 


04240 


JR 


Z .NOBRWT 


IF NOT, DONE - RETURN 


7280 


CB97 


04250 


RES 


2, A 


NO LONGER WAITING 1 


728F 


CBC7 


04260 


SET 


0,A 


BEEPER NOW USING 


7291 


328274 


04270 


LD 


(TMRFLG) ,A 


SAVE NEW FLAG BYTE 


7294 


3E10 


04280 


LD 


A,10H 


GET BEEPER MASK BYTR 


7296 


D30E 


04290 


OUT 


[SOPR] ,A 


TURN ON BEEPER 


7298 


CD1F73 


04300 


CALL 


THRON 


TURN ON TIMER 


729B 


1B37 


04310 


JB 


RTADR 


DONE - RETURN FROM INT 


729D 


DB01 


04320 RX0K2 


IN 


A, (SRA) 


CHECK STATUS REGISTER 


729F 


CB47 


04330 


BIT 


BXBITrA 


CHECK FOR RX CHAR INPUT 


72A1 


2831 


04340 


JR 


Z -RTADR 


IF CLR, FALSE ALARM 


7 2A3 


DB0D 


04350 


IN 


A, (INP) 


GET INPUT PORT BYTE 


7 2A5 


E640 


04360 


AND 


40H 


CHECK BIT 6 


7 2A7 


2006 


04370 


JR 


NZ, LEDON 


;IF SET, LED IS ON 


7 2A9 


3E40 


04380 


LD 


A,40H 


GET BIT 6 SET 


7 2AB 


D30E 


043 90 


OUT 


[SOPR) ,A 


TURN ON LED 


7 2 AD 


1802 


04400 


JR 


CONTX 


CONTINUE BELOW 


72AF 


D30F 


04410 LEDON 


OUT 


(COPR) ,A 


TURN OFF LED 


72B1 


ED5B7C74 


4420 CONTX 


LD 


DE, (BCOUNT) 


GET BUFFER COUNT 


72B5 


216B87 


0443H 


LD 


Hr,,BUFLEN 


GET LENGTH OF BUFFER 


72B8 


B7 


04440 


OR 


A 


CLEAR CARRY FLAG 


7 2B9 


ED52 


04450 


SBC 


Ht.,DE 


COMPARE VALUES 


72BB 


2004 


04460 


JR 


NZ . NRTADR 


IF SAME, IGNORE CHAR. 


72BD 


DB03 


04470 


IN 


A, (RXDA) 


GET CHARACTER - DISCARD 


72BF 


1313 


04480 


JR 


RTADR 


QUIT 


72Ci 


13 


04490 NRTADR 


INC 


DE 


ELSE INCREMENT COUNT 


72C2 


ED537C74 


04500 


LD 


(BCOUNT] ,DE 


ST^RE NEW COUNT VALUE 


72C6 


DB03 


04510 


IN 


A, (RXDA] 


GET INPUT CHARACTER 


72ca 


E67F 


04520 


AND 


7FH 


CLEAR UPPER BIT 


7 2CA 


2A7A74 


04530 


LD 


HT., (BEND) 


GET BUF END POINTER 


7 2CD 


77 


04540 


LD 


(HL) -A 


STORE CHARACTER IN BUF 


72CE 


CD0F72 


04550 


CALL 


UPDATE 


UPDATE POINTER 


72D1 


227A74 


04560 


LD 


(BEND) ,HL 


STORE NEW POINTER VALUE 


72D4 


08 


04570 RTADR 


EX 


AF , AF ' 


RESTORE ACC. AND FLAGS 


72D5 


D9 


04580 


EXX 




RESTORE GP REGISTERS 


72D6 


FB 


04590 


EI 




RE-ENABLE INTf^RRUPTS 


72D7 


C9 


04600 
04610 ! 


RET 




DONE - RETURN FROM ISR 


72D8 


FE0A 


04620 SCREEN 


CP 


LF 


CHECK FOR LINEFEED 


72DA 


C8 


04630 


RET 


Z 


IF SO, IGNORE 


7 2DB 


FE08 


046 40 


CP 


BS 


CHECK FOR BACKSPACE 


7 2DD 


2014 


046 50 


JR 


NZ .NXTl 


IF NOT, GO ON 


72DF 


2A8074 


04660 BS2 


LD 


HL, (CURSOR) 


ELSE, GET CURSOR POR . 


72E2 


3E20 


04670 


LD 


A, SPACE 


GET ASCII SPACE 


72E4 


77 


04680 


LD 


(HL) ,A 


REMOVE CURSOR ON CRT 


72E5 


2B 


04690 


DEC 


HL 


DECREMEHT CURSOR POINTER 


7 2E6 


7C 


04700 


LD 


A,H 


GET HIGH PTR BYTE 


72E7 


FE3B 


04710 


CP 


3BH 


SEE IF OFF SCREEN 


72E9 


2fl01 


04720 


JR 


NZ -FINE 


IF NOT, OK 


7 2EB 


23 


04730 


INC 


HI, 


ELSE, INCREMENT POINTER 


72EC 


3E5F 


04740 FINE 


LD 


A,CRSCHR 


GET CURSOR 


72EE 


77 


04750 


LD 


(HL) ,A 


PUT ON CRT 


72EF 


229074 


04760 


LD 


(CURSOR) ,HL 


SAVE NEW CURSOR POSITION 


72F2 


C9 


04770 


RET 




DONE - RETURN 


72F3 


FE7F 


04780 HXTl 


CP 


DELETE 


CHECK FOR DELETE 


72F5 


28E8 


047 90 


JR 


Z.BS2 


IF YE9, LIKE BACKSPACE 


72F7 


FE0C 


04600 


CP 


0CH 


CHECK FOR CLS CHAR. 


72P9 


CA7173 


04S10 


JP 


Z-CLS 


IF YES, CLEAR SCREEN 


72FC 


FE07 


04620 


CP 


07 H 


CHECK FOR BELT. CHAR- 


72FE 


202B 


04630 


JR 


NE .CHKRET 


IF NOT, CHEK FOR RETN 


7300 


F3 


04640 


DI 




DISABLE INTERRUPTS 


7301 


3A8274 


04850 


LD 


A, (THRFLG) 


GET TIMER FLAG BYTE 


7304 


CB4F 


04 660 


BIT 


1,A 


BREAK USING TIMER? 


7306 


2807 


04670 


JR 


Z -NOBRK 


IF NOT, ST^RT BELL 


7308 


CBD7 


04880 


SET 


2, A 


ELSE, BELL WAITING 


730A 


328274 


04890 


LD 


(TMRFLG) ,A 


STORE NEW FLAG BYTE 


730D 


FB 


04900 


EI 




RE-ENABLE INTERRUPTS 


730E 


C9 


04910 


RKT 




DONE - RETURN 


730F 


CBC7 


04920 NOBRK 


SET 


0,A 


BEEPER NOW USING TIMER 


7311 


328274 


04930 


LD 


(TMRFLG) rA 


SAVE NEW FLAG BYTE 


7314 


DB0F 


04940 


IN 


A, (STPTMR) 


STOP THE TIMER 


7316 


FB 


04950 


EI 




RE-ENABLE INTERRUPTS 


7317 


3E10 


04960 


LD 


A,10H 


TURN ON BELT. 


7319 


D30E 


04970 


OUT 


(SOPR) ,A 


SEND TO DUART OUT PORT 


731B 


CD1F73 


049 80 


CALL 


THRON 


TORN ON TIMER 


731E 


C9 


04990 
05000 ; 


RRT 




DONE - RETURN 


731F 


21FFFF 


05010 THRON 


LD 


HT, ,65535 


GET .28 SEC COUNTER COUNT 


7322 


7D 


05020 


LD 


A,L 


GET LOW BYTE 


7323 


D307 


05030 


OUT 


(CTLR) ,A 


WRITE LOW BYTR 


7325 


7C 


05040 


LD 


A,H 


GET HIGH BYTE 


7326 


D306 


05050 


OUT 


(CTUR) ,A 


WRITE HIGH BYTE 


7328 


DB0E 


05060 


IN 


A, (STTTMR) 


START THE COUNTER 


732A 


C9 


05070 


RET 




DONE - RETURN 


732B 


FE0D 


05080 CHKRET 


CD 


CR 


CHECK FOR RETURN 


732D 


280B 


05090 


JR 


Z.PROCRT 


IF YES, PROCESS IT 


732F 


FE20 


05100 


CP 


2»H 


CHECK FOR INVALID CHAR. 


7331 


D8 


05110 


RET 


C 


IF LESS, INVALID - RTN 


7332 


2A807 4 


05120 


LD 


HL, (CURSOR) 


ELSE, GET CURSOR POS. 


7335 


77 


05130 


LD 


(HL) ,A 


STORE CHAR. ON CRT 


7336 


CD4873 


05140 


CALL 


UPDCRS 


UPDATE CURSOR 


7339 


C9 


05150 


RET 




DONE - RETURN 


733A 


3E20 


05160 PROCRT 


LD 


A, SPACE 


GET ASCII SPACE CHAR. 


733C 


2A8074 


05170 


LD 


HT., (CURSOR) 


GET CURSOR POS, 


733F 


77 


0';i80 


LD 


(HL) ,A 


REMOVE CURSOR FROM CRT 


7340 


7D 


05190 


I,D 


A,L 


GET LOW CURSOR BYTE 


7341 


F63F 


05200 


OR 


3FH 


GO TO END OF LINE 


7343 


6F 


05210 


LD 


L,A 


PUT BACK INTD POINTER 

l.islmg conlmued 



208 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



Complete Business 
Software Package 



TRS-80 MOD. 11/12/16 
FLOPPY on HARD DISK 



o /Accounts r^ayabl* 
o Accoun'« R«c«t»(ibl» 
o Invantory 




(, Payfolt W/Job Coating 

o Rracllc* Miiagvmani 

o otructural Englnaarlng 

o R.vl.wd In April 80 MICRO 



Software Modules All Interactive 



P.O. BOX 223 - DEPT. A 
NEWTONVILLE, N. Y. 12128 



(518) 271-6825 



Now - Add External Monitors To Your Model III 




Plugging in VIDEO MOD leb you plug in your 
TV or extra Monitor for Big Scr»»n Viawing and 
Ramote Display. 

&raa( addition (or displaying Noma Gamei, Ctasi- 
room Initructiont, and pratanting inFormation at 
Buiinai* Meatingt. 

Standard features include: 

- Monitor and/or TV hookups. 

' Full 64 charactar wide screen display. 

- Worlci with any program or operating systam. 

- No cutting or soldering required for inttallation. 



CJB ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS 

2902 Eggert Road 
Tonnwanda, N.Y. 14150 Mfg. of Specialized 

(716) 837-9411 Computer Product* 



VIDEO MOD only $lb9.95 
ship. €f handling $ 2.00 

NY residents add ^ ^ ;, 

7% sales lax 



He-ink any fabric ribbon for 
less than 5<C. Extremely simple 
operation. We have a MAC 
INKER for any printer. 
Lubricant ink safe for dot 
matrix printheads. Multi- 
colored inks, uninked 
cartridges available. Ask for 
brochure. Thousands of 
satisfied customers. 

$5495 + 



Mac Switch lets you share 
your computer writh any two 
peripherals (serial or 
parallel). Ideal for word 
processors— never type an 
address twice. Ask us for 
brochure with tips on how to 
share two peripherals with 
MAC SWITCH. Total 
satisfaction or full refund. 

$ggoo 






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Computer 
Friends 

100 N.W. 86th Ave. 
Portland. OR 97229 "^^^ 
503/297-2321 



& MacSwitch 



SAVE TIME 
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GET MORE WORK OUT OF 

YOUR COMPUTER WITH 

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Our programs have 

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of people since 1980. 



ERRiinC "nsK DRhjES? 



RPM TO THE 
RESCUE 




Find out if your drives need adjust- 
ment before you begin to lose files. 
SAVE on repair bills. This easy-to-use 
program measures the rotational 
speed and fluctuations of your disk 
drives, and warns you if they are run- 
ning too fast, too slow, or unevenly. 

Incorrect or erratic speed is a com- 
mon cause of unexplained disk errors 
and loss of data. RPM's documentation 
explains how to detect and correct 
these problems quickly and easily. As 
80 MICRO (April, 1982) said: "If your 
drives have problems I recommend 
RPM before paying to get it repaired." 

Customers agree: 
"EXCELLENT— Has paid /or i(sel/ 
alreadyl Saved (he cost o/ Radio Shack's 
doing the speed adjust/" (D.M.) 
RPM is supplied on disk for the TRS-80 
Models 1, 3 and 4 (in 3 mode). We sug- 
gest you order a copy before you need 

RPM $24.95 



» 



Where is that 
Movie?' 

Find ii quickljj. eiisiiy Loilh 

l^IOGO TkPE 

TRACKER 

I akes Ihe work qui ol mflnaglng 
your video library easy lo u^e ■ 
stores over l.OOOlillGs* prinls 
beied labels • lists bylape and/ 
lille ■ searqbesby tape, lilla, or 
p performer ■ very tasT ■ rearty to j^e 



and the price is 
light Make 



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48K,2di>ks 




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(213) 764-3131 Intormation and Same-Day Order Proces- 
sing 

TERMS VISA MC CliechS COD P Eats add SZ DO Sli pp^nn in 
U S Pt Canada. S5 00 overseas sales ta:' m Ca Most 
orders fillsd- within one day 



>^ See list of Advertisers on Page 227 



80 Micro, January 1984 • 209 



REMSOFT, INC. 

Let Your TRS-80® 

Teach You 

ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE 

Tired of buying book after book on assembly 
language programming and still not knowing 
your POP from your PUSH? 

REMSOFT proudly announces a more 
efficient way, using your own TRS-80® to 
learn Ibe fundamentals of assembly language 
programming . . .at YOUR pace and YOUR 
convenience. 

Our unique package, "INTRODUCTIDN TO 
TflS-80'> ASSEMBLY PROGRAMMING, will 

provide you with the following: 

• Ten 40 minute lessons on audio 
cassettes 

• A driver program to make your TRS-80® 
video monitor serve as a blackboard for 
tfie instructor. 

• A display program for each lesson to 
provide Illustration and reinforcement for 
what you are hearing. 

• Step-by-step dissection of complete and 
useful routines to test memory and to 
gain direct control over the keyboard, 
video monitor, and printer. 

• How to access and use powerful routines 
in your Level II or Model III Basic ROM 

AVAILABLE FOR MODEL 1 & 3 

REMASSEM (tape) $74.95 

REMASSEM (disc) $79.95 

LEARN TRS-80® 

ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE 

DISK I/O 

Your disk system and you can really step 
out with REMSOFT'S Educational Ivlodule, 
REMDISK-1, a "short course" revealing the 
details of DISK I/O PROGRAMMING using 
assembly language. Intended for the student 
With experience and assembly language. 
COURSE INCLUDES: 

• Two 45-minute lessons on audio cassette 

• A driver program to make your TRS-80*- 
video monitor serve as a blackboard for 
the instructor. 

• A display program for each lesson to 
provide illustration and reinforcement for 
what you are hearing. 

• A booklet of comprehensive, fully 
commented program listings illustrating 
sequential file I/O random-access file 
I/O and track and sector I/O. 

• A diskette with machine readable source 
codes for all programs discussed in both 
Radio Shack EDTASM and f^acro 
formats. 

• Routines to convert from one assembler 
format to the other. 

PresBntly available for Model 1 only 
REMDISK-1 only $29.95 

DealBr inquiries invited 

Tlisse courses were Oeveloped and recorded by Josepd £ 
Willis and are Easefl on the successlul series ol courses he 
has taught at Mela Tectinologies Corporation, ttie RaOio 
Shack computer Center, and other locations m Northern Ohio 



REMSOFT, INC. 

571 E. 185 St. 

Euclid, Ohio 44119 

(216) 531-1338 



SHIPPING CHARGES 

$2.50 WiTHIN UNITED STATES 

$5 00 CANADA AND MEXICO 

OTHER FOREIGN ORDERS ADD 20% 

OHIO RESIDENTS ADD 6'h% SALES TAX 

IRS-80^' IS A TRADEMARK OF TANDY CORP. 





PROJECT BO 



Lining conlinued 












7344 


CD4e73 


05220 




CALL 


UPDCRS 


; UPDATE CURSOR 


7347 


C9 


e';230 




RRT 






DONE - RETURN 


7348 


23 


B5240 


UPDCRK 


INC 


HI. 




POINT TO NEXT DSP LOC. 


7349 


7C 


0>;250 




LD 


A,H 




GET HIGH PTR BYTE 


734A 


FE40 


05260 




CP 


40H 




OFF THE SCREEN? 


734C 


201C 


05270 




JR 


NZ .UPON 




IF NOT, DONE 


734E 


11003C 


05280 




LD 


DE,3C00H 




ELSE, PREP. TO SCROLL 


7351 


21403C 


05290 




LD 


HL,3C40H 




SOURCE POINTER 


7354 


01C003 


05300 




LD 


BC,1024- 


54 


MOVE COUNTER 


7357 


EDB0 


05310 




LDIR 






SCROLL THE DISPLAY 


7359 


21C03F 


05320 




LD 


HT.,3FC0H 




POINT TO BEG OF BOT ROW 


735C 


11C13F 


BR330 




LD 


DE,3FC1H 




POINT TO NEXT LOC. 


735f 


013F00 


05340 




LD 


BC,63 




BEG ROW COUNT - 1 


7362 


3E20 


05350 




LD 


A, SPACE 




GET ASCII SPACE 


7364 


77 


053(50 




LD 


(HL) ,A 




CLEAR FIRST LOC. 


7365 


EDB0 


05370 




LDIR 






CLEAR LINE 


7367 


2TC03F 


05380 




LD 


Hr.,3FC0H 




GET NEW CURSOR POS . 


736A 


3E5F 


0S390 


UPON 


LD 


A,CRSCHR 




GET CURSOR CHAR. 


736C 


77 


05400 




LD 


(HL) ,A 




PUT CHAR. ON CRT 


736D 


228074 


05410 




LD 


(CUR<;OR) 


HL 


SAVE NEW CURSOR POS. 


7370 


C9 


05 420 
05430 




RET 






DONE - RETURN 


7371 


21003C 


85440 


CLS 


LD 


Hr,,3C0aH 




POINT TO BEG OF CRT 


737 4 


11013C 


C5450 




LD 


DE,3C01H 




POINT TO NEXT LOC, 


7377 


01FF03 


C5460 




LD 


BC,1023 




GET COUNT - 1 


737A 


3E20 


05470 




LD 


A, SPACE 




GET ASCII SPACE 


737C 


77 


e.5480 




LD 


(HL) ,A 




POT IN FIRST LOC. 


737D 


EDB0 


05490 




LDIR 






CLEAR SCREEN 


737F 


21003C 


0.550 




LD 


Hr.,3C00H 




GET NEW CURSOR POS. 


7382 


228074 


05510 




LD 


(CURSOR) 


HL 


SAVE NEW POS. 


7365 


3E5F 


05520 




LD 


A,CRSCHR 




GET CURSOR CHAR. 


7387 


77 


05530 




LD 


(HL) ,A 




PUT ON CRT 


7388 


C9 


05540 




RET 






DONE - RETURN 






05550 


■ 


, 










05560 


; DEFINE 


MESSAGES: 




738^ 


2A 


05570 


SIGHSG 


DEFM 


'•* TRS- 


B0 TERMINAL EMULATOR V 1.0 "' 


73AF 


0D 


05580 




DEFB 


0DH 




73B0 


0D 


05590 




DEFB 


0DH 




73B1 


00 


05600 




DEFB 


00H 




73B2 


0D 


05610 


BDHSGl 


DEFB 


0DH 


CARRIAGE RETURN 


73B3 


2A 


05620 




DEFM 


'*»** CURRENT BAUD RATE IS ' 1 


73CD 


00 


05630 




DEFB 


00H 


END OF MESSAGE BDMSGl 


73CE 


0D 


056 40 


BDMSG2 


DEFB 


0DH 


CARRIAGE RETURN 


73CF 


2A 


05650 




DEFM 


'***' SELECT NEW BAUD RATE:' 1 


73E9 


0D 


05660 




DEFB 


0DH 


CARRIAGE RETURN 


73Efi 


2A 


05670 




DEFM 


'«*.* A= 


LIR B=30 C=6 00 D=1200 ' 


740A 


0D 


05680 




DEFB 


0DH 


CARRIAGE RETURN 


740B 


2A 


0'i690 




DEFM 


■•*•« E= 


2400 F=4800 G=9500 H=19200 ' 


743n 


00 


05700 




DEFB 


00H 




7431 


0D 


05710 


BDMSG3 


DEFB 


0DH 




7432 


2A 


05720 




DEFM 


'**** NEW BAUD RATE IS ' | 


744S 


00 


05730 
05740 
05750 


;DEFINE 


DEFB 
TABLES: 


00B 




7449 


n 


05760 


BDTBL 


DEFB 


IIH 


110 BAUD 


74''A 


44 


05770 




DEFB 


44H 


300 BAUD 


74''B 


55 


0*^780 




DEFB 


55H 


500 BAUD 


74iC 


66 


05790 




DEFB 


66H 


1200 BAUD 


744D 


88 


05800 




DEFB 


SRH 


2400 BAUD 


74'IE 


99 


0S81H 




DEFB 


99H 


4800 BAUD 


744F 


BB 


05820 




DEFB 


0BBH 


9600 BAUD 


74'^0 


CC 


05830 




DEFB 


0CCH 


19200 BAUD 


7451 


31 


05840 


BDTBL2 


DEFM 


'110' 




74'^4 


00 


05850 




DEFB 







74'^5 


33 


05860 




DEFM 


'300' 




7453 


00 


05870 




DEFB 







7459 


36 


05880 




DEFM 


'600' 




745C 


00 


05890 




DEFB 







74';d 


31 


0S900 




DEFM 


'1200' 




7461 


00 


0'^910 




DEFB 





'■ 


7462 


32 


05920 




DEFM 


'2400' 




7466 


00 


05930 




DEFB 







746'' 


34 


0S940 




DEFM 


'4800' 




746B 


00 


05950 




DEFB 







746C 


39 


05960 




DEFM 


■9600' 




7470 


00 


05970 




DEFB 







7471 


31 


05980 




DEFM 


'19200- 




7476 


00 


05990 
06000 
06010 


;DEFIHE 


DEFB 
STORAGE 







0001 




06020 


BDRATE 


DEFS 


1 


CURRENT BAUD RATE BYTE 


0002 




06 03 


BSTART 


DEFS 


2 


BUFFER START POINTER 


0002 




06040 


BEND 


DEFS 


2 


BUFFER END POINTER 


000? 




06050 


BCOUNT 


DEFS 


2 


BUFFER CHAR. COUNTER 


0002 




06060 


INTVEC 


DEFS 


2 


TRS-e0 INT VEC STORAGE 


0002 




06070 


CURSOR 


DEFS 


2 


CURRENT CURSOR PO.'^ITION 


0001 




06080 


TMRFLG 


DEFS 


1 


TIMER USE FLAG 


0001 




06090 


PRTFLG 


DEFS 


1 


PRINT1=:R OPERATION FLAG 


0001 




06100 


CLRFLG 


DEFS 


1 


CLE'iR KEY PRESSED FLAG 


0001 




06110 


BSDEL 


DEFS 


1 


BACKSPACE/DELETE LOCATION 


0002 




06120 


PR.'ITRT 


DEFS 


2 


PRINT BUFFER START POINTFR 


0002 




06130 


PRPND 


DEFS 


2 


PRINT BUFFER END POINTER 


0002 




06140 


PRCNT 


DEFS 


2 


PRINT BUFFER COUNTER 


03E8 




06150 


PRBUFR 


DEFS 


PRLEN 


PRINT BUFFER 


0000 




06160 


END LB L 


DEFS 





DUMMY LABEL 


a76B 




06170 


BUfLEK 


EQU 


TOPHEH-Ef 


DLBL-20H ;CHAR BUFR LEN. 


876B 




06180 
06190 


BUFFER 


DEFS 


BUFLEN 


INPUT CHARACTER BUFFER 


7000 




06200 




END 


TERM 




00000 


TOTAL 


ERRORS 










14:'00 


TEXT 


AREA BYTES LEFT 









210 • SOMicro, January 1984 



MET 



UPGRADE 

IliS ft(>, Mfxlfl 4 sysiiM- 
I (ip(,HAc1i JNt U (li'st, I h> 

mttprioNAl MDX b DISK 
ICONtKOIllH, ()M 10 iHrttk 

Disk Dnin, ( aI)!!". ■\n(\ 

HA,„lw,M,K j^ggq^ 

( IMllll II 



IVIL'A'Z PHONi MODIM, DISK T'UV 



( ONIKOllUi, K'UOM, Ji?K 

MlMOtiy Aid Ml ( ll MOIll 



Fllli AvMllhlKl 
S\M( « mill I m 



MDX'5 

tdft ilx MckIiI 1 t. 

aIhI ACl> llAS il<ipp\ (Jisl 

ihi IMlONi MonI 

SI !/l \l I'dU'l ini; 



$15Q95 



MDX'6 

Mi( IH) [)lsi(,NS MANfl 

Floppy DISKCONll 

HOAItl) Idfi SOU' \1< 



1 1 lit AsM«lilii1 



If you (Jon't know tRe NuivibER you should 



1-800-531-5002 



^ See Lisi of Advenisers on Page 227 



Sm our other ads cm pages 191 & 239. 



80 Micro. January 1984 • 211 




New Interactive Computm g Environment 

from XYZT Computer Dimensions^ Inc. 

Menus Screens 



u 



Visicalc nenu 



lldin flenu 



1. Tutorial 

2. 

3. Letters 

4. 

5. -Business 

6. 

7. 

8. Visicalc 



9. BASIC 
10. Utilities 
11. 

12.ConFiunications 
15. 

H.NICE developnenl 
15. 
16.Entertainnent 



Selection => < 






1 




Fornat utility 




Custoner retrieval 


Nane 


=> 




Address 


=> 




City 


=> 




State 


=> 


zip => 


Phone 


=> _ 




Ref => 






=> 







The most friendly user interface utilizing a set 
of menus. Runs utilities, wordprocessors, qames and 
applications directly from menus. Can be easily 
modified and customized. 



(tn). 



Visicalc interface 



^H A ■■■■■i B mp 


|£M|^4 4 ' ^^^^^^^y 


Description 


Date 


Anount 




Supplies 

Parking 

Shopping 


08/15/83 
08/20/83 
08/20/83 


$27.86 
$15.00 
$73.20 






Total : 


$116.06 





The information kept in the 
database can be processed 
by Visicalc. 

Special txjilt-ln Interface 

allows data transfer from 
Database to Visicalc. 



Full screen input/output, editing, 
formatting and validation, PF keys, 
messaqes, full cursor control. 
Can be used directly from BASIC. 

^Database 




Remarkably universal 
:and efficient data :::■>; 
processing system. W- 



Unlimited number of 

■files, true muitlkey i- 
access, no sorting::: 

: required. :■:■>:;:!:■:■:■:-:-:':■: :':':'^ 



Ideal for personal use; 
;and business systems.; 



Cormnurdcations 




Forms & Reports 



} 



Information can be output 'M- 
iin a variety of user defined ;:;x 
< formats. Standard and custom 
: letters, merge with database ::■ 
;invoices, inquiries ^^ZysMy?/- 
-reports can easily be 
specified and printed :;:i 




Tne Communication facility can be used for text and data transfer, 

auto dialing numbers from the data base, customized protocols^ etc. 
(Connunications available 1984;priced separately) 



The Systen is conpatible with TRS-80 nod I/III (nin 2 drive 48k) 
LDOS, NEUDOS/80, DOSPLUS and HULTIDOS price: 



$450.00 



KVZT Conputer Dinensions 
2 Penn Plaza, Suite 1500 
NV NV 10121 (212)244-5100 



212 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



Finding tine Searcii Solution 

by Joseph Trojak 

In our December issue, we published "Finding the 
Search Solution, " an article that discussed Mindex and 
Search, two Assembly-language programs that use sig- 
nature screening techniques. We inadvertently omitted 
Program Listing 12; it appears below. — Eds. 



men 



eflB2i 

mail 
Mull 

M!l2A 
0BB25 

B0e3B 
SBflSl 

Bsajj 
a8a3'> 

BBe36 
09837 

aaass 
mnii 

Mtli!l 

mei2 
mail 



aaa7a 

00071 
B007! 
B0073 
00074 



00091 
09092 
0a09j 



00096 
00097 
0009B 
00099 
00100 



00110 
80111 
80112 
80113 
00114 
0011S 
00116 



0120 
0121 
0122 
0123 
0124 



Program Listing 12. MAP general routines. 



];GH/SRC.1.2 

iJQn 21, 1SS3 




jHfii' GENERAL PURPOSE ROUTINES 
ICOPYRIGHT 1983, SOFTEHELL COKFOBATIOH 


ALL EIGHTS RESERVED 


GR PSECT I beg in 


relocatable ptogiaui sectLO 





ftPPEND 


;piiblic EQueines 


PIJBLIC 


:append one stcing to another 


PUBLIC 


EKE EC 


iblnary to decimal conversion 




□ECXB 




PUBLIC 


DLIHE 


;i!ra»i dotted line uidtn of acceen 


PUBLIC 


DSPMEE 


idieplay 5 char ASCII no. eight j 




D3PKBBL 




PUBLIC 


EftTBMK 


rbypass leading blanks 


PUBLIC 


EATHBNK 




PUBLIC 


ERROR 




PUBLIC 


FSPEC 


;get crad line file spec(s) 




GETMFK 


jget MAP !ile names (specs) 


PUBLIC 


LINE 


;disw line width of screen 




HUfil0 


imcltiply no. in A bv 18 


PUBLIC 


HUHLie 


;mQlciply no. in HL by 10 




PACK PS 




PUBLIC 


PABEEf 




PUBLIC 


REC0 


:fill buffer with 0's 


PUBLIC 


RECHI. 


;fill buffer uiCh blanks 


PUBLIC 


TSPEHT 


;tap enter tn continue routine 






.-public buffers 



PUBLIC 
PUBLIC 

PUBLIC 
PUEJ[,IC 



TMPNAM,TnPEXT.TnPP£W,TMPDDE 

shbh,se>;t,epsw,sddb 

IMAM.IEKT,IPHW.tDDR 
ONAM , OEKT . OPSH .OODR 



temp file spec table 
src file spec table 
inde^ file spec table 
output file spee table 



alls 



HODII or HODII 



EST EBB 
EXTEPH 
EJTEBN 
EXTEBN 
EXTEKN 
EXTERN 

e>:tern 

EXTERN 
EXTERN 
EXTERH 



KBLIKE,K[lLIN3,KBCHftK,KBWAIT,KEyiW,f!BIKn 

KBBBK 

VDCLa.VDLlNE,VIJCliAE,VDlNIT 

HOME , BUTTOM . NEHLN 

CURPOE.POSCQR 

ERfiS EL. ERASES 

DIVIDE, MULT 

ERRDSP 

JP2E0S.D0SCKD 

PTFE :pts to file spec on cmd li 



;MODII/III buffers and I/O parol 

, ABROWR , ARROWU , BRKKEY .EHIDTH , PEBULN 





CMDLFb 


:S3 buffers 


EXTERN 


;CJnd line file spec (V/tl) 






;key buffer (temp foi file spec) 






jGETMPM 




;get MAP file spec's 






jentry; HL-Jfile spec buffer 






je:tltT Grc. index and output 






; file tables are loaded 






; uitn file specs 

: 3=pacse ok. NS bad parse 

;reg altered: SF,EC,DE,UL 

; calls : PARSEF, APPEND 


GETMFN CflLJ, 


PARSEF 


ipaise first file name 






iabort if eiror while parsing 






isave A (first char aftec file spe 


PUSH 


HL 


isave HL (first char aftei file sp 




HL.TMPMAM 


imove tisp file specs to source fil 




DE,SNfiM 




CALL 


APPEND 


;moue source file name to ENAM 



HL,THPEXT 

DE,SEXT 

APPEND 

HL,TMPP£W 

I1E,5PSK 

APPEND 

}lL,TMPDDli 



rile e<t to sext 
tilt paosworcl to £P 
file drive to SDDR 



LU 


( rrJAM) ,A 


LD 


( lEXTJ ,A 


T.D 


(IPSW) ,ft 


r.D 


(IDDR) .A 


i'Ol' 


HL 


POP 


AF 


CP 


0DH 


JP 


I , GTMF 3 N 


CALL 


PARSEF 


PET 




PUSl! 


(IF 


POSH 


HL 


LD 


HL.THPNAM 


LD 


DErlNAM 


CALL 


APPEND 


LD 


HLrTHPEXT 


LD 


DE, IEXT 


CALL 


APPEND 


LD 


HLrTHPPSW 


LD 


DE.IPEK 


CALL 


APPEND 


LD 


HL,THPDDB 


LD 


DE, IDDR 


CALL 


APPEND 


POP 


Hr. 


POP 


AF 



ikip :n(l file spec if EOR 

jet second file spec 

Lbort If ector 

;ave A (first char after file spec 

iave HL (first char after file spec 

nove temp file specs to index file 



file e«t til lEX 



sword to IPSW 



1GTMF3W 
,-fiii in 



08129 
08130 
001J1 
80132 
60133 
00134 
0013 = 
00136 
001J7 
0011e 
00139 
00140 
a0Hl 
00132 
00143 
00144 
00145 
«014fi 
00147 
0O14t 
00149 
8015B 
80151 
00152 
00153 
00154 
80155 
00159 
00157 
80158 
30159 
80160 
60161 
80162 
80163 
80164 
00165 
00166 
00167 
0016!) 
00169 
00170 
00171 
08172 
09173 
08174 
08175 
08176 
08177 
00176 
90179 



00191 
00192 
80193 
80194 
00195 
00196 
00197 
0O19S 
00199 
08300 
08201 



00209 
80218 
8021) 
80212 
80213 
80214 
00215 
80216 
00217 
00218 
00219 
00220 
00221 
00222 
00223 
00224 
00225 
00225 
00227 
00229 
00229 
00230 
00231 
00232 
06233 
08234 
00235 
00236 
80237 
80238 
00239 
00240 



80247 
80246 
00249 
00250 
00251 
00252 
00253 
00254 
00255 
00256 



00261 
08262 
00263 
08264 
08265 
08266 
08267 
O026e 
00269 
00278 
00271 
8027i 
00273 
00274 
00275 



PQSH 




PUSH 




LD 


A. (INAHl 


CP 


0DH 


JP 


BZ.GTMF3X 


LD 


HL.BBAn 




DE,I!Jfln 


CALL 


APPEND 


LD 


A, (IEXT) 




9DH 


klP 


Ba,GTMF3P 


LD 


HL,MftPEXT 


LD 


DE,1EXT 


CiiLL 


APPEND 


LD 


ft, (IPSH) 




8DH 




NZ,GTMF3D 


LD 


HL.SPSW 


LD 


DE.IPEH 




APPEND 


I.D 


A. ( IDDR) 




0DH 


JP 


NZ .GTHF5 


T.D 


HLrSDDR 




DE, IDDR 


CAEJ. 


APPFNE) 



LD 


A,0DH 


LD 


(ONAHl ,A 


LD 


(DEXT) ,A 




(UPSW) ,A 




(ODDH) ,A 


POP 




■'UP 


AF 


LP 


0DH 


JP 


2,GTMF5N 




PARSEF 


RET 


NZ 


PUSH 


ftp 


PUSH 


HL 


LD 


HL.T.IPNAfl 


LD 


DE.ONAM 


CALL 


APPEND 


LD 


HT,,TnPEKT 




DE,OEXT 


CALL 


APPEND 


LD 


HL,THPP3K 


LD 


DE,OPSH 


CALL 


APPEND 




HL,TMPDDR 




DE,ODDR 


CALL 


APPEND 


Pap 


IlL 


POP 


A'^ 



MAPEXT DEFH 
DEFE 

OUTEXT DEFH 
DEFB 



A, (ONM) 

BDH 

Nl .GTMF6X 



?i,(OEXT) 

8DII 

NZ.GTMF5P 

HI..OUTEXT 

DE,OEXT 

JVPPEND 

ft, (DP,™) 

ODR 

NI.GTHF5D 

HL,3PSW 

DE,OPEH 

APPEND 

A. (ODDS! 

ODEl 

NZ ,GTM.;7 

HLrSDDR 

DE,ODDP 

APPEND 



'MftP' 
0DH 

'Oe;t' 

ODH 



;skip if index file name 
;copy source name to inde 

;skip if index file ext e 
iput "Mftp" in indes file 

;skip if inde* file psw c 
;copy source psw to index 

:skip if output file iJriv 
jcopy source d[ to ijiilex 



:Ct.1F& 

jprocess output file spec 

; reset output file specs 



;Ekip 3rd file spec if EOR 
iget third file spec 
!abort If error' 

iSave ft (first char after file spec 3) 
^save EIL (fust char after file spec 31 

rmoue temp filo specs to output file spt 

;rnove output file ext to OEXT 
!move output file password to OPSEV 
;move output file drive to CDDR 



;EiTKF5N 

!f 1 ;l m output file 



:skip if output file name enLcicd 

:vafiY source Eianc to j,-.Jex riii-je 

■skip iL output file e»t en-.ered 
■put "OEET" in outpi,t file extensi 

:3klp if output file psw entered 

■copy souice psw to output psw 

copy source dr to yutpat dr 



;GTHF7 
jend of 



SNAM 


DBFS 


9 


source file name 


SEXT 


DBFS 


4 


source file esteneion 




DBFS 


9 




SDDR 


DEFS 


2 


source file citlve 


INAM 


DEFE 


9 


index file name 


IEXT 


DEFS 


i 






DEFE 


9 




IDDR 


DEFS 


2 


index file drive 




DEFE 


9 


output file name ■ 








output file estension 








output file password 








output file drive 








PAHSEF 




parse file spec 








entry: HL->file spec 








exit; 2=parse ok, Nz=bad parse 








temp file spec table is 








loadefl with file spec 








te^ alteredL AF.BC,DE,HL 








calls; EfllBKK 








e^llt pts: PHSOK.PREERR 


PARSEF 


LD 


A.0DH 


reset temp file spec buffers 



(TMPNfln) ,ft 
(TMPEHT) ,A 
(MPPSW) .A 
(TWPDDR) .A 

DE, THEN AH 

C.8 

EATEN E 

fl.(HL) 

V 

E, PRE EXT 

Z , PREP2U 

Z rPBSDDR 



move leading blanks 



password 
di!.k liriv 



Lisnng 12 conlinued 



80 Micro, January 1984 • 213 



Listing 12 conliiiued 



flBi77 
8057 6 
3S1-I9 



00235 
002Se 

00287 

0B289 
0290 
00291 
00292 
002S3 
00294 
00295 
00299 
00297 
0029!! 
0f299 
00J00 
00301 
00302 
00303 



00310 
00311 
00312 
00313 

00314 
00315 
00316 
00317 
SBSia 
00319 
0B320 
09321 
09322 
09323 
09324 
09325 
00326 
00327 
00328 
00329 
00330 
0S331 
00332 
00333 
00334 
00335 
00336 
00337 
00338 
0B339 



00341 
00342 
00343 
00344 
0B31'j 



00319 
00350 
00351 
00352 

00353 
00354 
00355 
00356 
90357 
00356 
09359 
00360 
00361 
00362 
00363 
09364 



00369 

00370 
00371 
00372 
00373 
00374 
00375 
0037b 
09377 



00389 
90390 
90391 
110392 
00393 
90394 
00395 
00396 
90397 
90396 
00399 
00400 
00401 
00492 
B0493 



00411 
00412 
00413 
0B414 
09115 
00416 
00417 
09418 
90419 
00429 
09421 
00422 
09423 



PRE ERR LB 



THPNAM 
THPEXT 
TMPPHH 
TMPDDf 



PflCKFS LD 



z.prsb™ 

I , PRECOH 

BDH 

I,PRS0DH 



INC 


HL 


INC 


DD 


JE 


PBSt.Pl 


PRSEKT LD 


A<0DII 


LD 


(DE) A 


LD 


de,™pekt 


IKC 


HL 


T.D 


C,3 


PESLP2 LD 


A. (HL) 


C? 




JR 


I.PREPSH 


CP 




Jli 


Z.PRSDDR 


CP 


' ' 


JP 




CP 




JP 


2. PRE COM 


CP 


0DIi 


JP 


Z,PRS0Dli 


CP 


1 . 1 


JP 


Z,PRSErtL 


LD 


iDEl ,A 


LD 


A.g 


CP 


C 


JP 




DEC 


c 


IKC 


HL 


i:jL 


DE 


JP 


PRSLP2 


PPEPSW LU 




LD 


( DE) A 


INQ 


HL 


LD 




LD 


C,8 


PRiLPJ LD 




CP 




JR 


Z . PREDDR 


CP 




JR 


Z.PRSENK 


CP 


' , ' 


JR 




CP 


ODE 


JR 


Z.PRS0DH 


CP 




JR 


Z.PREEHI 


LD 




LD 


A,0 


CP 


C 


JP 


Z.PRSERR 


DEC 


C 


INC 




IMC 


DE 


Jil 


PKSLP3 


E-j<aDDB Lli 




LD 


(DE) ,A 



Z.PRSBNB 
2 , PR.'SCO.I 



LD 




LD 


(DE).ft 


CALL 


EATEN K 


LD 




CP 


0DE 


3R 




CP 


1 , ' 


JR 


N3.PRE0K 


INC 




CALL 


EATBBK 


JH 


PR3DK 


IdC 


HL 


LD 




LD 


(DE).ft 


CSLL 


EATBHK 


JR 


PRSOE 


NOP 




LD 




LD 


(DE) ,ti 


LD 


A. ' : ' 


JG 


PRSOK 


[,D 


A,0DH 



III temiJ name bulfe 



pasword 
disk dtj. 
lilank 



ve t^ temp ext Buffe 
ror iC ekt > 3 char 



;pt tu char afte 



.paise passwntd 



blank 



7 EOR 

-/ Eemicolc 



ror If paaswDcd 



;Blankg encountered 
!Ski|i trailiiiq blanks 



;diiS coraraa terminate blankE? 
,-if not continue 
;else bujnp HL and then contir 
;sfcip any trailing blanks 



skip tiailing blanks past 



m. A=(HL) - al-ays non-blank 
\jliile patsiny Tili? sp^'C 



;temp storage for file name 

Iterop storage for extension 

jtemp storage toe password 

Itemp storage for disk drive 





rpack file spec 




;entry; HL->file spec table 




I DE->paoked string buffer 




ire9 altered: AE.DE.blL 




;calls: APPEND 




;tiit pts: PACK96 


(STOFE) ,HL 


;st01e HL 


APPEND 

HL , ( STOPS ) 


J append file name 




DE.9 




HL.DE 


rElL -> «it 



Z,PACP02 
A,V 
(DE) ,A 



00427 
0042S 
00429 
00430 
00431 
00432 
00433 
00434 
00435 
00436 
00437 
00433 
00439 
00440 
00441 
00442 
00443 
00444 
00445 
00446 
00447 
00446 
00449 
00450 
00451 



00464 

00465 
00466 
00467 
00468 
00469 
M470 
00471 
00472 
00473 
00474 
00475 
00576 



00483 
90484 
90485 



00500 
00501 
00502 
09SQ3 
00504 
00505 
00506 
00507 



00510 
00511 

00512 
00513 
00514 
00515 
00516 
00517 
00518 
00619 
00520 
00521 
00522 
00523 
00524 
00525 
09526 
09527 
09526 
00529 
00539 
90531 
90532 
00533 
90534 
90535 
90536 
00537 
90538 
90539 
00540 
00541 
00542 
90545 
00544 
00545 
00546 
0G547 
00548 



B0554 
00555 

00556 
00557 
00558 
00559 
00560 
00561 
00562 
00563 
00564 
00565 
00566 
00567 
00568 
00569 
00570 
00571 
00572 
00573 
00574 
00575 
00576 
00577 



CAF.L 


APPEND 


PUEH 


DE 


LD 


HL, (STOFE) 


LD 


DE,13 


ADD 


HL,De 


POP 


DE 


LD 


A,ODi[ 


CP 


(HL) 


JR 


Z.PACK0 4 


LD 


A. ' , ' 


LD 


(DE) ,A 


INC 


Dt 


LD 


A.flDH 


LD 


(DE) ,A 


CALL 


APPEND 


PUEH 


DE 


LD 


HL. (STOPS) 


LD 


DE.22 


ADD 


HL,Di; 


POP 


DE 


LD 


AiODH 


CP 




JR 


Z, PACK 06 



PACK 06 
STOFE 



ETBKED LD 



TftPENT LD 

CALL 
TAPKBW CALL 



;HL -> password 



!Sl:ip If null cecntci 
lappend password delimi 



jappend password 



iHL -> disk dr 



skip if null iBiiu 
aiipcnd drive deli 



eats blan);a in string 
entcy; HL-Jstsrt of string 
esiti HL->£irst non-blank olia 
re^ altered: SF,HL 



;jp to end of routine if 

;get next cliar 

; loop 

ifiist cliac after blanks 





.OP 




; EATNBKK 


EATNBHK 


;eats non-blank cliar in string 








istring must end «itn ODH 








lentry; HL-> start of string 








leilt; HL->fi[Bt blank or odh in 








1 A = ficBt non-Clans oliar 








;ceg alceredi AF.HL 


etwbkl: 


LD 


A, (HL) 


iload cliar into A 








FChac '^ ■ •-! 






Z,£TNBKED 


;:P to end of routine if blank 








icbar ^ E0H2 




JR 


Z,ETNBKED 






INC 


HL 


iget neit cliat 




JR 


ETNDKLP 


sloop 








!A = (HL) 








f APPEND 


;iiPPtNr 


sappends one string to another 








;both strings must have EOR (03 o 








jentry: HL-> string to append 








; DE->EOR at end of destina 








leKit; HL-IBOH of sourte string 








i DE->EOR of destination st 










APPEND 


LD 


A, (HL) 


;load A with source ctiar 






(DE) .A 


Fiiiove char to destination string 






0DH 


FC)iar = EOE? 






Z.APPOe 


;1P to end if EOP 




CP 


i 


:char = BOB? 




JR 


Z.APPOE 


;ip to end if BOB 




INC 


HL 


Fget next char 






DE 


Fposition to ne^t destination cha 




J)t 


APPEND 


Floop 



BECBL, RBCO 



RECA 



load a 256 char buffer *i,th one r.h 

entry points: RECBL, BEC0 or RECA 

RECBL: fill with blanks 

RECO: (ill With 9's 

RECfl; fill with ohsr in A cegiste 

entry; liL->start of buffet 

exit; 

reg altered: A. BC . DE, HL 

fill ulth blan);s 

1P to fill routine 

fill with 0's 

load £111 char into A 

DE-HL 

DE=11L + 1 

fill next 255 bytes 

raoue (HD) to (HL'l - DE) 



jTSPENT 




:'Tap enter key' routine 




rentryj no pacw 




rexit: no parm 




iieg altered: AF,DE,HL 




icalls; VDLINE.KBWMT 




;display "Tap enter key" 


nsg 


;wait until key pressed 




F? <enter> 




F loop it not ientec> 





LD 


HL.ERROl 


CALX. 


VDLINE 


LD 


A, BDH 


CALL 


VDCHAB 


POP 


AF 


CALL 


ERRDEP 


CALL 


TAPE^JT 


JP 


J? 2 DOE 


DEEM 


■ERROR' 


DEFE 


ODH 



E 


ROR 










fatal 
entry 
exit; 


system 
A=sys 
jp to 


tern erioc oode 

TRSDOS 


asp " 


BjlOR" 


ode 

nisg 


in A 





idisplay system 
Ttap <enter> to 
;:P CO system 



LD 


IX.DECBUF 


LD 


IV.PIOTAE 


LD 


C,0 


XOR 


A 


INC 


C 


LD 


E,(1Y+01 



;b>;dec 










;bin (unsigr 


ed) to 


oc 


r.on 


version 


F entry: HL ■ 


ontains 


r\r 






;exit: HL- 


DECBUF 




in 


ASCII) 


;teg alterei 


: AF,BC 


ID 


liL 


IX, lY 


Fcalls: none 










rcxit pt: BXJP7 








;point to cc 


nversio 


t 


hl = 




F^eio digit 


count 








Fzero A 










Fine digit 


ount 









Listing 12 continued 



214 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



Listing 12 continued 



00581 
005e2 
005S1 
0B584 



095S7 
B8588 
00Sg9 

00591 
0B592 
00593 

00594 
0B595 
0059« 

597 



0599 



00615 
00616 

B0617 



«0e22 

00623 

BB674 
00625 
00636 
00627 
0B62S 
00629 
09630 
08631 



00661 
00662 
00663 



00672 
00673 
00674 
00675 
00676 
00677 
00678 
00679 



00695 
00^96 
BB697 



00700 
00701 
00702 
00703 
00704 
00705 
00705 
00707 
907B8 
007B9 
007)fl 
00711 
B0712 
B0713 
B07H 
00715 
B0716 
00717 



Jp 


c,a>;jpi 


INC 




JB 


EXLFl 


flCD 


HL.DE 


fiDD 


A, 43 


W 


lIX+0) .A 


INC 


IX 


IHC 


IV 


INC 


TV 



convecsion complete 
now blanit out leading 

pt to chac buffer 



BKjes 


CP 


(KL) 






H3,BXJP5 
(HL) ,' ' 




INC 


HL 




JR 


BXJP3 


BXJP5 


LD 


hi..dei:eijfe 




LD 


A, ' ' 




CP 


(EL) 




JE 


HZ,£XJP7 




LD 




BXJP7 


LD 
RET 


HL.DECBl,T 


PI TAB 


DEFH 


10B0B 
1000 




DEPW 


100 




DEFh- 


10 


PieiABE 


DEFW 


1 


DBCBUF 


DEPS 


4 


DECBUPi. 









DEFB 


3 



exit fr 
replace 
pt to o 




^t 


loop if 
with bl 
chai 


looo 









if last ohai bla 



il-5 c.iar ftbCSI d 


c to bl 


lentry HL->5 ohac 


bQffec 




ith 0DH 


■.exit (EL) has bl 




;Z valid. NI not 


alld 





LD 


(SUM) .Da 




LD 


CO 


DECSB2 


i,n 


fl, (liL! 




CP 


fiDH 




JP 


. Z,DECSE3 




lt!C 


RL 




IHC 


C 



DECXIS3 NOP 



00642 


PUSH 


HL 


0B643 


POP 


IX 


0B644 


LD 


B.l 


BB645 






BB64e 


>ec:>;bj nop 




00647 


LD 


A.0 


BB64i! 




': 


BB649 


JP 


2,CeCXB7 


B965fl 






BB6S1 


LD 


A, (IK+0) 


006 52 


CP 




00653 


JP 


Z,DECXB7 


00654 


CP 


5B 


0B655 




P,DECXB9 


00656 


CP 


48 


BB657 




H,DECKB9 



ight to lett 



Fqet neit digit 



DECXB5 

DECXB6 



JP 


NZ,DECXD5 


POP 


P.F 


CP 


6 


JP 


H,DEC*B6 


JP 


NZ ,DECXB9 


LD 


HL,5535 


LD 


DE,(aun) 


OB 


A 


SBC 


BL.DE 


JP 


C,i:ECXB9 


JP 


DECXB6 


POP 


AF 


LD 


L,(IV+31 


LD 


H,(Ii+l) 


CALL 


IflJLT 


LD 


DS, (SUHl 


ADD 


FIL.DE 


LD 


(KUM) ,.il. 


DEC 


lY 


DEC 


IV 


DEC 


IX 


DEC 


c 


INC 


B 



;5th digit <6 
;5cn digit >6 
iSth digit =6 





SET 


O.A 




RET 




DECXBO 


NOP 




DECXB9 


LD 


[1L,0 




SET 


1,A 




RET 




SUM 


UEFW 





■/////////////////////// 


JDECSB 







EECXBL LD 



EATBNK 
A,(HL) 
ODE 

j.oecxee; 

DE,0 

(sum ,DE 
A, (HL) 



decimal to bin oonvecslon 
no. ends uith 0DH oc blank 
entry HL->3tait at string 
exit: valid (HL)-bin no.. A = set 

Invalid (HLI=6, A = set 1 
calls: MUHL10 
destroys: A,D.E,II,L 

get digit 
null string? 
abort i£ nQll 
initialize suip 



00718 

96719 
00720 
00721 
00722 
00723 
00724 
007 25 
00726 
00727 
00728 
00729 
00730 
00731 
00732 
00733 
00734 
00735 
00736 
00737 
0B738 
0B739 
00740 
00741 
00742 
90743 
00744 
00745 
30746 
B0747 



00751 
60752 
60753 
90754 
00755 
90756 
30757 
30758 
00759 
00760 
00761 
00762 
90763 
00761 
00765 
007(6 
00767 
00768 
00769 
00770 
00771 
00772 
00773 
07 7 ■; 
00775 
00776 
00777 
00778 
00775 
007 80 
lt0781 



B0790 

30791 
B0792 
00793 



aosee 
ooses 

00810 
90S11 
90312 
00813 
00814 
00815 
00316 
00817 
00S1E 
00819 
00820 
00821 
00822 
00823 
00824 
00823 



0832 
0833 
0834 



B0B39 
840 
00841 



00851 
00852 

90853 
00854 
90855 
90856 
'00857 
00858 



JP 


M.DECXBB 


CP 


58 


JP 


P.DECXBB 


SUli 


48 


LD 


D.O 


LD 


E.a 


LD 


HL,(S(;i1) 


ADD 


liL,DE 


JP 


C,DECXEE 


LD 


(SUM) ,HL 


POP 




INC 




PEER 


HE. 


LD 


A,(RL) 


CP 


0DH 


JR 


Z.EECXBE 


CP 


' ' 


JP 


ZiDECXBE 


LD 


liL, (SUM) 


LD 


□E.6554 


QE 


A 


SEC 


>1L,DE 


JP 


P.DECXBB 


LU 


HL.ISUM) 


CALL 


NUHLia 


LD 


(SUM) ,HL 



DECXEE POP 


HL 


J.D 


BL, (SUM) 




O.A 


KET 








DECXBE2 LD 


HL,0 


SET 


l,ft 


SET 





HUMO 


LD 


H.0 




LD 


L,A 


HUHL10 


ADD 


E L , 1) L 
D.H 




LD 


E.L 




ADD 


H L , E L 




ADD 


HL.EL 
HLrDE 



PUSH 


BC 


PUSH 


DE 


PUSH 




PUSH 


IV 


CALL 


BXDEC 


CALL 


VDLINE 


POP 


LY 


POP 


a 


POP 


DE 


POP 


BC 


POP 


AF 


PET 





ESPN 


HI 


PUSH 


AF 






PUSH 


BC 






PUSH 


UE 






PDEH 


IX 






POSH 


IT 






CALL 


BJ^DEC 






CALL 


EATBNK 



LD 


(LCIIAR) ,A 


J.D 


CSHIDTH 


LD 


A,(LCHAE) 


CALL 


VDGHAR 


DEC 


C 


LD 


A,0 


CP 


C 


JB 


NZ.LINE2 



BET 
FIJD 



fsave string pos 

iChar < 

;char > 9 
;convert to bin 

ibin value to DE 



;pt to nest ohoc 

;EOP? 

;e»it on EOR 

Jblank in string? 

;enlt If non-leading blank 



tore staok 

alid no. so set ^ 

et 2 (0) 



IMUAIO and MUHL19 



entry: h or HL contains r^a. 

eiit: KL contains product 

reg altered; AF.DE-HL 

mult t in A by IB 

Jiove A to HL 

™iult # in HL by 19 



;hILlDE contain 2'no. 
;HL contains 4'no. 
iHL contains 8'no. 



.■display bin 

idsp at cmre 
Fently: (HL) 



jdsp bin no. as left i^stified dec no. 
lentry; (HL) = no. 

iieg altered: HL 



iconvert bin to dec, HL-lde 
jremove leading blanks 
jHL-sfirst non-blank char i 



draus line f 

ent:ry: ft=cha 
reg altered: 


)r witn oE 
for line 

AF.C.DE 


C ^ vldth of 
place obac i 

dsp A 


1 h 


" 




end ol line? 
loop until e 


nd of 


ll 


J 



to be displayed 



;geE file spec cmd line 

iPTPS Is different for Hod II and III 

;HL ->eile spec after cmd 

;move file spec's to KEYBDF 

:set to no 

:get first cttar of KEVEUF 

;is 1st char of PEVBUF = EOR? 

jretucn i£ null entry after cmd 



80 Micro, January 1984 • 215 



BOOKS 




IN^DE YOUR 
COMPUTER 




IRSIMCLAIR 




REST 

OF 

BO 

all 

new 

tutorials 

aiKi 

utiKties 



•m 



BOOKS 






>.Jf. 



Introduction to TRS-80 
Data Files 

Learn by doing with this 
guide to writing a data 
base manager. This 
booli, with its 
accompanying software, 
(a/tes you through a 
simple mailing list 
program to teach you 
about sequential and 
then random access 
files. The construction of 
a DBM and the 
techniques for moving 
data to and from disks 
are discussed. Book and 
TRS-80 disk $24.97 
BK7398 approx. 144 pp. 




Inside Your Computer 

Find out what goes on 
inside your TRS-80. 
Inside Your Computer 
explains microcomputer 
circuits and how they 
work. Topics include 
chips, Interpreters, 
circuits, machine 
language, binary 
numbers, algorithms, 
ASCII code, software, 
and what they all mean 
to the computer 
Includes many 
photographs and 
schematics. $12.97 
BK7390 108 pp. 



TEXTEDIT 

a complete 
worc^roce^ng 
system in fell 



TRS-80 as a Controller 

Learn to control outside 
devices with a TRS-80. 
This book is an Intro- 
duction to interfacing, 
with simple, inexpensive 
projects. Applications 
include controlling lights 
and switches, building a 
small computer, and 
suggestions for more 
complex projects. The 
book applies to the 
Model III and, with minor 
conversions, to the 
f^odel I. $12.97 BK7394 
192 pp. 



The Rest of 80 

Get the 80 Micro articles 
so good we put them in a 
book. These 31 never- 
before-publlshed 
tutorials and utilities 
were hand-picked for 
Model I and Model III 
users. You'll get graphics 
sorts, renumbering, 
Pascal tutorials, and 
more. Both BASIC and 
assembly-language 
programs are included. 
Complete listings are 
given, with photographs, 
schematics, and 
examples. $9.97 BK7392 
232 pp. 






I:™!!! Rappapoit 



A WATTTFl GREEN 
PHBTJCATION 



by 

George 




TRS-80/Z80 Assembly 
Language Library 

Learn to use assembly 
language on the Model I 
to Its full capacity. Two 
TPSDOS-compatible 
disks are included, with 
programs worth many 
times the book's cost. 
You'll learn about TRS-80 
hardware and software, 
general Z80 routines, and 
TRS-80 utility programs. 
Examples show you how 
to apply the information 
to your everyday 
programming. Model ill 
conversions are given. 
$4.50 shipping and 
handling $34.97 BK7395 
355 pp. Disks included 



Birildinj; Vdiie On n 
Cfimpiilerl 



Computer Carnival 

For the Models I and III. 
These sixty programs tor 
beginners will entertain 
and educate. Children 
will find mazes, word 
games, graphics, 
puzzles, and quizzes. 
Card games, logic tests, 
word and number 
quizzes, and letter 
guesses make Computer 
Carnival a learning 
experience. The Carnival 
Companion cassette of 
all sixty programs is also 
available. Computer 
Carnival and Carnival 
Companion $24.97 
CC7389 Computsr 
Carnival $16.97 BK7389 
218 pp. Carnival 
Companion $9.97 
TP7389 



TEXTEDIT 

Build your own word 
processor with the 
TEXTEDIT kit. This Disk 
BASIC system Is built in 
modules, so you can 
modify them or use only 
the parts you need. 
Features include 
complete editing, search, 
replace, and count, and 
upper/lowercase typing 
on an unmodified Model 
I. Model III users need 
the TRSDOS CONVERT 
utility to use the disk. 
TEXTEDIT is compatible 
with any major DOS. It 
operates with one drive; 
two drives or copy utility 
needed to transfer 
programs to system disk. 
Book and disk package 
$24.97 CC7387 



The Selectric™ 
Interface 

You can turn an IBM 
Selectric I/O writer into a 
letter-quality printer for 
your TRS-80. Ttie 
Selectric Interface g/ves 
you the programs and 
step-by-step instructions 
you need for Selectric 
models 2740, 2980, and 
Dura 1041. With slight 
modification, the 
instructions will also 
work for other chips. 
$12.97 BK73S8 124 pp. 



Annotated BASIC, vol. 
land 2 

This two-volume set 
teaches you the hows 
and whys of BASIC 
programming. TRS-80 
Level II programs are 
taken apart and 
described in detail. Each 
program is accompanied 
by documentation, 
program annotation, 
BASIC concepts and 
definitions, and a 
flowchart. Volume 1 
$10.95 BK7384 160 pp. 
Volume 2 $10.95 
BK7385 125 pp. 



Kilobaud Klassroom 

Learn electronics with 
this hand-on course. This 
collection of electronics 
projects starts with 
simple concepts and 
takes you on to building 
your own small 
computer You'll learn 
electronics theory and 
get the practice you need 
to master digital 
electronics. $14.95 
BK7386 393 pp. 



For credit card orders, call toll-froe, 1-800-2S8-S473. Or send your order on a separate piece ol paper to Wayne Green Books, Retail Sales, Peterborough, NH 03458. Be sure to include the 
txxik title, order number, and price. Postage and handling, is $1.50 lor the first book, SJ.OO for each additional book. Foreign air mail is $10.00 pertiook. Check, money order, or complete 
credit card information must accompany your order It you have questions about your order, mite customer service at the above address. 



216 • 80 h/ticro, January 1984 




micro's 



SECOND ANNUAL 
READER'SCHOICE 

AWARDS 



Like a receding wave, the deluge of 
Reader's Choice ballots has ebbed 
to a dribble. No more stacks of ballots 
waiting to be punched in on Monday 
mornings. No more smoke rising from 
the vents of the Model III. From the 
beleaguered editorial and technical 
staff of 80 Micro, here are the results. 

We counted fewer write-ins this 
year, no doubt due to our decision to 
expand the number of nominees and 
increase the number of categories to 
38. Only three write-ins placed this 
year; SuperScripsit (how could we have 
left it out?). Donkey King, and GEAP 
Dotwriter. 

Radio Shack, a natural heavy in the 




balloting, took 21 categories and 
placed 35 times overall. Among the fi- 
nalists for Model l/lll disk operating 
systems, Radio Shack is noticeably 
absent. 

Heaviest response was for Model 
I/III disk operating systems, word pro- 
cessors, and utilities. Again this year, 
the first place winners are NEW- 



DOS/80, Scripsit, and Super Utility 
Plus, respectively. 

Each category includes the three lop 
finishers, except in the case of ties or 
where we could determine no clear 
third place winner. Although we made 
no provision for the protest vote, we 
should mention that there were few. 
These ranged from blank ballots to a 
few dirty words (except for Tim 
Schuyler, of Chico, CA, who taped his 
ballot to a brick). 

A special thanks goes to David 
Walonick for his efforts in compiling 
this year's ballots, and thanks to the 
many readers who mailed in ballots. 
The results speak for themselves. ■ 



Model I/III 

Accounting 

l.Maxi Cras (Adventure Interna- 
tional) 

2. Accounts Payable (RS) 

3. Datagraph (Micro Software 
Systems) 

Business 

1. VisiCalc (VisiCorp) 

2. Tallymaster (Prosoft) 

Data Base Management 

1, Profile III Plus(RS) 



2. AIDS-lll (Softrends) 

3. Profile (RS) 

Ma.xi Manager (Adventure Interna- 
tional) 

Data Communications 

1. Omniterm (Lindbergh Systems) 

2. Modem 80 (Alternate Source) 

3. Videotext Communications 
Package (RS) 



Disk Operating Systems 

1. NEWDOS/80 (Apparat) 



2. DOSPLUS (Micro-Systems Soft- 
ware) 

3. LDOS 5.1 (Logical Systems) 

Education 

1. Typing Tutor (Microsoft) 

2. K-8 Math with Student Manage- 
ment (RS) 

3. Typing Teacher (Instant Software) 

Engineering 

1. Active Filter Design (Howard W. 
Sams & Co.) 

80 Micro, January 1984 • 217 



2. Surface Plot (Micro Labs) 


2. Omniterm (Lindbergh Systems) 


3. Plotting Graphs for Video Display 


3. ST80-lli (Small Business Systems 


(Howard W. Sams & Co.) 


Group) 


(iaines 


nisk Operating Systems 


1. Flight Simulator (Sublogic Group) 


1. TRSDOS(RS)" 


2. Scarfman (Cornsofi Group) 


2. DOSPLUS II (Powersoft Prod- 


3. Star Fighter (Advcuturc Interna- 


ucts) 


tional) 


3. CP/M (Digital Research) 


Graphics 


Fdueation 


1. Powerdraw (Powersoft Products) 


!. NutriCalc (PCD Systems) 


2. Powerdot (Powersoft Products) 


Microtyping (Hayden) 


3. GFAP Dotwrilcr (JF Consulting) 


2. Instant Mathematical Program- 




ming (PCD Systems) 


Home/Personal Managemeiil 


3. Random Access Volume II Ad- 


1. Budget Managcment-.(RS) 


vanced File Handling (D.S.C. 


2. Super-Log il (Micro-80) 


Publishing) 


3. Stockpak (RS) 






hngineering 


Music 


1. Critical Path Project Management 


1. Orche.stra-90 (Software Affair) 


(McClintock Corp.) 


2. Orchcstra-85 (Software Affair) 


Solar Collector F-Chart Calcula- 


3. Fanfare (Software Affair) 


tion (McClintock Corp.) 




2. Duct Design (McClintock Corp.) 


Spelling Checkers 


3. Finite Element Analysis (McClin- 


L Electric Webster (Cornucopia 


tock Corp.) 


Software) 




2. Scripsit Dictionary (RS) 


Games 


3. Hexspell (Hexagon Systems) 


1. Adventure (Adventure Interna- 




tional) 


tlililies 


2. Sargon 11 (Hayden) 


L Super Utility Plus (Powersoft 


3. Starship/1 (two/sixteen 


Products) 


magazine) 


2. EDTASM (RS) 




3. Editor/Assembler (Series I) (RS) 


Home/Personal Management 




1. F^owermail (l^owersofi Products) 


Word Processors 


2. Supertax (Rockware Data Group) 


1. Scripsii (RS) 


Home Budget (Howe Software) 


2. Newscript (Prosoft) 


3. Mailer (PCD Systems) 


3. SupcrScripsit (RS) 






Spelling Checkers 




1. Scripsit Dictionary (RS) 




2. Grammatik (Aspen Software) 

Utililies 

1. Ediior/Assembier (RS) 


Model 11/12/16 


Accountinjj 


2, Profile Archive (RS) 


1. Accounts Receivable (RS) 


3. 3D Plotter (\Laxtek) 


2. Payroll (RS) 


Development Package (Racct 


Accounts Payable (RS) 


Computes) 


3. Payroll (Taranto & Associates) 






Word Processors 


Business 


1. Scripsii 2.0 (RS) 


1. VisiCaic (VisiCorp) 


2. WordStar (Micro Pro) 


2. General Ledger (RS) 


3. Electric Pencil (Michael Shraycr) 


3. AR/INV (The Software Terminal) 




Dala IJasf Management 




1. Profile 11 (RS) 






2. AlDS-111 (Meta-Tech) 




3. Q-Pro 4 (Quick-N-Fasi Products) 


Color Computer 




Accounting 


Data Communlcalions 


1. Single Entry General Ledger 


1. Videotex (RS) 


(Universal Data Research) 



General Ledger (Universal Data 
Research) 

2. Payroll (Universal Data Research) 

3. Inventory II (Universal Data 
Research) 

Business 

1. Spcctaculaior (RS) 

2. Personal Finance (RS) 

3. Graphic Software (Kern Publica- 
tions) 

Data Base Management 

1. Data Base Manager (Universal 
Data Research) 

2. TIMS (Sugar Software) 

3. C.C. 1-ilc (Trans Tek) 

Data Communications 

1. COLORCOM/E (Eigcn Systems) 

2. Supei' Color lerminal (Nelson 
Software) 

3. Microtexl (The Micro Works) 

Disk Operating Systems 

1. IRSDOS (RS)" 

2. FLEX/F.Male (RS) (Data Comp) 

Education 

1. Coior LOGO (RS) 

2. Typing Tutor (RS) 

3. Advanced Graphics (RS) 



Games 

1. Zaxxon (Datasoft) 

2. Donkey King (Tom Mix Software) 

3. ROM-Save (B. Erickson Soft- 
ware) 

Graphics 

1. Art Gallery (RS) 

2. MPP Graphics (Superior Graphics 
Software) 

3. Images II (RS) 

Home/Personal Management 

1. Color File (RS) 

2. The Color Accountanl (Program- 
mer's Iirsiituic) 

3. Audio Spectrum Analysis (RS) 

Spelling Checkers 

1. Spcll'N Fix (Star-Kits) 

2. Spell-Rite (Eigen Systems) 

Utilities 

1. EDTASM + (RS) 

2. Diagnostic ROM (RS) 

Word Processors 

1. Telewriter-64 (Cognitec) 

2. Color Scripsit (RS) 

3. Super Color Writer II (Nelson 
Software) 





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TRS-80 ACCESSORY CLOSE-OUT SALE! 



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CP/M 2.2 conversion boards for 

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Drive kit with 2 tandon TM100-1 
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All prices quoted are cash discounted prices. We also honor 
Mn'^terrnrd, Visa. American Express and Company fDurch.isf orders. 



ACCESSORY SPECIALS! 



LNW 5/8 doubler 5159.0" 

LNW Vs doubler with 

DOSPLUS M79,t"' 

LNW expansion II >329.'«' 

Diskette Storage Cases 

• Flip-top, 75 disk capacity, 
dividers included *19.'^ 

MONITORS 

NEW CITOH 12" green with stand 

• 18 HRZ HI-RES 5119.00 

BMC 12EN with built-in anti-glare 
screen si69.oo 

USI 12" green* 20 HRZ... M69.oo 
USI 12" amber M79.oo 

NEW Princeton Graphics PGS- 

HX12 HI-RES RGB color 

12" 5499.00 

NEW tilt and swivel monitor stand - 
supports any monitor *29.'^ 



IBM PC COMPATIBLES SALE! 

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CONSHOHOCKEN, PA 19428 
215-664-5383 



CP/Misaitademaikof Digital Research Corp-: TRS-BOisa Irademark of Tandy Corp.: dBASE H is a trademark of ^h^on-Ta(e■. SUPER is a Ifademark o( l-S-A, Inc. 
Prices are subject to change without notice- Quantities are limited. 




Something for Everyone 



by Richard Ramella 



100 REM * SPDWRD * TRS-80 


110 REM * FUN HOUSE * JAN, '84 * RICHARD RAMELLA 


120 REM * WORKS ON ALT. MODELS . , 


130 CLEAR 500 


140 CLS 


150 INPUT "TYPE THE SECRET SENTENCE" ; AS 


160 CLS 


170 PRINT "GUESSER, TAP ENTER" 


180 INPUT X 


190 FOR A=l TO LEN(A$) 


200 BS=HIDS(AS,A,1) 


210 IF BS<>"A'' AND BS<>"E" AND B$<>"I" AND BS<>"0" AND BS<>"U" T 


HEN PRINT B$; 


22fl NEXT A 


230 PRINT 


240 INPUT "GUESSER, WHAT'S THE ANSWER";XS 


250 IF X$<>A$ THEN PRINT "NO, IT WAS": PRINT A? ELSE PRINT "RICH 


Til" 


260 END 


Speedword. 



100 
110 

120 
130 
140 
150 
160 
170 
180 
190 
200 
210 
220 
230 
240 
250 
260 
270 
280 
290 
300 
310 
320 
330 
340 
350 
360 
370 
3 80 



REM * DAYS ALIVE I * TRS-80 

REM * FUN HOUSE * JAN. '84 * RICHARD RAHELT.A 

REM * WORKS ON ALT. MODELS 

CLS 

PRINT "LET'S SEE HOW MANY DAYS" 

PRINT "YOU'VE SEEN ALIVE..." 

INPUT "WHEN READY TO GO, TAP ENTER";X 

CLS 

PRINT "NOW WE NEED YOUR BIRTHDATE. " 

PRINT "ENTER MONTH, DAY, YEAR SEPARATED BY COMMAS." 

PRINT "EXAMPLE: HAY 1, 196^ WOULD BE 5,1,63" 

INPUT MO,DA,YR 

GO«UB 340 

J=K 

CLS 

INPUT "NOW ENTER TODAY'S DATE IN SAME STYLE" , -HO, DA, YR 

CLS 

GOSUB 340 

DA=K-J 

PRINT "YOUR LIFE IS NOW" 

PRINT DA; "GREAT DAYS LONG." 

FOR T=l TO 1000 

NEXT T 

END 

IF H0=1 OR M0=2 THEN YR=YR-1 : M0=M0+13: GOTO 360 

M0=H0+1 

K=365*YR+1NT(.25*YR)+INT(30.60 0994*MO)+DA 

RETURN 

END 



Days Alive!. 



On New Year's Day there are 
only two kinds of peo- 
ple — those who watch football 
games and those who don't. If 
you don't, come to the 1984 cel- 
ebration here in the Fun House. 
As Jilways, I admit all the kids 
first. If any room is left after 
that, we might squeeze in a few 
adults. 

I invite everyone with a 
TRS-80 anything to this cele- 
bration. The four programs this 
month should work on any 
TRS-80 that you haven't re- 
cently dipped in molasses. In 
truth, I have to rule out Model 
I, Level I users, but I don't 
think anyone seriously .uses 
Level I anymore. 

We're going to try some 
games and activities that might 
tell you some things you don't 
know about yourself. Spdwrd, 
which is short for speedword, is 
a game for at least two players. 
Days Alive! tells you how many 



The Key Box 

AU TRS-80 Models 
4K RAM, Cassette Basic 
32K RAM, Disk Ba»c 
Color Basic 



220 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



days have passed since you were 
bom. 

Using the figure discovered 
in Days Alive, you can run A 
Week of Birthdays and find out 
the day of the week on which 
you were bom — or when any- 
thing else happened. Last is 
Guess Your Name, in which the 
computer doggedly tries to find 
out who you are and does so 
vidth great success as long as you 
give straight answers to its 
yes/no questions. 

As you enter the party room, 
I must ask you not to blow any 
homs or clack any clackers. I 
was up last night celebrating the 
New Year till nearly 10:30 p.m. 
and need a little quiet today. 

SPDWRD 

Player 1 leaves the room or at 
least turns away from the com- 
puter screen. Player 2 types in 
a secret sentence of fewer than 
250 characters, then taps the 
enter key. 

Player 1 returns and taps the 
enter key. The secret sentence 
appears on the screen with all 
vowels left out. Player 2 studies 
this result and tries to type the 
sentence as it was originally en- 
tered. The TRS-80 recognizes 
success. 

After they argue about the 
fairness of the tricky secret sen- 
tence entered by Player 1, the 
two players exchange roles. 

That's all there is to it, but 
that's enough. You'll be sur- 
prised how giggly some state- 
ments become without vowels. 

Days Alive! 

On some days I am totally 
uninterested in knowing how 
many thousands of days I've 
been alive. I can't even remem- 



100 

110 

120 

130 

140 

Y 

150 

160 

17 

180 

190 

200 

210 

220 

230 

240 

250 

260 

270 

2G0 

290 

300 

310 

320 

330 

340 

350 

360 

370 

380 

390 

400 

410 

420 

430 

440 



GOTO If 



REM * A WERK OF BIRTHDAYS * TRS-80 

REM * FUN HOUSE * JAN. '84 * RICHARD RAMELLA 

REM * WORKS OM hh' MODELS 

CLS 

DATA SUNDAY , MONDAY , TUESDAY , WEDNESDAY , THURSDAY , FRIDAY , SATURDA 

FOR A=l TO 7 

READ A$[A) 

NEXT A 

INPUT "TY^E TODAY'S DAY OF WEEK";ZS 

FOR G=l TO 7 

IF A$(G)=Z$ THEN C=G: GOTO 230 

NEXT G 

PRINT "DID YOU NOT ENTER A DAY OF THE WEEK?' 

CLS 

INPUT "HOW MANY DAYS HAVE YOU LIVED";X 

IF X>354 THEN X=X-364: GOTO 250 

IF X<8 THEN 290 

X=X-7 

GOTO 260 

FOR D=X TO 1 STEP -1 

C=C-1 

IF C^0 THEN C=7 

NEXT D 

PRINT 

PRINT 

ON C GOTO 420,360,37 

PRINT 



YOU WERE BORN ON A "•,h$(C) 



,380,390,400,410 
MONDAY'S CHILD IS FATR OF FACE.": END 
TUESDAY'S CHILD IS FULL OP GRACE": END 
WEDNESDAY'S CHILD IS FULL OF WOE": END 
THHRSDAY'S CHILD HAS TO FAR TO GO.": END 
FRIDAY'S CHILD IS LOVING AND GIVING": END 
SATURDAY'S CHILD WORKS HARD FOR ITS LIVING.": END 
THE CHILD THAT'S BORN ON THE SABBATH DAY" 

PRINT "IS BONNY AND BLITHE, AND GOOD AND GAY": END 

END 



PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 



A Week of Birthdays. 



Guess Your Name. 



100 
110 

120 
130 
140 
150 
160 
170 
180 
190 
200 
210 
220 
230 
240 
250 
260 
270 
280 
290 
TRY 
300 
310 
320 
330 
340 
350 
ND( 
360 
370 
3 80 
390 
400 
410 
420 
430 
440 
47 
450 



RICHARD RAMELLA 



REM * GUESS YOUR NAME * 
REM * FUN HOUSE * JAN '84 
REM * WORKS ON ALT. MODELS 
CLS 

CLEAR 200 

A$="ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ" 
PRINT "I CAN GUESS YOUR FIRST NAME." 
PRINT "I WANT ONE CLUE ONLY." 
PRINT "THEN ANSWER MY QUESTIONS — " 
PRINT "Y FOR YES, N FOR NO." 
INPUT "TAP ENTER TO CONTINUE" ;X 
CLS 

PRINT "NOW FOR THAT CLUE. ENTER" 
INPUT "NUMBER OF LETTERS IN FIRST NAME";Z 
IF Z<1 THEN CLS: GOTO 23 
DIM XX(Z) 
QQ=Z 

IF Z>30 THEN PRINT "YOU FIB. I QUIT.": END 
DIM N$( Z) 

IF Z>11 THEN PRINT "I SENSE EXAGGERATION, BUT I WILL (SIGH) 
ANYWAY . " 
FOR A=l TO Z 
NS(A)-"-" 
NEXT A 

IF LEN(AS) -0 THEN 820 
A-RND(LEN[AS) ) 

REM *** MODEL 100 FOLKS, HAKE LINE ABOVE READ: 340 A=1+INT{R 
1) *LEN)AS) ) 
Z$=MID$(A5,A,1) 

IF A=l THEN AS=RIGHTS(AS,LEN(A$)-1) : GOTO 400 
IF A=LEN(AS) THEN AS=LEFTS ( A$ , LEN ( AS) -1) : GOTO 400 
AS=LEFTS(AS,A-1)+RIGHT$(AS,LEN(AS)-A) 
PRINT "IS LETTER * ";Z$;" * IN IT" 
GOSUB 470 
IF B$-"Y" 
IF B$="N" 



THEN GOSUB 
THEN 330 



IF B$="Y" THEN PRINT "IS THERE ANOTHER ";Z$;" IN IT?": GOSUB 



IF BS="Y" THEN GOSUB 500; GOTO 440 



/ aring coniiiiui'd 



80 Micro, January 1984 • 221 



Liiling i:onliiiued 



460 

470 

480 

490 

500 

510 

ND(1 

520 

533 

540 

550 

560 

570 

580 

590 

60fi 

610 

620 

630 

640 

650 

660 

670 

680 

690 

700 

710 

720 

73t1 

740 

750 

760 

770 

780 

790 

80H 

81« 

820 

83« 

840 

850 

860 

870 



GOTO 33 

INPUT "Y-N";B$ 

IF BS<>"y" AND B$<>"N" THEN CLS : GOTO 470 

RETURN 

A=RND(Z) 

REM *** MODEL 100 FOLKS, MAKE LINE ABOVE READ: 

) *1) 

CLS 

IF N5(A) <^"-' 

NS(A)=ZS 

XX(A) =1 

IF QO^l THEN 



500 A=1+INT(R 



OR XX(A) <>0 THEN 5( 



690 



PRINT "IS IT IN THE RIGHT PLACE?" 

FOR C=l TO Z 

PRINT NS{C) ; 

NEXT C 

PRINT 

GOSUB 470 

IF B$="Y 

HH=HH+1 

IF HH=QQ THEN 75 

N$(A)-"-" 

HH=0 

GOTO 5 

PRINT 

PRINT 

FOR A=l TO Z 

PRINT NS(A) ; 

NEXT 

END 

PRINT "UH-OH, YOU SAID LETTER 
WAS IN YOUR FIRST NAME, 
BUT YOU SAID NO WHEN I" 
TRIED ALT. EMPTY SPACES. 



THEN Q0=QQ-1: FOR V=l TO Z: XX(V)=0: NEXT: RETURN 



NO DOUBT ABOUT IT. YOUR NAME" 
IS "; 



;N$(A) 



PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

END 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

GOTO 7 90 

END 



LET'S TRY AGAIN FROM THE START." 

WHOOPS, ALL LETTERS ARE GONE" 
AND I HAVEN'T GUESSED. THAT" 
MEANS YOU, ER... SATD A LETTER" 
WASN'T IN OUR NAME AND IT WAS." 




ber what happened on most of 
those days. 

However, I've found that 
kids enjoy knowing this inter- 
esting total of their lives. I hope 
a lot of people with 2,000- 
5,000 days of experience get to 
try this program. 

It works simply. Just do what 
the computer says and no harm 
will come to you. When you see 
the prompt NOW WE NEED 
YOUR BIRTHDATE. EN- 
TER MONTH, DAY, YEAR 
SEPARATED BY COMMAS, 
remember that you only need 
the final two numbers of your 
birth year. 

If you were born on January 
16, 1972, you type 1,16,72. In 
this system, January is the first 
month of a year, and December 
is the twelfth month. You can 



figure out the numbers for the 
others. 

Next, the program asks you 
to enter today's date. If you are 
trying this program on New 
Year's Day, the answer is 
1,1,84. 

With that , the lightning- 
quick computer goes to work 
and tells you the number of 
days you've had in your life. 

Days Alive only works for 
birthdays in the 20th century. 
Any Fun House reader born in 
the 19th century (or earlier) can 
send me his or her birth date. 
I'll figure out the total on an 
abacus and mail back the 
answer. 

Remember how many days 
you've lived. You need that 
total to make the next pro- 
gram run. 



A Week of Birthdays 

"Monday's child is fair of 
face ..." begins an old nursery 
rhyme. I can never remember 
what comes after that. Is Tues- 
day's child gone without a 
trace? a winner of the race? tied 
up in lace? solving the case? 

I solved the problem by look- 
ing up the old poem. I did it be- 
cause some people like to find 
out the day of the week on 
which they were bom to deter- 
mine what qualities or fate they 
have, based on the rhyme. 

I'd say it's a bunch of hooey, 
except I'm a Saturday's child 
and I do work hard for my liv- 
ing, so ... . 

Run the program, please. It 
asks you to give two answers. 
The first prompt is TYPE THE 
DAY OF THE WEEK. Type it 
out fully, using no abbrevia- 
tions. Use all capital letters. 

If you don't know the day of 
the week, ask your little brother 
who hates school and always 
knows how many days until 
Friday. 

Next, answer the question, 
HOW MANY DAYS HAVE 
YOU LIVED? If you don't 
know the answer, go directly 
back to Days Alive and find 



222 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



r ^ffw^ 



Pin Us 

SN7400N 
SNfJOIN 
SNJSOIN 
SN7JraN 

SN7JC6N 
SN7'1D'N 
SN7'10SN 
SN74D9N 
SN7'110N 
SN741IN 
SN7ai!N 
SN7113N 
SN7'11JN 
SN7416N 
SN7417N 
SN74MH 
SN74;1N 

smnzH 
snnnv 

SN71J5N 

SN7i;eti 

SN7J!7N 
SN7«flN 
SN7430N 
SN7432M 
SN7437N 
SN7<3flN 
SN7435N 
SN7440N 
SN744IN 
SN7i4!N 
SN7i13N 
SN7JMN 
SN74a5N 
SN74J6N 
SN7447N 
SN7448N 
SN745i)N 
SN745IN 
SN74S3N 
5N7454N 
5N745SN 
SN7460N 
SN7470N 




74LS(H) 
74LSD1 
74LS1}? 
74LSC3 
74LSM 
741 SO 5 
74LSDe 
741SD9 
741SI0 
74LSII 
711.51 ! 
I11S13 
HLS14 
74LS1S 
7«LSiO 
711SJ1 
71LSZ! 
74LS26 
711511 
741526 
741530 
741 S3? 
74LS33 
741537 
74LS3e 
rti SaO 
)aLS4! 
r4LS" 
74LS4B 
74L549 
7JLS61 
7H551 
7aLS65 
71LS73 
74LS74 
74LS75 
7aLS76 
74LS7e 
7a LESS 
7aLS85 
74 LESS 
74LS9D 



74500 

74S0? 

74E03 

74St>4 

MS05 

74500 

74500 

74510 

74511 

745 IS 

745 ?0 

745 ?; 

74530 

7453; 

74538 

74540 

74551 

74SB4 

74555 

74574 

74535 

74506 

74511! 

74511! 



14 



MSD'OH 
CA3035H 

M3016N 14 

Cf.mSW 14 

on8060N ie 

Ci3D65E 14 

CA3I380E a 



CD40D0 14 

CWMI 14 

CD40W 14 

C 04006 H 

CD4007 u 

CD"00e 16 

CD401I) 16 

CD4011 II 

CD401? 14 

004013 14 

CD40I4 18 

CQ401S 16 

004016 14 

OD40I7 16 

C04018 16 

0D4019 16 

CMSM 16 

coao:) 16 

C1M02! 16 

004023 11 

CD40J4 14 

CWa?'^ 14 

CD40S6 18 

CD40!7 18 

CDa028 16 

CD40J9 18 

CD4030 14 

Cn4034 !l 

CO J 035 16 



SN74;fN 

5N 7473« 
SN7474N 
SK74751( 
5N7476N 
SN7479K 
5N74B0N 
5N748!>1 
5N74e3N 
SN7495N 
5N74e6N 
5N7489N 
5N749aN 
5N749IN 
5N7492N 
5N7493N 
5N7494N 
SN74g5N 
SN719[iN 
SN749JN 
5N74100N 
5N741IUH 
5N71I05>' 
SN74107N 
SN74109N 
SN741I6H 
5N74121W 
5N741!2N 
5N741!3N 
5N741?SN 
5N741J6N 
5N7413JN 
SN7413SN 
SN74I41N 
SN74U2N 
SN74I43N 
SN74H4N 
5N74145N 
5N74147N 
SN7414aN 
SN74150N 
SN74151N 
SNT4162N 
SN74163N 
5N74154M 
Sli;415SN 



16 3.95 

!J 3.95 

24 3.95 

18 59 

18 1 49 

IB 1 19 

!4 1 19 



SN74156N IB 19 

SN74157N 16 .56 

SN74160N IB 69 

SN74161N 1B 69 

SN7416;N IB 69 

SN74I63N IB 69 

SN741E4N II 69 

SN74166N IB 69 

5N741G6N 16 50 

SN74167N IB 2 95 

SN74170N 16 1 29 

SN74172N 24 4 95 

SN74173N 16 .69 

SN74174N 16 69 

SW74I75H 16 69 

SN74I76N 14 69 

SN74I77N 14 69 

SN74 17911 16 1 4B 

SN7ai30M 14 69 

5M741S11 24 1 95 

5N741(2N 16 1 19 

5H74134N 16 2 49 

5N74135N 16 2 49 

SN74190N 16 69 

5N74191N IB M 

SN74192M 16 69 

SN74193N IB 69 

SN74194N IE 69 

SN74195N IB 65 

SN74196N H 39 

5N74197N 14 39 

5N7419aN tl 1 19 

5N74199N 21 1 19 

5N7422IN 18 1 19 

5N7425rN 16 .79 

5N74276N 20 2 40 

SN74279N 16 .79 

SN742B3N 16 1 49 

SN742a4M 16 2 96 

SN742B5N IB 2 96 

Sri74365N 16 56 

SN7436BW 16 55 

SN74367N 16 55 

SN74368N 16 55 

S«J743Mrj 16 1 49 

5l.'7'if>l>; 14 1 49 



16 



79 



















74 1555 


11 


79 


/■'■LSI 9/ 


74LS96 


16 


.89 


74LS2?1 


?4LS10? 




.39 








39 












74L5113 


11 


39 


74L5243 


74 LS1 11 


11 


39 




74LS1H 


11 


.49 


r4isz45 


74LS123 


IB 


39 








59 












74LS132 




59 












74LS136 


11 


39 


741S257 








7115256 




16 




74LSS60 






59 


74LS266 


74LS163 


Ifl 


59 


74LS273 


74L51M 


?1 




711.S279 


74LSli6 


16 




r4LSZS3 


71LS156 


IB 


.69 


I4LS290 


MLS16? 


18 


.69 


7415293 




Ifi 


.59 




























74L5163 


iSi 


59 


71LS36S 




11 


.69 


7115367 


74LS165 


16 


1.19 


;4LS36e 


74LS16S 


16 


1.19 


74LS3?3 


7415169 


IB 


1 19 












7415173 


IK 


69 


74LS3a6 




IB 


69 


74LS393 


74 LSI 75 


18 


.69 


7aLS399 


















74L5191 


1t 


09 


81LS97 



pt.-ijjii.i'1-a 



745111 
745133 
745134 
745 135 
743136 
745138 
74Sn9 

7asiW 

745151 
74S153 
74S157 
7451 5S 
745160 
745174 
74S175 
745133- 
74S194 
745196 
745196 
745240 
745241 
745242 



■rfaiiJij.iiM- 



CA3031K 16 

I:I3032N 16 

M30a3H 16 

Cfl3086M 14 

CA3330^ 16 

C(l3396l, IE 

r 



745243 
745244 
74S25I 
743253 
/1S25/ 
,■15^53 
rtS260 
74 5280 
74S287' 
74528a' 
745373 
745374 
745387- 
745471- 
74S472- 
745473- 
74S474- 
745475- 
?4S670- 
74S671- 
74S572- 
745573- 
MS940 
74S941 

CA3130E 
CA3140E 
Ct3160H 
CA3161E 
CA3162E 
CA3189E 
■:i34(!1l, 



14 



CD4040 


16 


004041 


14 


C04042 


16 


C04043 


IB 


C04044 


16 


C04046 


IB 


C04C47 


14 


C 04048 


16 


CDIOIS 


16 


C04050 


16 


004051 


16 


C04052 


16 


004053 


16 


C0405B 


16 


004060 


71 


004060 


16 


004066 




Ca4060 




C04069 




CD4070 




004071 




004072 




004073 




004075 




064076 




004073 




CDJoai 




004 0B2 




004093 





001098 IB 1 95 

004506 16 1 '0 

004507 14 I 19 
004503 2a 3 95 
004610 16 1 W 
004511 18 I '0 
004612 18 1 10 
004614 21 2 40 

004515 24 ' 19 

004516 IB 1 19 
004513 16 1 19 
004519 18 j9 
OD45J0 16 1 19 
CD45?6 IB 1 49 
0045/8 16 1 49 
0045 ?9 IB 1 o9 
004643 16 I 95 
004562 11 6 95 
004666 16 1 30 

004583 IB 2 40 

004584 11 69 
CD4723 16 1 19 
004724 16 1.19 
MC14409 n 13 95 
UC1441CI 16 13 96 
UC1441I 21 11 % 
UC14412 16 13 % 
UC14419 IB 7% 
MC14433 24 1J'15 
MC145JS IB I ■■/ 
MC14511 14 1 '9 



MICROPROCESSOR COMPONENTS 



MICROPROCESSOH CHIPS 

Part No "Pln^ FunPttn Pnca 

COP1i02 40 -ZPV 52 95 

UCS65(G 40 MPUWClKK 5 95 

MCS66IKB 40 HPU i"/Clorh al 3MH; .9,95 

MCB30?CP 40 MPU */CI*h jnd WW .7,95 

B3m 40 CPll-e.biHInlBialCtaHlMH; 14.95 

INSa035N.6 10 MPU-a.tll(6MHz( .... 5.35 

IN38039N 10 CPU-5gl i:nipS-biI(l2e«s.F^) . .596 

INSeWON.6 40 CPL)(26ebytssF»MI 9.96 

INSB070N 40 CPU (84 6/165 WU) 29.95 

INSB073N 40 CPU K/tesil M>ini liilffpiafr 29.95 

paoest 40 CPU . . 495 

0086 40 CPU 16-tit 6MH2 2195 

80aS 40 CPLiS/16-M 29 95 

8155 40 HUOSftAMI/OPon-Timsr .695 

8743 40 HUOSEPWU UPIJ 21.95 

ZBD. Z80A, ZBOB, zaoaa series — ~ 

780 40 CPLI(MK38iDN;i7!OCi2WMi [3 95 

Zen-OTO 24 Coijn-ir7--ntiro]ir 3.95 

2B0-M1I 4U I. -.■.!. ■ ■ PT Tran! 10.95 

jeO'DMO 40 I ■■ ■ . ■ ■■■■■<M.\j« .9.95 

ZeO-PIO 411 . . ., . iwrolla . .3.95 

?eO'Sio/6 40 .■ I p.ceBonaedi 12.95 

ZaCSIO/l 40 ju:J ■J.Lj,>oL'IRti . 12.95 

ZaO-SlO/2 40 5eria I'O (Laui SfNCB) 12.95 

ZBO-Sm/9 40 Senall/O 1295 

ZaOA 40 CPLI(UK3a8SN~1)(7aa0.114UK; 449 

Za(W^;TC 2a Counrer Ti-ier Circuil 1 95 

ZeM-WflT 40 -.i.i'.'.M^r-"' -. F--!c,'Trans .995 

ZeOfl-DMO 40 !■.■■■ . ■. .CiituB 1295 

zaOA-PlO 40 ■ . ■: ■jiiirraller . ..3.95 

ZaOi-S10/0 40 .... . -1 I . ...l-iCBtOHIBI) 1295 

ZaO4-S10/l 40 iuul. ■:,u;,.,._ll<B( . . .1295 

Z3(lA.SI0/2 40 Scnal I/O iLaOi: 5YN0B) 12 96 

ZaOA-SIO/9 40 Serial I/O 12.95 

ZaOB 40 Cni|UK3380N-6)6MH: 9 95 

Z80B-CTO 28 CDunlH-rinKrCirCNii 1295 

2!nB-DiBI 40 Hal itoncn. fleteva/IiaiBmrttB 19.96 

ZBOB-PIO 40 ParallBll/OlntarBceCqnlrollB .... 12.96 

Zaooi 40 CPU Ssgrnsnlsd 14.95 

Z8O02 10 CPU Hon.Seanimlad 34 95 

78030 10 Esnal conn. CortrMiir 14 95 

Z933B 10 Counicf/TimafSPsiaiKir/oiin* 2095 

6500/6800/6BOOO SERIES- 

UC6502A 10 UPUiiillii:lDi:l:and8AM|2UH2) 6 95 

UC6626 40 Penollerallniei Aaatlei. 4.95 

HC680C 10 MPIJ ... 2.96 

MCB8B2CP 40 UPU Bllht loci ana BAH 7.95 

MC6809e 18 CPllimHilEiternaiaooMno) ... 14.96 

MC682I ID PErickralluRr Adap[iMC6a20) .2.95 

MC632e 21 Prioiity Interrupl Oonlraller . 15.95 

UC6830LB 21 1024.8.611 SOM (MC88a30-8 1 9 95 

UC6350 21 Asynchrcnnu^ Ccmm Adaqlei 3 95 

MC6352 21 Syncnronou^ Serial Oala Artapfar 5 76 

MC6860 21 O.BOObDsOigilalKMDEM 7 95 

MC68000LS 84 MPLJ 16 OitiSMH?! 49 95 

M06a45aP 40 General Purpose 'r.l /.llaiJ'er 9 95 

M068652P2 40 Mull! Proloco: Cnr^r^ CDntroll»r J'. 95 

MC6S661PB 28 EniiariMI Proo Co.-nn Lit 9 65 

U0>.16S;64 24 64K EPBOM (iSOnsj 24 95 

SV6527 40 Psr-pher^llnler AOapler 7 95 



-8080A SERIES- 



TM55501 


in 


1ra(SiF(C) 








1 




3156 








1NS32C06 
















DPS2I1 


71 


PnonlylnlariuplCinfml 


295 




16 




195 




16 


CKN-k ''anr* JIU Ori^^r 




0P3226 


16 






DF3236 


70 


,},slmiI«11/3usDntw|7134Z8) 


J49 






l/0Ei<panderlw48SaiK . . 








.3.96 
















.4.95 








.8.96 








.8,96 




40 


Asun Cr)mm Elenunr 


1095 




2a 




.4.49 








6 95 


098255 


40 


piiig.PerlpliHa[|/0(PPI). 


4 49 














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DFS279 








[*8303 


20 


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. 396 



N51771.I 
FBI791 
FD1793 
f 01 795 
F01797 



0Effll25C« 

DS0026CN 

IN52651 

WC3470P 

MU53167AN 

MU5ai74AN 

C0P4O2N 

00P4I)2UN 

COPaTOM 
I0M2S<HAIC 

uwsoeiEsr 



40 lw;Pn„t,'v, .; 

— DISK CONTROLLERS 

40 SinglaOcnirtj . . . 

40 Single/Oua'Oensrlvtlnv ) 
40 Single/OWjOle Demily (True) 
40 Dual Dnerty/SBE 3eleil (in» ) , 
40 [>HI Deiftily/ Bide seed Tfus , 
40 FI«pvOiskControllB(IUH7| 

— SPECIAL FUNCTION 

B Oi^M05CkickDrFL<ar|6l4Zl 
a Ocul MOS ClCiiSi Omar (5UZ1 . 

28 OoniniNnlcjIlon Chrj] 
18 Floppy 01^ Feacr Ajiio Sy^om , . 
24 Mloropnxa^^r nstf time Clock 
IB Micro Conq^ t]4e mel^ 
40 Uicmn tnAla n U rM RAU 

anrl OirK 
16 MIorcp 

&Olrei 
20 32,^ 
78 Micmp 



,2^,95 
29,96 
,29,95 

,29,95 



Pan Nd, 

1103 

1027 

4116N,2 

4I16N-3 

4116»,1 

4164H-159 

4164^200 

MM6261 

MMS2fi2 

MM627(I 

WU52e0 

MM5290,2 

rilU6290,3 

UU5290,4 

MM6293-3 



■Pins 



DYNAMIC RAMS 



1024.1 iBOOrisI 
4096*1 (260n6l 
16,384.1 (ISOns) 
16,384.1 (200ns| 
16,334.1 (250ni| 
16 66 536.1 (160n5| 



OJ 

2.49 

1 09,8/14 05 
1 69-8/12 85 
119-8/10.95 
6 95 ■ 8/49.95 
5 95-8/44 95 
49-8/1 95 



16 66,536.1 (200nsl 

IB 1024.1 3I)an;| 

22 201811 J3G5ns) 49,aj1.96 

IB 4096.1 (260ni)MK4M6 4 95 

!2 4096.1 (2O0n5|21O7 . 3 95 

IB 16.384.1 (150ns| 1 89,8/14 95 

16 16.384.1 (200ns| 1 69-8/12 95 

16 16.3S4.1(260ns| 149-8/1095 

IB 8192.1 (200ns) . 1 69 

■STATIC RAMS — — — 



1101 IB 266.1 (65Dn! 

2191 22 256.4 (450nsl8101 

2102 16 1024.1 (350na| . 

2IL02 16 1024.1 (aSOnalLP 

2111 IB 26614 (156nsl811l . 

2112 16 26614 (169ns|M0S . 
2111 1B 1021.4 (46(1151 
2I14L 1B 1024.4 (asOnslLP 
2111-2 IB 1024.4 (2001151 
2114t-2 IB 1024.4 i^OOns) L P 
2147 IB 4006.1 i70ni) 

214B 18 1024.4 (70n5) 

rM54946 IB 1024.4 ( 450ns | 

TM540L47-45 20 1021.4 (459051 . 

6191 22 266i4 (a5ttnilCM0S 

MM5257 - ■— - 

HU6116P-3 

HU6I16-4 21 2040/,-' 

HUei16LP-4 24 2040. 

HM6264P-16 2B 81' 



1 19-3/9 95 
1 95-3/13 95 
1 75-3/11 95 



27LS80 

7489 

740920 

740921 

710929 

'1C930 

71SI99 

74S20O 

71S2[ie 

745239 

32519 

32525 



16 256<1 

16 16.4 

22 266.4 

IB 266.4 

16 1021.1 

1B 1024.1 

16 16.4 

16 256.1 

16 25Birl 

16 16.4 

16 1024.1 



(50nsl3l01 
(260ns| , 
(260n5 CMOS . 



1702A 

2708 

2708,5 

TU52516 

IMS 258 2 

IMS2564 

Trt1S2/ie 

2716 

2716,1 

27160-5 

2732 

;732a-3 

2752A-4 

27320-4 

27580-A 

2764-4 

2764-3 

MM52D4Q 

M CM 66784 

27123 

745188 

745287 

745268 

745367 

715471 

74S472 

745473 

745471 

74S475 

745476 

745478 

745576 

745671 

74S57! 

71S573 

32323 

3251 15 

325123 

32SI26 

32S129 

825136 

325135 

32S190 

323191 



(256ost CMOS (6501) 
(250i'!( CMOS {6618). 
(3605) 93405 
(BOns) 93410 , 
(BOns) 9341 1 
(36n3)3191 ,. 
(60ns)0C (93416) . 
(50ns) O.C.(74S 289). 
PROMS/ EPROMS— 

256.B il.El 



21 102-. 

21 2010. 

24 45^6," . .■ ■ . . 

28 SK'./.-. .1,11,1.,! 

24 2048.B (450nij3lOlldje 

21 204Bi:e (450n5) 

24 2048.8 1350ns) 

21 2048.8 (560n!) . , 

24 4096.8 (450n!) . 

24 4096.6 (300n5) 

21 409B.e (450n5)21V 

24 4098.8 (650ns) 

21 1024.8 (4 50ns I 

28 3192.8 (450nir 

20 3192lS (3J(irl5r 

24 612lB|1uS) 

24 8192.3 (450rri) I 

28 16,3S4iB(450n5)123KEPft0M i 

16 32.8 PHOM 0,C, (6339-1) 

PROMT 5 (6301-1) 
PROMTS (6331-11 
PR0MO,C (6300-1) . 
PROM T S. (6309-11 
PROMTS. (6349-1) 
PROM C, (634B) 
PROM T.S. (DM875296N) 
PROM 0,C, (6340) 



16 256x1 

16 32.3 

16 26614 

20 256>8 

20 612.3 

20 512.6 

Z4 512x6 

Z4 612x8 



1024.4 PROMTS 
21 1024.8 PROMTS 
16 512x1 PROM D,C, (6305) 
16 512x1 PROMTS (6306) 
la 1024.4 PROM 0,0 (6362) 
iB 1024,4 PROW r.S. |32S 137) 
16 32.8 PROMOC (27E13) 
PROMTS (27315) 
PROMT a (27519) 
PROM C. (27S29) 
PROM T.S. (27321) 
PROM 0,C, (27512) 



24 512ie 

16 32.3 

16 2Sail 

16 256il 

16 6!2i1 

18 2048.4 PROMT S ("TeP24581) 



21 



24 2048.3 (30ni) . 
DMB7S180N 24 1024.8 PROM O.C. (32SI80) 
DMBZ5iaiN 21 1024.8 PROM T 5 (82S181) 

D):a75ia4H la 2045.4 prow d,c, (325131) 

OU8ZS135K la 2048.4 PROM T S (325185) 
DU8Z5190H 21 2048.4 PROM 0,0, (325190) 
aH8ZSI91K 21 2048.6 PROM T S. (825191) 
DATA ACQUISITION 

0010 ruostek OC/OC OMivert +5«to,9V 

MC3470P IBFI BpyOisl ReaPAMP vsten" 



MC1408L7 16 titO J I 
MC1408L3 18 8 nil F 
ADC0803LCN 20 3 Cn / 



icanao'LLNi 

Ml 



ADC06O4 



20BLI I 

)6 3 Lll I I 

2aBDll F 111 

108 bill :c r r rill- 1 (1 111 I 

2110 bno AC nv Micro Comp i9 06 

2010 brio AConi UBrn Oump (9 

1610 6KD ALOW (9 / Lin I 

leiobiiD/AOonv (O ii*Lin ) 

18 12 bilO APonv (0 0> Lin ) 

l.cn ianl Cunanl SouicB 

Tam&^raiiire Transflncer 

TPrnp umo Pr-T. Ro( i ppin I 



A0C0B09 
A0C981' 
OAC1000 
OACIOOB 
OAC1O20 
BaC1022 
OAC1222 
LM334Z 
LM335Z 
LM399H 
il-5-1013a 40 allK BiuJ Uarl ITBI602) 



LOW PROFILE 
(TIN) SOCKETS 

1,9 1099 109-ljp 



20 piM 1 
22 pin 1 
24 pin ( 
28 prn L 
36 pin I 
40 pin I 



SOLDERTAIL (GOLD) 
STANDARD 

1,9 10 99 



8 pin SO 
14 pin 50 
16 pin SG 
18 pin SG 
24 pm SG 
28 pin SG 
36 pi a SG 
40 pm SG 



ST 



WW 



SOLDERTAIL 
STANDARD (TIN) 



14 pin 3T 
16 pin ST 
18 pin sr 
20 pin ST 
24 pin ST 
2H pm ST 
49 pin ST 



WIRE WRAP SOCKETS 
(GOLD) LEVEL #3 
19 10-99 100-up 



14 pin WW 
16 pill WW 

20 pin WW 
22 pm WW 
24 pin WW 
28 pin WW 
36 pm WW 
40 pm WW 



S10.00 Minimum Order — U.S. Funds Only 
Calilornia Residents Add 6i/:% Sales Tax 
Shipping — Add 5% plus SI .50 Insurance 
Send S.A.S.E. lor Monthly Sales Flyer! 



Spec Sheets — 30« each 
Send S1.00 Postage for your 
FREE 1984 JAMECO CATALOG 
Prices Subject to Changs 



MasterCard I 



JK 
a 
E 



ameco 

■JIJ.tJ=l.1JHrf.-M 




Digitalker 



DT1 050 — Applicaliors: Teaching aids, 
appliances, clocks, automotive, telecommunica- 
tions, language translations, etc. 

The DTI06O is 9 stent! mO DIGITALKER kit enerWed witti 137 separale 
and uselul words, 2 [ones, anrj 6 dllfsranl silence durallons. The 
words and lones have been assigned discrete addresses, making il 
possible la out put single words oi words ooncalenaled Into phiasea 
or even sentences, the "voice" output ol ilie DtlOBO IS a higlily rn- 
lelligible male voice. Female and children's voices can be eyntheslz. 
ed. The vocabulary is chosen so Ihaf it is applicable Id many pro. 
ducts and markets 

The DT1059 consists of a Speech Processor Chip, UU64I04 |4D,pln) 
and two (2) Speech ROUS UM62164SSI1I and Ulii|62164SSR2(24,pin) 
along with a Master Word lisl and a recommended schematic 
diagram en the applicalion sheel. 

DT1050 Digitalker™ S34.95 ea. 

MM54104 Processor Chip , i14.95ea . 

DTI 057- Eipands the DT1050 vocabulary from 137 to over 2B0 

W9rds, IncltiOGS 2 ROMs and specs. 

Pari No. 011057 . SZ4.95 03. 



JOfflll^L 



^tiTirp 



PlltNll, 



70451 PI 20 

7045EV/lijr 2a 

7I06CPL 40 
FE9203I1 

7!06[U/kH- 40 

7I97CPI 40 

7197tU/klf 40 

7116CPI 40 
7291 1 US 

72961 PG 24 

7296tU/HJf 24 

72960JPE 16 

72060EU/Kir 16 

7297AIPC 14 

7297Atl/,'KlC 11 

7216IPG 24 

7215EV,'KlC 21 



72:7A1PI 
72211PL 
???6*l* 



CMOS Preci^nn Timer 

SlapwalcliCliip,XiL 

3inOiailA/O(I.C0ftira) , 

3ft DigllLCO Display [er7106&7116 

ICdrculteeard.Osplav 

3ftOigllt/O(LtO0ri»l , ,. 

IC,Clrciilte«rd.Oeplav 

3</;D«IIA/OL0ODIS.HLO 

Low BaueryVoll Indicator , , , , 

CMOS LED Slopwatai/Timpr , 

Stopwatch Chip, XTL 

Tene ijHiEialDr 

Tone iieneralor Chip. XTL 

DwIlalDr Cnnlroller 

Freq Oountei Cnip, tTL 

4Func CMOS Siopnalch CKT , , 

4Fuiic Slopwdltn Chip, XTL 

EDIsitilniv.CfflinlerC.A 

BOigilFreq.CounlorC.A 

BOpFloq.CwnlsrC.e 

IDIgllLEOUp/OowCountsrCA. . 
4 Digit LED Up/Oown Counter C, 
LCD41i Digit Up Counter 0(11 
9 Digit Onw. Cnunler 
".Pimrlinn Cnunli'Ci'iy 'f 



1166 
2996 
16.96 



13,95 
14 96 
29.96 

.24.96 
1995 
10.95 
1195 

.10.96 
29 95 



130009 1963 INTERSIL Data BoOkjiasHpi , . . .$9.95l 



,. 74HC High Speed CMOS 



























74HC147 


16 


1 19 


7,1110253 


IB 


•"\ 








;4HC151 


16 


39 


,4HC23/ 














IB 


99 


74HC259 


ifi 










74HC1M 


24 


2.49 


74HC266 












74HC167 


16 


.99 


74HC273 
















.99 


















































74HC1S2 


16 


1 29 


74HC390 


16 


1 A'l 


















1 40 














74HC533 


20 












16 




74HC534 


20 


■^im 












1 69 


74HC695 


16 


3 0^ 
















20 


3 10 










16 


.99 


74HC1992 


11 


« 










16 


1 39 


74HC1017 












74HC193 


16 


1.39 








f4HC76 






r4HC194 


111 


1,W 


74HC40?4 


11 










74HC195 


10 


i.ra 








74HC96 


14 


m 


74HC237 


16 


2.95 


74HC49a9 


16 


1 -M 


74HC107 


14 


79 








74HC1076 


11 


60 












1 95 


74HC1078 




SO 












1 95 


74HC461I 




2 m 








74HC213 


11 


1.95 








74HC13! 


11 


m 


J1HC244 


20 


1 95 


74HC463! 


16 


2N 






1 % 










16 


:i40 















^(^Programmable Array Logic (PALS) 



1355 SHOREWAY ROAD, BELMONT, CA 94002 ..534 
1/84 PHONE ORDERS WELCOME — (415) 592-8097 Telex: 176043 



Purctlnn 



PALIOHE 
Pfll.l2H6 
PAL11H4 
PAUOLS 
PAL12i.6 
PAL1414 
PALieLB 
PAL16Be 
PAL10H6 
PAL16H4 



Octal 10,|npulAND,0(liktcat(aylHr5hOutBN1J 
Hei 1 2-lnputAND,0R Gats Ariay (High OulpNl) 
Dusi)n-lnpulANDOBG^tefliiay(KlshOutpul) 
Octal I D-lnpiilANO,0^-1nvert Oats Array (Low Otitpulf 
Htx 12, Input AN 0-On-lnvert Gate Array (Lovf Output) 
Ouad 14,|npulAND,;;R,in^ei: Gate Array (LtftvOulput) 
Oclal l6,hpL- '',"1 n; r"l,'ir A-ray 
Oclalie I L' ,'t ^rray. 



2D Quip 10 In., I 



.-.1,41 



30012 1982 N ATIONAL P AL Data Book i 

Tvsmm 



'4 CO J 
'4 CO 2 
74 004 
74C08 
74C10 
'4C14 
74 020 
'4C30 
74 03 2 
74C4? 
74 MS 
?iC73 



74Cfl6 
74Ce9 
74C90 
J4C93 



74095 
74C107 

r4(;i5i 

74C1S4 
740157 
74C160 
74016! 
710162 
71CI63 
740184 
74C173 
740174 
740 175 
74C192 
740193 
740195 



4(1244 
74C373 
740374 
74C901 
74C903 
71C996 
74C911 
740912 
74C915 
740917 
74C92? 
740923 
MC925 
?1C926 
TOC9^ 
8009/ 



TL071CP B 
TL072CP B 
TL074(;n 14 
IL091CP 9 
TL982CP 8 
TL094CH II 
LWSOICft e 
I M39?!l 
LU3D4H 
IM305H 
LM3D70N S 
LM39eCtd a 
LU3(9K 
IM3I0CN 
LM31ICN 9 
LM312H 
LM317r 
I.M317K 
LU313CII S 
IM319N II 
LM320K-5 
IM320K-12 
LM320B-15 
LM320T,5 
LM320M2 
IU320T-I5 
LM323K 
LM324!I H 
LM337T 
LU33flK 
LM339N 14 
LM34D1!,5 
.M-43I; 2 



(Maio'i 

LMJ.IOT ■? 

LM340; li 

LF347N 

LM343N 

LM359K 

LF355N 

IF356N 

LM37DN 

LM373N 

LM377N 

LM360H 

LM391N 

LM382fl 

LH3e4N 

LM3e6N.3 

TL194eN 

TL1960P 

NE531V 

NE544N 

NE560A 

NE555V 

LU696N 

NE561N 

LM666N 

LW6«60N 

LM507V 

NE670N 

LM703CN 

LH709N 

LM71DN 

LM7-1N 



LM723N 14 i5 

Lr,"33fl 14 1 DO 

LI.1739N 14 1 96 

Lr,i74-Cl a 36 



47N 



14 



LUrtBN a 55 

LM1310N 14 1 49 

LUHSaCN a 59 

LM1494II 14 69 

LUHSSN 14 59 

LM149eN 14 1 95 

LMieOON 1B 249 

LM1871N 16 2 95 

LM1872N ia 325 

LMia77N-9 11 2 49 

LM13B9N 13 2 25 

LMia95N II 2 95 

LU20D2T 1 95 

LM3ie9N 16 1 S9 

LU39D0N 11 59 

LU3905CN 8 1 10 

LU39D9N 8 99 

LH3914N 18 2 95 
LM3915N 
LM3916N 

6C1136N II I.: 

HC4151NS n M 

RC4l94yK 4,1 

NE6532 B 2," 

NE5634 B 1 ( 

ICLB038B 11 3t 

LMt30a0N B 1 ' 

LMl,1fD0N IE ■ ■ 
MOPf AVAILABLE 



2 95 



30003 1982 Nat. Linear Data Book 11452 p 



^ See List ot Advertisers on Page 227 



80 Micro, January 1984 • 223 




out. And in the future don't 
read so fast! 

Then the computer tells you 
the day of the week on which 
you were bom. If you have any 
doubt, simply consult a perpet- 
ual calendar. 

Guess Your Name 

At our house we have a dog 
that will fetch sticks all day 
long. The computer is like that 
dog in the way it handles the 
problem you give it in Guess 
Your Name. 

It keeps trying without losing 



interest until it guesses your 
name. In return, you must 
truthfully answer its yes or no 
questions and be patient with it. 
The program works with a 
series of prompts. You answer 
each one and tap the enter key. 

The program first asks you to 
enter the number of letters in 
the name it will guess. It gets 
huffy if you claim that your 
first name has more than 30 let- 
ters in it. 

At this point, the program 
starts trying out letters and ask- 
ing if each is in your name. If 
you answer yes to this, the com- 
puter shows a row of dashes 
representing the unknown let- 
ters in the name and tries the 
letter in different positions. 

When a letter is in the right 
place, answer yes. Example: 



Your name is Carl. The com- 
puter asks, IS LETTER *R* IN 
IT? You answer yes. 

The computer then asks, IS 
IT IN THE RIGHT PLACE? 
and displays this: -R-. The R is 
in the right position, so Carl 
answers yes. Ruth, of course, 
would say no. And so it goes 
until the computer succeeds. 

Sometimes I wonder how 
that rascally computer does 
it!B 

If you have trouble making any Fun 
House program work, write me with 
your problem, sending a listing of the 
program as it is in your computer or a 
note telling me the error messages you 
get and what seems to be wrong. En- 
close a self-addressed envelope with a 
20-cent stamp, or with coin of your 
nation equal to the stamps on the out- 
going letter. Send all this to me, Rich- 
ard Ramella, 1493 Mt. View Ave., 
Chico, CA 95926. 







<^«^'^^-'^' 






,oO' 



-rsa^^"" 






-V\(N9 



,o\S- 









d?v^« 



^^^ 



-ftO 



too 



do^ 



\, 



\\\ 



0< 



Ll/n ^ 



,j«^f„Da"X- 



^S^^i;^^ 



CM>^ 



QjQ9^y'^\^t 






^»» 



orders P^ 










ifiQ^ 



■(fies 



vje 



;coi^* 



VISA 



^ 36 



224 • 80 Micro, January 1984 





Just enter tfie year desired and this 
program will print a complete 
calendar, witti a beautiful grapliic 
picture of your favorite cartoon ctiarac- 
ters for every month. 

Print calendars for fun or profit for 
yourself, arKi for your friends and family. 

Makes a great holiday present! 

Hartging a calendar in your home or 
office will make a great conversation 
piece. People will be sure to stop arxi 
soy "Hey did you make that!" 

Source code irx;luded - versions 
available for the Model I, II. Ill and IV, 
tape or diskette, on 80 and 133 column 
printers, and 80 column printers with 
133 ctKiracter compress mode. 

■SEND FOR mOIDAY i 

- ONLY - 

(Tax and shippina includecJ.) 




CHECK OFF YOUR TYPE OF SYSTEM 

NAME; 



ADDRESS; 



Make check or money order payable ta 
BLUE PRINT SOFTWARE 

lOO WauwepexTr. 
Ridge, NY. 11961 ..82 





TAPE 


DISK 




MODEL 1 


a 


D 




MODEL II 


D 


D 




MODEL III 


D 


D 




MODEL IV 


n 


n 




Internal Storag© 


f 


_K) ? 




80 Column Printer 






D 


Witt! 133 Chorocfer Mode 




□ 


standard 133 Column Printer 




D 



AT LAST: THE WHOLE ; 
TRUTH ABOUT FLOPPIES. ^ 

Amazing book reveals ,;■ 
all! 

How to keep from J 
brainwashing your disk .:? 
so it never loses ifs | 
memory. | 

How fingerprints can |. 
actually damage disks, t 
Unretouched Kirlian | 
photographs of UFO's *- 
(Unidentified Floppy 
Objects)! The incredible 
Importance of making 
copies: the Department 
of Redundancy Depart- 
ment- and what goes on 
when it goes on! Power- 
ful secret methods that 
scientists claim can ac- 
tually prevent computer 
amnesia! All this, and 
much more . . . 

In short, it's an 80- 
page plain-English, 
graphically stunning, 
pocket-sized definitive 
guide to the care and 
feeding of flexible disks. 

For The Book, ask your 
nearest computer store 
that sells Elephant'" 
disks, and bring along 
one and one half earth 
dollars. 

For the name of the 
store, ask us. 

Elephant Memory Systems'' 
Marketed exclusively by 
Dennlson Computer Supplies. 
Inc.. 55 Providence Highway. 
Norwood MA 02062. Call 
toll free I -800-343-8413. 
In Massachusetts, call 
collect (617) 769-8150. 
Telex 951 -624. 



THE SECRETS OF PERFECT MEMORY: 
ONE AND ONE HALF EARTH DOLLARS 









Reader Service Number 



Page 



283 

140, m 



279 

106,107 

.265 

137 
153 

257 

124 
13,15.17 

172 
204 



JOB 3M Company 
213 68 Micro Journal 
439 ASBSoflware 

46 A-1 Compuler Paper 

26 ACC98S Unlimitea 
196 Ace j:ale Data Services 

356 AOelCnmputerMart 
56 AOu II Video Game 
8! Aerocomplnc . . . 

450 Aerodyn&Slewart Software 
136 Allen Gelder Software . .. 

140 AlliedSystemsCoiTipanv ---. 

668 AlphaBIt 

476 AlptlflBil Com munrcalions 

17 AlphaProduclsCo. 
21 Alpfiaware 

37J ALPS 

217 American SmaH Business 

Compjler? 187 

406 Analytical Processes Corp 177 

IJl An It 8k Software Products 59 

40 Apparat Inc 193 

390 Applied Microsystems Inc 52 

514 AstilandComputflrSyslems 273 

424 Aspen Ribbons Inc. ... 153 

383 AslroSlar Enle'prises 287 

88 AvalonHillGameCompany . 41 

551 BSBEIeclronics 236 

543 B«BEIecl'onics . 153 

300 BTEnlerp'ises . . . 126,127,199 

210 Balmoial 251 

334 BASF Systems Corp ... . 75 

184 Baudy House Computer Prod jcts 246 

243 BayTechnicalAssociales 146 

152 BCCOUPCO 62 

■ Becks MFG 33 

25 Beta Enterpnses 153 

7 BiBleResearchSystems 18 

180 Bill Cole Enterprises . . .251 
106 BinaryDevices . . .263 

542 Block IslandTechnologies 99 

482 Blueprint Software 225 

381 BodeiCotp .... 175 

256 Borg Industries .. .239 

■ SottomLine.The 68 

382 ByteGenerallnc.The 265 

167 CDC 273 

581 Cclesilal Software 252 

■ ChromasetteMagazinelnc 203 

181 CMOMIcro 281 

150 Com pIBIe Computer Service 246 

252 CompuaddCorp 118 

455 Compuklt 240.241 

86 Compulogic 239 

365 CompusoftPuOlishing. . 36 

447 Compusystems Software . . . . 250 

580 Compusystem Software 242 

139 Computer Case Company 179 

387 Computer Canter .153 

323 Computer Council 96 

138 ComputerExpress 244 

357 Computer Friends ... 209 

18 Computer Plus . . 19 

242 Computer Power Solutions 149 

579 Computer Power Solutions 236 

39 Computer Sliopper 153 

578 CompluerSottwareCurriculum 256 

557 Computer Systems Assoc I ales 244 

553 Controlled Conductivity Corp 248 

105 Coosol 238 

356 Copley Press 290 

45 Cornucopia Software 136.139 

■ Cosmopolitan Electronics Corp 185 
187 Cottage Software ... 265 

190 Creative Computer 97 

223 Crest Software . . 159,277 

49 Custom Software 177 

531 D at af lie Systems 279 

310 Data Mail 252 

569 OekolBh 246 

346 Delta Electronic Oistntiution 175 

539 Desert Sound Inc 277 

282 DFWCompulerCenter 178 

183 Oiaz Enlerpnses 182 

367 Digital Images 279 

348 OiskWorld 279 

204 Diskcount Data 168,169 

441 Di 5 kelte Connection .... 151 

5 Diskelte Junction 123 

62 Displayed Video 156,157 

■ 80 MICRO 

BOMictoHeviewGuide 131 

Back Issues 271 

Dealer Sell 233,287, 

Foreign Dealers 289 

LoadBOBacHssues 233 

LD8d8WColorLoad80 34,35 

Moving 233,287 

SuDscriptions ... 67 

SuBscnptlon Problems 283 

216 EAPCoJGoldPlufl . . . ... . ..183 

249 en Ball 191 

85 Educalional Microsystems 57 

435 Edwards & Associates 153 

325 Ehlen Enterprises 247 



Reactor Servlc« Number 



Pag« 



154 EigenSystems 237 

114 EJB Electronics Systems 209 

544 Elcaoti 267 

570 ElectronlcProtectionDevicealnc 250 

159 Electronic Specialists . . . .119 

97 Epson America Inc 196 

284 ETS Canter 104 

267 Eicellonii iso 

297 Fantastic 4 i02 

451 Forman 8 Williams 271 

214 Fort Wortli (computers 243 

628 Future Projects Corp 183 

379 Games ler Software 56 

186 GoodUycUon Data Systems 267 

185 Goolh Software 139 

9 H S E Computronics CItl, 23,25, 27 

318 HBHIMerIm . . .123 
287 H A. K. Workshop 271 
355 H.DP . 273 
153 HolmB5 Engineering Inc 29,243 

■ HOTCoCoSubscriptiors 96 

550 HowardW SamsSCo 237 

176 Howe Software 271 

352 Indiana Soft ma re Group 69 

284 Intocom Inc 86,87 

568 Inforunner 253 

470 InternationalSoftwareSalesInc ... 209 

40O lota Systems t77 

33 Island Tech notog I es 183 

437 JSAAssociates . . 204 

177 JSJEIeclronicsJJSOFT .... 177 
126 JMGSoftwarelnll .55 

534 JamecoElectronics. . . ..223 
521 JukilndustriesotAmenca 21 

121 J VB Electronics 289 

485 Kalglo Electronic Company Inc 277 

331 KSOFT 60 

354 KuielCompulerSoftware 283 

■ Kwik Software 139 

462 LangleySI.CIalrInc 38,77 

191 Lawyers till crocorriputer 271 

472 Leading Edge Products fnc 226 

155 LEDSPuWistiingCo Inc 57 

135 Lindbergh Systems .... 47 

31 LNW Research Corp. CIV 

535 Lobo Driues Int'l . . . . 39 

561 Logical Systems Inc 252 

386 Logl. 204 

115 Lynn Computer Sen/lce 105 

527 Magicomp 14 

319 Mam. 57 

241 Marathon Software 248 

250 Marymac 61 

513 Mecn an n Illustrated 275,191 

199 Mega-Syle 336 

398 MESC 385 

132 Micro80lnc. 243 

149 MicioArchilectInc 247 

47 Microcomputer Business Systems ..ill 

171 Micro Control Systems .. 49 

' Micro Data Supplies 9,10,11 

313 Micro Equipment 285 

564 Micro Logic Corp 237 

96 Micro Management Systems 249 

162 Micro Mega 343 

- Mlcn;Price 319 

546 Micro Proiecls Engineering Inc 376 

526 Micro Software Systems 65 

499 Micro-Tai 104 

426 Micro-Design Inc 211 

429 Micro-Designlnc. 239 

463 Micro-Design Inc. . ,191 

434 Micro-Ed 159 

157 Micro-Images 117 

484 Micro-tjBs 251 

293 MicrocompuIerApplicalions . . .104 

563 MicrocompuIerApplicalions .. .244 

64 MicrcimaficProgrammmgCorp . .267 

312 MicrosetteCo 147 

380 M I cfotecfi Exports Inc 279 

" MidwesI Computer Wholesaler 194 

137 Miller Microcomputer Services 123 

572 MiniVacInc 257 

■ Misosys .60,97 

575 Misoeys 248 

574 ModuiarSoflwareAssoc ... 250 

411 Montezuma Micro 259 

416 MontwumaMicro .63 

577 Montezuma Micro . ..246 

23 Mt Olympus Software . 253 

■ Mum ford Micro Systems 269 
533 NEBSComputerForms . . 119 

255 MewClassicsSoftware 103 

232 Mocona Electronics 335 

54 Nodvill Software 283 

541 Northern Teofinology Corp 263 

565 Northern Technology Corp 234 

■ NRI Schools . . 121 

562 OOaidianComputerSystems . .234 

36 Omnisotl Research 40, 334 

196 Omnitek Computers left inc 336 

193 OFSlnc 290 

151 Orion instruments 256 

3 PC fJewslelter 161 

555 PMC industries 336 



Reader Service Number 



Page 



207 Pacific Enchanges 153,159,205,279,290 

547 PAECO . . . .275 

122 PanAmericanElectronics 60 

582 Panel graphic Corp 254 

324 PellToc 172 

127 Penguin Products ... ,61 

■ Percom Data Company . . 3 
124 Perry Computers ... 245 
176 Personal Computer Products 208,279 

509 PhoneLine 5i 

314 PIckam Software 36 

290 Pickles and Trout 155 

160 Pioneer Software 151 

554 Pocketlnfo 254 

560 Powersoft Products 244 

1 1 Practical Peri[rfTeral3 81 

260 Pro/Am Software 355 

308 Professional Tax Software 102 

449 Prof. Jones/Frogg House .... 283 

248 Programmers & Assoc Inc. . . . 256 

143 Progressive Elec Ironies .95 

1 Prosoft 305 

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98 Prosotl 31 

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552 R 8 R Concepts 246 

78 R 8 S Software 99 

344 RadioShack 7 

296 Rainbow, The 263 

559 Ramon a Enterprises 243 

350 Ram Rom Corporation 206 

" ReaitySoftwaieCompany 283 

129 Bemsoft Inc 210 

348 Renrad Systems 153 

566 Ring KingVlslbies 364 

388 Ri.ST . .371 

518 RijzoDataSystems . ..205 

452 Roljert E. Litke .... . ...281 

■ Rocky Mountain Software 165 

512 RockwareDala 173 

343 RofloComputerProductS 271 

■ RUN Subscriptions . 195 

368 Safeware 205 

142 Sales Data Inc 177,290 

" Sand pi per Software 123 

277 Saturn Electronics .. 265 

510 Scott Tasso Associates 205 

53 Selective Software 283 

36 SID 192 

■ SilverwarWCLoad 203 

12 Simuleh 115 

163 Simutek 253,255,257 

288 SoftbyleCompuling .290 

492 Softrends .50 

116 Soft ronics Computer Systems 113,347 

57 Softsheli ... 179 

28 Software Exchange 206 

327 Software Support ... 43,43 

42 SouihBaySoftware 191 

571 SouthBayWordProcessing 234 

92 Spiral Enlerpnses 289 

506 SlarMicronics .Cll 

43 StarSoftware 275 

442 StevensComputerCentet 263 

71 SubLogic Communications Corp . . . .273 

285 Sun Research Inc 277 

456 Sunlock Systems 119 

189 TabSalBS 281 

15 Telesoft 183 

59 Teias Computer Systems 133.135.145 

72 Three State Data 205 
81 Total Access 229 

430 Transaction Storage Systems !,.9I 

489 Tnpie-D Software 97 

227 Trisoft 286 

522 Tworaiiteen Magazine 390 

332 United Software Associates 178 

304 tinlimiled Software 250 

556 Vent as Technology 234 

■ Vespa Computer Outlet 231 

73 Videolronicsof Sarasota 205 

336 Virginia Micro Syslems 177 
to VRDataCorp 143 

576 VRDataCorp . . .338 

90 Walonick Associates Inc 36 

309 Wa1onickAsEociateslr>C 255 

■ Wayne Green Books 

ReslofSO 99 

Selec trie Interface 261 

Shelf Boxes 257 

TRS-80ffaO .. .163 

TRS-80 Controller ,.,287 

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238 WeslernMicroSystems 162 

179 WesternOperations. . 285 

226 William A. Fink 289 

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573 Woodtec 254 

341 Wordfind Division 263 

587 Wordmoversinc 238 

158 XYZTCompuler Dimensions Inc 212 

156 VorklO .114 



For further information from our advertisers, please use the Reader Service card. 



60 Micro, January 1984 • 227 



The GAMER'S CAFE 



by Rodney Gambicus 



Never disable Break," Mercedes 
was saying. "The whole point of 
WarGames is that you should never dis- 
able Break." 

Max and I were standing in the back 
of Kresge Auditorium on the MIT 
campus, crowded among the people 
auditing Mercedes' class in freshman 
Basic. First-term teaching fellows don't 
usually attract 450 students. 

"Amazing. I thought I knew all 
about the Print statement," Bill Gates 
said beside me. 

"She didn't just correct my home- 
work assignment. She wrote a whole 
multi-tasking window routine in the 
margin," Scott Adams murmured. Ten 
guys in IBM blue suits nodded atten- 
tively behind him, and Steve Wozniak 
was about to say something when there 
was a mad scramble to see what 
Mercedes was writing on the chalk- 
board. 

After class, we dragged Mercedes 
away from her pupils — "Geez, correct- 
ing papers," she sighed. "It's worse 
than judging the one-line contest" — 
and had lunch at Quincy Market. Max 
keeps getting turned down for a Visa 
card, but I had some money left over 
from our visit to Peterborough. 



The 

Mercedes 

project 



"So how's everyone at 80 MicroV 
Mercedes asked with her mouth full. 
Pizza, lemonade, and chocolate chip 
cookies. What a combination. 

"The editors are putting entries on 
the Big Board," I said. "Amy Camp- 
bell for Fury, and Rob Mitchell for 
Arex." 

"Pencil pushers," Max muttered. "I 
could beat them." 

"And they don't have the copy of 
Deathmaze we thought they had," I 
continued. "What are we going to do 
about all these letters asking for help?" 

" 'How do I get to level 5? I've been 
known to mutter "Inverted telephone" 
in my sleep! I'm going crazy!' " 
Mercedes read. "Bill McGrath, Phila- 
delphia, PA." 

"And we've got letters about Asylum 
II and some other adventures," I said. 

"Ask readers who've solved them to 
write in and become Gamer's Cafe con- 
sultants," Mercedes suggested. "You 
guys are going to need a data base you 
can call on. ' ' 




m. SILVER 
EAPER [ me.'fiT'M- 
mc(»ocornpuT) 16 
WC3EJrr 



/4AS>5CHUSEi I 

ffliNSriTUTEOh^ 
fCHHOLOGir 



gijiifierxESz- 



"Helping adventurers," Max groused. 
"I'm against the whole idea." 

"Did you ever find the safe in 
Deadline, Max?" Mercedes asked 
sweetly. 

Max snarled and bit into his pizza. 

"You know, I missed you guys," 
Mercedes said. 

« 9|C * * * 

Back at MIT, Mercedes led us past 
seven security checks and into the base- 
ment of the Lincoki Laboratory. "This 
Ph.D. project is really neat," she 
beamed. "The only time I ever got to 
try any hardware work with you guys 
was changing a tire." 

"What exactly are you doing?" I 
asked, looking askance at what ap- 
peared to be a graphite pile. "Your 
postcard said you'd borrowed a Model 
4 from your dad's Radio Shack dealer- 
ship." 

"It's just an upgrade," she said, 
punching a combination on buttons 
beside a vault door. "The professors 
here liked it when I started doing 
80-column software stuff with Silver- 
DOS 6.66, and we started talking about 
whether 8-bit machines were obsolete 
and what you could do with a Z80A- 
based system — " 

Here Max and I stopped to- gape at 
the object in the middle of the room 
ahead, even as Mercedes nimbly stepped 
over the three-foot-diameter cables at- 
tached to it. We'd never seen a Model 4 
vibrating and hovering a few inches 
above the table. 

" — so a bunch of us started working 
on the Mercedes Mach 4," she contin- 
ued. "Don't touch anything, will you?" 

"A 3,000 MHz clock speed," I 
mumbled. 

"Yeah, but it doesn't have a Model 
III mode," Max pointed out. "Wouldn't 
boot my Bable Terror disk." 

"CRAM," I recaUed. "Catalytic 
Random Atomic Memory." 

"Wouldn't give back my Bable Ter- 



228 • 80 Micro, January 1984 




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►- See List of Advertisers on Page 227 



80 Micro, January 1984 • 229 



The GAMER'S CAFE 



Max continued. 
the write-protect 



said 



ror disk, either," 
"Nothing left but 
tab." 

"One duodecagigabyte," I 
dazedly. 

"Shall we look at the mail? iVIax 
Marble of Chantilly, VA, writes 'I am 
not, I repeat, not any relation to Mad 
Max.' That Cousin Marble. Always 
such a kidder." 

Mercedes had gone off for a meeting 
with her advisor, and Max was trying 
to talk me out of my stupor over the 
Mach 4. 

"Everything's expensive in Brisbane, 
Australia," he read. "Mike Bach says 
that a Model 100 without modem is 
$1,099 and a copy of 80 Micro is $6.70. 
No wonder Alan Bond spent so much to 
win the America's Cup." 

" 'Just an upgrade,' " I repeated. 
" 'It's just an upgrade.' " 



"Speaking of which, here's an up- 
grade to Defense Command from Paul 
Jacoby of Burnsville, MN," Max 



''That Cousin 

Marble. Always 

such a 

kidder. " 



noted. "You load the game — I guess he 
has the tape version — and respond to 
the second *? with /6681. Then, from 



Ready, you enter FOR P = 28000 TO 
28090: POKE P,129: NEXT: SYSTEM 

and press enter. Respond to the *? 
prompt with /18750 and you're back in 
the game. 

"This changes the aliens," he read. 
"Except for the ones that look like 
T-shirts, they become long rods that 
reach about halfway down the screen. 
You have to shoot either straight up the 
center of the rod or just to the right of 
it, and be careful not to get between two 
aliens going opposite directions. And 
don't stay directly under the Evil Flag- 
ship when you hit it. 

"Paul says you can replace the 129 
with 130 or 131, or, 'for masochists 
only,' 128," Max finished. 

"That 128 is for masochists only," I 







The Big Buard 




Alien Cresta 


6,913 


Mike Bach, Brisbane, Australia 


Laser Defense 1 ,504,610 


Greg Sain.son, Loudonville, NY 


Apple Panic 


287,620 


Mary Phinney, Stockbridge, MI 


Uaper 144,500 


Tommy Seniuk, Vegreville, Alia. 


Arex 


875,030 


Rob Mitchell, Peterborough, NH 


Lunar Lander 18,000 


Graham Williamj;, Ballaarat, Australia 


Assault 


97,457 


Zagros Sadjadi, Peialuma, CA 


Mad Mines 10,220 


Gorman Miller, TitusviDc, FL 


Astroball 


317,240 


Stefan Kunze, Moers, W. Germany 


Martian Patrol 30,4% 


David Schwartz, San Jose, CA 


Attack Force 


1,732,820 


Dave Smith, Raleigh, NC 


Meteor Mission 2 124,990 


Andy Anderson, Orangeville, Ont. 


Bable Tenor 


8,857 


Mad Max 


Missile Attack 44,000 


Raimo Hansen, Mesa, AZ 


Barricade 


17,520 


Troy Sciapchansky, Uncasville, CT 


Monster Invaders 32,620 


Troy Scrapchansky, Uncasville, CT 


Caterpillar 


362,883 


Alvah Werner, New Albany, OH 


Olympic Decathlon 10,856 


Adrie van Geffen, Hoogvliet, Netherlands 


Centipedes 


94,836 


Belinda Chron, Tempe, AZ 


Outhouse 1,000,000 


Kyle Hoyt, Tilusville, R. 


Chicken 


12,035 


Noble Chowchuvech, Demarest, NJ 


Panik 85,075 


Mark Owens, Houston, TX 


Clash 


174,300 


Zagros Sadjadi, Petaluma, CA 


Penetrator 585,460 


David Schwartz, San Jose, CA 


Convoy 


34,770 


Rick Sayre, Stockton, CA 


Penguin 39,250 


Mark Adams, Tampa, FL 


Cosmic Rghter 


806,280 


Robert Newman, Stoney Creek, Ont. 


Planetoids 56,450 


Carl Pflanzer, Gillette, NJ 


Crazy Painter 


1,087,000 


Mike Beebe, Sacramento, CA 


Rear Guard 195,240 


John Hope, Kingston, Ont. 


Cyborg 


317,000 


Robert Cavin, Laredo, TX 


Robot Attack 143,250 


Mark Fertig, Northville, MI 


Danger in Orbii 


69,640 


Steve Sustaeek, Danube, MN 


SeaDrE^on 610,180* 


Robert Fiizwilli^n, Houston, TX 


Defense Command 


128,230 


Bette Dufraine, Bolton, CT 


Sky Sweep 1 ,000,540 


Tommy Seniuk, Vegreville, Aha. 


Demise/ Defend 


165,000 


David Russell, Aidrossan, Scotland 


Space Castle 69,750 


Rick Sayre, Stockton, CA 


Demon Seed 


103,160 


Markus Blum, Ludwigshafen, W. Germany 


Space Intruders 14,030 


Ron Johnstone, Emporia, KS 


Desert Peril 


84,400 


Jay McLain, Claiskanie, OR 


Space Warp (Level 8) 261 


Jcr McLanahan, New Canaan, CT 


Devil's Tower 


25,700 


Rick Sayre, Stockton, CA 


Star Blazer 52,750 


Mark Adams, Tampa, FL 


Dungeon Escape 


6,531 


Donald 1 indall, Littleton, CO 


Stellar Escort 625,000 


Kevin Josephson, Chilliwack, B.C. 


Firebird 


46,400 


Mike Bach, Brisbane, Australia 


Super Nova 2,138,710 


Mark Fertig, NonhviUe, Ml 


Flying Saucers 


2,186 


Stuart Lory, Victoria, B.C. 


Swamp Wars 59,!30 


Farhad Abrishami, Silver Spring, MD 


Fortress 


515,925 


Greg Samson, Loudonville, NY 


Temple of Apshai 390 


Carl Pflanzer, Gillette, NJ 


Frogger 


400,900 


Shawn Robens, Oklahoma City, OK 


Time Bandit 14,460 


Mark Adams, Tampa, FL 


Fury 


46,120 


Amy Campbell, Peterborough, NH 


Time Runner 89,479 


Mad Max 


Galactic Empire 


2,010 


Mike Bach, Brisbane, Australia 


Venture 58,550 


Darren Cotter, Oceanside, CA 


Galaxy Invasion Plus 


3,000,000 


Shawn Lipman, Nelspruit, S, Africa 


Voyager 1 833 


Farhad Abrishami, Silver Spring, MD 


Gauntlet 


58,360 


David Schwartz, San Jose, CA 


Weerd 61,180 


Tommy Seniuk, Vegreville, Alta. 


Ghost Hunter 


43,190 


Lance Smith, Auckland, N.Z. 


Wild West 33,220 


Mike Bach, Brisbane, Australia 


Gobbleman 


64,310 


Mike Bach, Brisbane, Australia 






Hamburger Sam 


34,300 


Mark Adams, Tampa, FL 


'Expert mode: 339,OBO (David Smith, Kiiigwood, TX). 


Hoppy 
Insect Frenzy 


70,38) 
691,156 


Mike Bach, Brisbane, Australia 
Tommy Sciuuk, Vegreviile, Alta. 


Gamer's Cafe readers are invited to submit their high scores, preferably 


Invaders from Space 


655,360 


Darren Cotter, Oceanside, CA 


with screen photos, for these and other Model 1/111/4 games. Sorry, but we 


Jovian 


148,300 


Greg Samson, Loudonville, NY 


are no longer accepting entries 


for Color Computer games and, due to 


Jungle Boy 


851,900 


Zagros Sadjadi, Petaluma, CA 


known bugs or ridiculously high scores, the following: Alien Defense, ] 


Killer Gorilla 


28,312 


Alex Poon, Baton Rouge, LA 


Armored Patrol, Bounceoids, 


Dig Out, Eliminator, Galaxy Invasion, 


l.aserball 


72,530 


Neil Matson, Panama City, FL 


Liberator, Paddle Pinball, Scarf 


man. Skyscraper, and Strike Force. 



230 • 80 Micro, January 1984 



muttered, pulling the van off Route 128 
(' 'America's Technology Highway' ') 
and looking for another place to park 
the Cafe. We'd done brisk business in 
the Wang Laboratories parking lot at 
lunch hour, but some security guy had 
chased us away into the traffic. Four 
lanes of people looking for a Burger 
King. 

It was our second day in Boston; 
Mercedes had canceled her office hours 
and we were discussing our immediate 
future. 

"1 think you should hang around 
here for a while," she said. "I'm sup- 
posed to teach Assembly language next 
and do a couple of graduate seminars, 
and I have to stay and work on the 
Mach 4. The physics and engineering 
departments are going to help with the 
storage." 

"What do you have in there, any- 
way?" 1 asked. "Double-density drives? 
Quad-density drives?" 

"My advisor calls them *warp 
drives,' " Mercedes shrugged. 

"I can imagine," Max said. ''Denser 
than a black hole." 

"Don't be ridiculous," Mercedes 
said. "A light gray hole, maybe. The 
lab says they should cause only minor 
sidereal effects in the immediate vicinity 
of the machine — " 

"Getting back to business," 1 said, 
"we probably should wait a while be- 
fore going on the road again. Give 
players one more month to write us 
before we take all those games with 
scores people say are impossible off the 
Big Board. Cosmic Fighter, Penetrator, 
Missile Attack, Space Warp, Venture." 

"Do you know how to get off Stor- 
row Drive, Rodney?" Mercedes asked. 
"We've gone under the Arthur Fiedler 
Footbridge four times." 

At that moment, the radio went dead 
and I jammed on the brakes as a traffic 
light ahead turned blank. Within 
seconds, horns were honking and peo- 
ple were leaning out of apartment win- 
dows, shouting "Another blackout!" 

"Geez!" Mercedes smacked her seat 
angrily. "This is the second time they've 
booted the Mach 4 without my being 
there. I've told them we won't have 
enough power until we launch Silversat 
and get the solar panels working. And 
the microwave transmitter—" 

"I think we should stay in Boston for 
a little while," Max told me. 

"Tm not sure it'll be safe," I said.B 



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80 80CPS 8315 

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92P 160CPS 8475 

EPSOM 

RX80 8370 

FX80 8520 

MXaO 111 8359 

MXlOO $599 

SMITH CORONA TPl 8450 

TOSHIBA "1350 81,595 



MODEMS 

SIGNAL MAN MKI RS237 885 

J-CAT 8104 

SMART CAT 21 2 $399 



COMPOTERS 

I BM 64K 2 DISK 82,595 
SANYO MBC 555 ( 1 BMCOMPATABLE) 8695 

SYSCOM II (APPLE COMPATABLE) $565 

PMC81 {Tl?&80 COMPATABLP $475 

TRS-80 MODLE 4 2DISK 64K $1,699 

TIMEX-SINCLAIR 1 000 855 

CRT MONITORS 

GORILLA-AMBER OR GREEN 894 

TAXATH GREEN S125 

TAXAN AMBER Si 39 

AMDEK 300G GREEN 8139 

AMDEK 300A AMBER 8149 

AMDEK 310A (IBM) $179 

COLOR MONITORS 

TAXAfl RBGI Medium Res $299 

TAXAN RBG II High Res. 8460 

TAXAN RBG III Super High Res. 8535 

AMDEK COLOR I 8325 

AMDEK COLOR ID » 



DISK DRIVES 



TANDON 

TMIOO-I 40 TR S/S 
TM I 00-2 40 TR D/S 
TMI0t-4 80TRD/S 
TM848 8" SLIM LINE S/S 
TM848 8" SLIM LINE D/S 

TEAC (Slimline) 

FD55A40TR S/S 
FD55B40TR D/S 
FD55F80TRD/S 



Kare Compl 

$ 1 59 $ 1 99 

$225 $269 

$330 $375 

$395 $525 

$475 $625 



$209 $249 
$280 $ 
$275 $315 



APPLE COMPATIBLE DRIVE(Shugart) 8199 
DRIVE CONTROLLER CARD $75 



SOFTWARE 

LAZYWRITER $159 
ELECTRIC WEBSTER . 81.19 

DOS PLCS 3.4 $89 

DOSPLtJS3.5 8110 

MGLTI DOS 889 

StlPER CTIUTY 3.2 965 

OMNITERM 878 

NEWSCRIPT $114 



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VF^PACOMPUTER OUTLET 

W ^\^M ^\ 16727 Partoa Detfoit N\I48219 



80 Micro, January 1984 • 231 



RELOAD BD 



by Amee Eisenberg 



January, the start of a new year; 
the Romans symbolized it with the 
two-faced god, Janus. He looks for- 
ward and backward simultaneously, 
and epitomizes my feelings at this time 
of year. It is a time to reevaluate the 
past, then plan for the future. 

Looking over my Load 80 collection 
for 1983, I realize what a blockbuster 
year it was. From psychological testing 
tools to stock market analysis pro- 
grams, we've run them all. 

An overview of the highlights has to 
include the TRS-80 version of Turtle 
Graphics that ran in February (TUR- 
TLE/BAS). This teachmg tool lets the 
youngest of programmers draw on the 
screen, save his creation, and recall it 
later. 

March was something to roar about — 
not only did we have the data base man- 
agement program that won our Read- 
er's Choice Award (AIDS III/BAS), 
we also featured a LISP compiler (LISP/ 
BAS) that lets you explore this exciting 
language. (LISP is currently the lan- 
guage of choice among Artificial Intelli- 
gence researchers.) 

April rounded out your data base 
manager with subsystems for sorting 
(MERGE3/BAS), formatting and 



It's a 

Load 80 

year 



printing (MAPS3/BAS), and calculat- 
ing (CALCS3/BAS). And let me re- 
mind you about MINICALC/BAS, the 
spreadsheet program we ran in May. 

August was fun and games. Arcade- 
type games, adventure games, two-play- 
er games, and solitaire games; any way 
you like to play it. Load 80 had it. 

But in September, we got back down 
to business. Featured that month was a 
communications terminal package for 
your Model III/4. The six programs 
comprising UTERM make your micro a 
terminal for talking to the big data 
bases. 

But enough, you know what you 
liked this year. My goal was always (and 
continues to be) to put together a prod- 
uct containing the most interesting, 
most functional, and most fun pro- 
grams run in each month's 80 Micro. I 
hope you enjoyed them. 

Welcome to New Subscribers 

Load 80 cassettes and disks are not 
like any other software you can buy be- 
cause they contain a wider variety of 
programs. But all the programs do not 



Article 

Side A 



Touch or Sound Typer 

Dot Talk 

The Taxman Cometh 

Tape It Ea.sy 

Tape It Easy 

SideB 

Tape It Easy 
Tape It Easy 

Synthetically Speaking — 

Part I 

The Bucks Start Here 



Page 



94 
100 
U2 
112 



112 
112 

142 

160 



Cassette 
File Spec 



Disk 
File Spec 



TITLE/BAS 

TOSTYPER/BAS 

BRAILLE/BAS 

TAXMAN/BAS 

DATAPE/BAS 

TAPE16/BAS 



G TAPE32/BAS 

H TAPE48/BAS 

I LIST 1 /BAS 

J BUCKS/BAS 



Comments 



Basic 

Basic 
Basic 
Basic 
Basic 
Basic 



Basic 
Basic 
Basic 

Basic 



January 1984 Load 80 directory. 



necessarily run on your computer. The 
popularity of the TRS-80 encouraged us 
to make Load 80 support over a half 
dozen disk operating systems (DOSes), 
a gaggle of editor /assemblers, and three 
models of computer (I, III, and 4). This 
means I can't put together a ready-to- 
run product (though I try). 

You must determine, by reading the 
Key Box that accompanies each article, 
whether the program is appropriate for 
your machine. Sometimes a little ma- 
nipulation will make a program run on 
your system. I try to inform you of 
these changes in my column. In the 
coming months, {'11 try to cover the 
hows and whys of converting programs 
from one machine to another. 

Before you decide that a program 
doesn't work, read the article thorough- 
ly. Because our programs are written by 
our readers, the error-trapping routines 
aren't always as sophisticated as those 
in commercial programs. If this is the 
case, the article tells you how to avoid 
crashing the program. If you have seri- 
ous problems, call or write me (if you in- 
clude your phone number, I'll call you). 

We Aim to Please 

I am constantly looking for ways to 
make our product serve you better. 
Changes this past year include better 
documentation, a new transfer utility 
for Load 80 disks, and supplying our 
machine-language programs in assem- 
bled, ready-to-run format. Sometimes, 
I'm limited in what I can do by the soft- 
ware I have available. For instance, 
source code provided to me from an 
EDTASM Disk editor/assembler can't 
be written to tape. If you're inconve- 
nienced by this, write to me and I'll try 
to make some special arrangement. 

Plans for the future? The title pro- 
gram that appears each month will ex- 
pand to include information about the 
programs, instead of just the copyright. 
Of course, we'll keep abreast of the 
TRS-80 market, and you may see some 
changes in our documentation. And as 
always, we want to provide our sub- 
scribers with the best software and sup- 
port possible. ■ 



232 • 80 Micro, January 1984 





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